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molecular neuroscience

Saad Omais, Nour N Halaby, Karl John Habashy, Carine Jaafar, Anthony T Bejjani, Noël Ghanem
The use of inducible transgenic Nestin-CreERT2 mice has proved to be an essential research tool for gene targeting and studying the molecular pathways implicated in adult neurogenesis, namely, inside the adult subgranular zone (SGZ) of the dentate gyrus and the adult subventricular zone (SVZ) lining the lateral ventricles. Several lines of Nestin-CreER-expressing mice were generated and used in adult neurogenesis research in the past two decades; however, their suitability for studying neurogenesis in aged mice remains elusive...
March 20, 2019: Methods in Molecular Biology
Andrew Erskine, Thorsten Bus, Jan T Herb, Andreas T Schaefer
Operant conditioning is a crucial tool in neuroscience research for probing brain function. While molecular, anatomical and even physiological techniques have seen radical increases in throughput, efficiency, and reproducibility in recent years, behavioural tools have somewhat lagged behind. Here we present a fully automated, high-throughput system for self-initiated conditioning of up to 25 group-housed, radio-frequency identification (RFID) tagged mice over periods of several months and >106 trials. We validate this "AutonoMouse" system in a series of olfactory behavioural tasks and show that acquired data is comparable to previous semi-manual approaches...
2019: PloS One
Luis Lopez-Santiago, Lori L Isom
Selective Nav1.1 Activation Rescues Dravet Syndrome Mice From Seizures and Premature Death Richards KL, Milligan CJ, Richardson RJ, Jancovski N, Grunnet M, Jacobson LH, Undheim EAB, Mobli M, Chow CY, Herzig V, Csoti A, Panyi G, Reid CA, King GF, Petrou S. PNAS. 2018;115:E8077-E8085. Dravet syndrome is a catastrophic, pharmaco-resistant epileptic encephalopathy. Disease onset occurs in the first year of life, followed by developmental delay with cognitive and behavioral dysfunction and substantially elevated risk of premature death...
January 2019: Epilepsy Currents
Isabel D Derera, Chris G Dulla
Polyamine Modulation of Anticonvulsant Drug Response: A Potential Mechanism Contributing to Pharmacoresistance in Chronic Epilepsy Beckonert NM, Opitz T, Pitsch J, Soares da Silva P, Beck H. J Neurosci. 2018;38(24):5596-5605. . Despite the development of numerous novel anticonvulsant drugs, ∼30% of patients with epilepsy remain refractory to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Many established and novel AEDs reduce hyperexcitability via voltage- and use-dependent inhibition of voltage-gated Na+ channels...
January 2019: Epilepsy Currents
Violaine Hubert, Fabien Chauveau, Chloé Dumot, Elodie Ong, Lise-Prune Berner, Emmanuelle Canet-Soulas, Jean-François Ghersi-Egea, Marlène Wiart
The choroid plexuses (ChPs) perform indispensable functions for the development, maintenance and functioning of the brain. Although they have gained considerable interest in the last years, their involvement in brain disorders is still largely unknown, notably because their deep location inside the brain hampers non-invasive investigations. Imaging tools have become instrumental to the diagnosis and pathophysiological study of neurological and neuropsychiatric diseases. This review summarizes the knowledge that has been gathered from the clinical imaging of ChPs in health and brain disorders not related to ChP pathologies...
2019: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Hemalatha Muralidharan, Peter W Baas
KIFC1 (also called HSET or kinesin-14a) is best known as a multi-functional motor protein essential for mitosis. The present studies are the first to explore KIFC1 in terminally post-mitotic neurons. Using RNA interference to partially deplete KIFC1 from rat neurons (from animals of either gender) in culture, pharmacologic agents that inhibit KIFC1, and expression of mutant KIFC1 constructs, we demonstrate critical roles for KIFC1 in regulating axonal growth and retraction as well as growth cone morphology...
February 25, 2019: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Jens Bangsbo, Joanna Blackwell, Carl-Johan Boraxbekk, Paolo Caserotti, Flemming Dela, Adam B Evans, Astrid Pernille Jespersen, Lasse Gliemann, Arthur F Kramer, Jesper Lundbye-Jensen, Erik Lykke Mortensen, Aske Juul Lassen, Alan J Gow, Stephen D R Harridge, Ylva Hellsten, Michael Kjaer, Urho M Kujala, Ryan E Rhodes, Elizabeth C J Pike, Timothy Skinner, Thomas Skovgaard, Jens Troelsen, Emmanuelle Tulle, Mark A Tully, Jannique G Z van Uffelen, Jose Viña
From 19th to 22nd November 2018, 26 researchers representing nine countries and a variety of academic disciplines met in Snekkersten, Denmark, to reach evidence-based consensus about physical activity and older adults. It was recognised that the term 'older adults' represents a highly heterogeneous population. It encompasses those that remain highly active and healthy throughout the life-course with a high intrinsic capacity to the very old and frail with low intrinsic capacity. The consensus is drawn from a wide range of research methodologies within epidemiology, medicine, physiology, neuroscience, psychology and sociology, recognising the strength and limitations of each of the methods...
