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Refractive errors

X Yang, Y X Chen, J W Zeng, M G He
Over the past decade, breakthrough has been made on myopia progression control with a lot of evidence from clinical trials, but the effective clinical application of many of them remained immature. Though refraction clinics have been set up in many specialized hospitals offering spectacles to correct refractive error, there was few protocol or standard of treatment for reducing myopia progression. This commentary reviews the latest and essential publications and presents critical advice on applying the research findings to clinical practice...
February 11, 2019: [Zhonghua Yan Ke za Zhi] Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology
Bárbara Martín-Escuer, José F Alfonso, Luis Fernández-Vega-Cueto, Alberto Domíngez-Vicent, Robert Montés-Micó
PURPOSE: To assess visual and refractive results of multifocal intraocular lens (IOLs) implantation for refractive correction after radial keratotomy (RK). METHODS: In a retrospective non-comparative interventional case series, we analyzed the outcomes of multifocal IOL implantation performed in the context of cataract or refractive lens exchange surgery following RK. A total of 17 eyes from nine patients were included in the study. IOL power calculation was done using the Double-K formula...
February 15, 2019: Eye
Nicole M Putnam, Balamurali Vasudevan, Andre Juarez, Cam Tu Le, Kristine Sam, Pablo de Gracia, Allissun Hoppert
BACKGROUND: Many patients voice concerns regarding poor night vision, even when they see 20/20 or better in the exam room. During mesopic and scotopic conditions the pupil size increases, increasing the effects on visual performance of uncorrected (residual) refractive errors. The i.Scription refraction method claims to optimize traditional refractions for mesopic and scotopic conditions, by using the information that the Zeiss i.Profilerplus gathers of ocular aberrations (low and high order)...
February 12, 2019: BMC Ophthalmology
J Braga, R Rothwell, M Oliveira, D Rodrigues, S Fonseca, R Varandas, L Ribeiro
BACKGROUND: Choroidopathy is a rare manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). This entity is associated with active phases of severe SLE and it is frequently accompanied by acute kidney failure, central nervous system involvement and coagulopathy. PURPOSE: To evaluate the choroid thickness of patients with lupus nephritis (LN) without choroidopathy, and to compare this with that of age-matched SLE patients without LN and healthy control subjects. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional case control study...
February 12, 2019: Lupus
L Chen, Y Wei, W Chi, D Fang, X Jiang, S Zhang
PURPOSE: Pathologic myopia is a leading cause of visual impairment in East Asia. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential mutations in Chinese pathologic myopic patients and to analyze the correlations between genotype and clinical phenotype. METHODS: One hundred and three patients with pathologic myopia and one hundred and nine unrelated healthy controls were recruited from Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center. Detailed clinical data, including ultra-widefield retinal images, measurements of best-corrected visual acuity, axial length, refractive error and ophthalmic examination results, were obtained...
February 11, 2019: Current Molecular Medicine
Yu Jeong Kim, Won Ryang Wee, Mee Kum Kim
PURPOSE: To determine the efficacy of 4-haptic bitoric intraocular lens (IOL) implantation in Asian patients with cataract and astigmatism. METHODS: A total of 19 eyes with ≤25.0 mm axial length and ≥0.75 diopters (D) corneal astigmatism were included in this prospective non-comparative study. All subjects underwent phacoemulsification with implantation of an AT Torbi 709M IOL. Visual and refractive outcomes as well as toric IOL axis were evaluated during a 3-month follow-up...
February 2019: Korean Journal of Ophthalmology: KJO
P Lacherez, S Virupaksha, J M Wood, M J Collins
The distracting effects of mobile telephone use while driving are well known, however the effects of other sources of distraction, such as auditory navigation devices, are less well understood. Whether the effects of auditory distraction might interact with other sensory impairments, such as vision impairment, is of interest given that visual impairment is relatively common within the population, particularly as a result of uncorrected refractive error. In this experiment, 20 current drivers (mean age of 29...
February 8, 2019: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Mohammad Atif Faiz Afzal, Johannes Hachmann
In a previous study, we introduced a new computational protocol to accurately predict the index of refraction (RI) of organic polymers using a combination of first-principles and data modeling. This protocol is based on the Lorentz-Lorenz equation and involves the calculation of static polarizabilities and number densities of oligomer sequences, which are extrapolated to the polymer limit. We chose to compute the polarizabilities within the density functional theory (DFT) framework using the PBE0/def2-TZVP-D3 model chemistry...
February 8, 2019: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Yu Huang, Chea-Su Kee, Paul M Hocking, Cathy Williams, Shea Ping Yip, Jeremy A Guggenheim
Purpose: The rapid rise in prevalence over recent decades and high heritability of myopia suggest a role for gene-environment (G × E) interactions in myopia susceptibility. Few such G × E interactions have been discovered to date. We aimed to test the hypothesis that genetic analysis of susceptibility to visual experience-induced myopia in an animal model would identify novel G × E interaction loci. Methods: Chicks aged 7 days (n = 987) were monocularly deprived of form vision for 4 days...