February 21, 2019: British Journal of Sports Medicine
Cory T Miller, Melina E Hale, Hideyuki Okano, Shigeo Okabe, Partha Mitra
Neuroscience is enjoying a renaissance of discovery due in large part to the implementation of next-generation molecular technologies. The advent of genetically encoded tools has complemented existing methods and provided researchers the opportunity to examine the nervous system with unprecedented precision and to reveal facets of neural function at multiple scales. The weight of these discoveries, however, has been technique-driven from a small number of species amenable to the most advanced gene-editing technologies...
2019: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Gustavo Roberto Villas Boas, Roseli Boerngen de Lacerda, Marina Meirelles Paes, Priscila Gubert, Wagner Luis da Cruz Almeida, Vanessa Cristina Rescia, Pablinny Moreira Galdino de Carvalho, Adryano Augustto Valladao de Carvalho, Silvia Aparecida Oesterreich
Major depressive disorder (MDD), also known as unipolar depression, is one of the leading causes of disability and disease worldwide. The signs and symptoms are low self‑esteem, anhedonia, feeling of worthlessness, sense of rejection and guilt, suicidal thoughts, among others. This review focuses on studies with molecular-based approaches involving MDD to obtain an integrated, more detailed and comprehensive view of the brain changes produced by this disorder and its treatment and how the Central Nervous System (CNS) produces neuroplasticity to orchestrate adaptive defensive behaviors...
February 15, 2019: European Journal of Pharmacology
Erik Nutma, Hugh Willison, Martino Gianvito, Sandra Amor
Neuroimmunology as a separate discipline has its roots in the fields of neurology, neuroscience and immunology. Early studies of the brain by Golgi and Cajal, the detailed clinical and neuropathology studies of Charcot, and Thompson's seminal paper on graft acceptance in the central nervous system kindled a now rapidly expanding research area with the aim of understanding pathological mechanisms of inflammatory components of neurological disorders. Whilst neuroimmunologists originally focussed on classical neuroinflammatory disorders such as multiple sclerosis and infections, there is strong evidence to suggest that the immune response contributes to genetic white matter disorders, epilepsy, neurodegenerative diseases, neuropsychiatric disorders, peripheral nervous system and neuro-oncological conditions, as well as ageing...
February 15, 2019: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
Ruth Feldman, Katharina Braun, Frances A Champagne
In recent decades, human sociocultural changes have increased the numbers of fathers that are involved in direct caregiving in Western societies. This trend has led to a resurgence of interest in understanding the mechanisms and effects of paternal care. Across the animal kingdom, paternal caregiving has been found to be a highly malleable phenomenon, presenting with great variability among and within species. The emergence of paternal behaviour in a male animal has been shown to be accompanied by substantial neural plasticity and to be shaped by previous and current caregiving experiences, maternal and infant stimuli and ecological conditions...
February 13, 2019: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
Laura E Jonkman, Yvon Galis-de Graaf, Marjolein Bulk, Eliane Kaaij, Petra J W Pouwels, Frederik Barkhof, Annemieke J M Rozemuller, Louise van der Weerd, Jeroen J G Geurts, Wilma D J van de Berg
Well-characterized, high-quality brain tissue of non-neurological control subjects is a prerequisite to study the healthy aging brain, and can serve as a control for the study of neurological disorders. The Normal Aging Brain Collection Amsterdam (NABCA) provides a comprehensive collection of post-mortem (ultra-)high-field MRI (3Tesla and 7 Tesla) and neuropathological datasets of non-neurological controls. By providing MRI within the pipeline, NABCA uniquely stimulates translational neurosciences; from molecular and morphometric tissue studies to the clinical setting...
January 29, 2019: NeuroImage: Clinical
A D Nelson, R N Caballero-Florán, J C Rodríguez Díaz, J M Hull, Y Yuan, J Li, K Chen, K K Walder, L F Lopez-Santiago, V Bennett, M G McInnis, L L Isom, C Wang, M Zhang, K S Jones, P M Jenkins
In the original version of this article, affiliation 3 was given as: "Division of Life Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Molecular Neuroscience, Hong Kong, University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China". This has now been corrected to: "Division of Life Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Molecular Neuroscience, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China".Additionally in the 'Data availability' section an incorrect accession code was given...
January 31, 2019: Molecular Psychiatry
Sulayman D Dib-Hajj, Stephen G Waxman
Acute pain is adaptive, but chronic pain is a global challenge. Many chronic pain syndromes are peripheral in origin and reflect hyperactivity of peripheral pain-signaling neurons. Current treatments are ineffective or only partially effective and in some cases can be addictive, underscoring the need for better therapies. Molecular genetic studies have now linked multiple human pain disorders to voltage-gated sodium channels, including disorders characterized by insensitivity or reduced sensitivity to pain and others characterized by exaggerated pain in response to normally innocuous stimuli...
January 31, 2019: Annual Review of Neuroscience
Nicolas Michalski, Christine Petit
The genetic approach, based on the study of inherited forms of deafness, has proven to be particularly effective for deciphering the molecular mechanisms underlying the development of the peripheral auditory system, the cochlea and its afferent auditory neurons, and how this system extracts the physical parameters of sound. Although this genetic dissection has provided little information about the central auditory system, scattered data suggest that some genes may have a critical role in both the peripheral and central auditory systems...
January 30, 2019: Annual Review of Neuroscience
Abraam M Yakoub
Multiple protocols have been devised to generate cerebral organoids that recapitulate features of the developing human brain, including the presence of a large, multi-layered, cortical-like neuronal zone. However, the central question is whether these organoids truly present mature, functional neurons and astrocytes, which may qualify the system for in-depth molecular neuroscience studies focused at neuronal and synaptic functions. Here, we demonstrate that cerebral organoids derived under optimal differentiation conditions exhibit mature, fully functional neurons and astrocytes, as validated by immunohistological, gene expression, and electrophysiological, analyses...
May 2019: Neural Regeneration Research
Anastasia Diamantopoulou, Joseph A Gogos
During the past two decades, the number of animal models of psychiatric disorders has grown exponentially. Of these, genetic animal models that are modeled after rare but highly penetrant mutations hold great promise for deciphering critical molecular, synaptic, and neurocircuitry deficits of major psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia. Animal models should aim to focus on core aspects rather than capture the entire human disease. In this context, animal models with strong etiological validity, where behavioral and neurophysiological phenotypes and the features of the disease being modeled are in unambiguous homology, are being used to dissect both elementary and complex cognitive and perceptual processing deficits present in psychiatric disorders at the level of neurocircuitry, shedding new light on critical disease mechanisms...
January 17, 2019: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
Juan E Franco-Restrepo, Diego A Forero, Rafael A Vargas
The analysis of behavior in animal models is an important objective in many research fields, including neuroscience, psychology, toxicology, and neuropsychopharmacology. Animal models have been used for many years, and several behavioral paradigms, such as locomotor activity, social interactions, and cognitive behavior, have been studied in animal models to correlate the behaviors with pharmacological or environmental interventions and with molecular, biochemical, and physiological findings. We reviewed the literature looking for open-source, freely available software to analyze animal behavior and found 12 freely available programs: ToxTrack, EthoWatcher, Mouse Behavior Tracker, Mouse Move, JAABA, wrMTrck, AnimalTracker, idTracker, Ctrax, Mousetracker, VideoHacking, and Cowlog, which were developed with different programs, work on different platforms, and have particular types of inputs and outputs and analysis capabilities...
January 9, 2019: Zebrafish
Sönke Cordeiro, Rocio K Finol-Urdaneta, David Köpfer, Anna Markushina, Jie Song, Robert J French, Wojciech Kopec, Bert L de Groot, Mario J Giacobassi, Lee S Leavitt, Shrinivasan Raghuraman, Russell W Teichert, Baldomero M Olivera, Heinrich Terlau
The vast complexity of native heteromeric K+ channels is largely unexplored. Defining the composition and subunit arrangement of individual subunits in native heteromeric K+ channels and establishing their physiological roles is experimentally challenging. Here we systematically explored this "zone of ignorance" in molecular neuroscience. Venom components, such as peptide toxins, appear to have evolved to modulate physiologically relevant targets by discriminating among closely related native ion channel complexes...
December 28, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Yao Wang, Zhiwei Hu, Peijun Ju, Shan Yin, Fujie Wang, Oudong Pan, Jinghong Chen
Background: A viral vector is a genetically modified vector produced by genetic engineering. As pathogenic genes in the virus are completely or largely eliminated, it is safe to be widely used in multidisciplinary research fields for expressing genes, such as neuroscience, metabolism, oncology and so on. Neuroscience and psychiatry are the most closely related disciplines in either basic research or clinical research, but the application of viral vectors in neuropsychiatry has not received much attention or not been widely accepted...
2018: General Psychiatry
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