February 1, 2019: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
A Amorim-de-Sousa, R Macedo-de-Araújo, P Fernandes, A Queirós, J M González-Méijome
Purpose: To evaluate the impact of different levels of positive and negative defocus on light disturbance (LD) measures and to understand how high-order aberrations (HOAs) and topographic quality parameters may influence the perception of photic phenomena. Methods: Thirty young healthy subjects (21 females and 9 males) attended this cross-sectional study. LD was evaluated with the light distortion analyzer (LDA) in natural accommodative and cycloplegic conditions with positive and negative induced defocus of 1...
2019: Journal of Ophthalmology
Alper Ağca, Beril Tülü, Dilek Yaşa, Yusuf Yıldırım, Burçin K Yıldız, Ahmet Demirok
PURPOSE: To report long-term efficacy and safety of small-incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) in patients with mild-to-moderate myopia. SETTING: Beyoglu Eye Training and Research Hospital, İstanbul, Turkey. DESIGN: Retrospective case series. METHODS: Medical records of patients who had SMILE for surgical correction of myopia or myopic astigmatism were retrospectively reviewed. Patients with a preoperative spherical equivalent (SE) of manifest refraction of 6...
January 29, 2019: Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery
Mukharram M Bikbov, Gyulli M Kazakbaeva, Timur R Gilmanshin, Rinat M Zainullin, Inga I Arslangareeva, Venera F Salavatova, Guzel M Bikbova, Songhomitra Panda-Jonas, Nikolai A Nikitin, Artur F Zaynetdinov, Ildar F Nuriev, Renat I Khikmatullin, Yulia V Uzianbaeva, Dilya F Yakupova, Said K Aminev, Jost B Jonas
PURPOSE: To assess the normal distribution of axial length and its associations in a population of Russia. METHODS: The population-based Ural Eye and Medical Study included 5,899 (80.5%) individuals out of 7328 eligible individuals aged 40+ years. The participants underwent an ocular and systemic examination. Axial length was measured sonographically (Ultra-compact A/B/P ultrasound system, Quantel Medical, Cournon d'Auvergne, France). RESULTS: Biometric data were available for 5707 (96...
2019: PloS One
Takashi Ono, Yukiko Terada, Yosai Mori, Yasushi Kataoka, Masaaki Nakahara, Kazunori Miyata
Purpose: The aim of this report was to describe a case of myopic foveoschisis and a macular hole with retinal detachment that resolved spontaneously. Observations: A 62-year-old woman with bilateral blurred vision was referred to our department. Her best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was 0.4 bilaterally; the standard equivalent refractive error was -17.0 diopters in the right eye and -18.75 diopters in the left eye. The axial length was 31.4 mm and 31.2 mm, respectively...
March 2019: American Journal of Ophthalmology Case Reports
Ipsita Sutradhar, Priyanka Gayen, Mehedi Hasan, Rajat Das Gupta, Tapash Roy, Malabika Sarker
INTRODUCTION: Globally, eye diseases are considered as one of the major contributors of nonfatal disabling conditions. In Bangladesh, 1.5% of adults are blind and 21.6% have low vision. Therefore, this paper aimed to identify the community-based prevalence and associated risk factors of eye diseases among slum dwellers of Dhaka city. METHODS: The study was carried out in two phases. In the first phase, a survey was conducted using multistage cluster sampling among 1320 households of three purposively selected slums in Dhaka city...
January 31, 2019: BMC Ophthalmology
Claire L Simpson, Anthony M Musolf, Qing Li, Laura Portas, Federico Murgia, Roberto Y Cordero, Jennifer B Cordero, Bilal A Moiz, Emily R Holzinger, Candace D Middlebrooks, Deyana D Lewis, Joan E Bailey-Wilson, Dwight Stambolian
BACKGROUND: Myopia is one of most common eye diseases in the world and affects 1 in 4 Americans. It is a complex disease caused by both environmental and genetics effects; the genetics effects are still not well understood. In this study, we performed genetic linkage analyses on Ashkenazi Jewish families with a strong familial history of myopia to elucidate any potential causal genes. METHODS: Sixty-four extended Ashkenazi Jewish families were previously collected from New Jersey...
January 31, 2019: BMC Medical Genetics
Priya Morjaria, Jennifer Evans, Clare Gilbert
Importance: Visual impairment from uncorrected refractive errors affects 12.8 million children globally. Spectacle correction is simple and cost-effective; however, low adherence to spectacle wear, which can occur in all income settings, limits visual potential. Objective: To investigate predictors of spectacle wear and reasons for nonwear in students randomized to ready-made or custom-made spectacles. Design, Setting, and Participants: In planned secondary objectives of a noninferiority randomized clinical trial, students aged 11 to 15 years who fulfilled eligibility criteria, which included improvement in vision with correction by at least 2 lines in the better eye, were recruited from government schools in Bangalore, India...
January 31, 2019: JAMA Ophthalmology
Eva Karlén, Lollo Milestad, Tony Pansell
PURPOSE: Albinism degrades visual function due to developmental disorders of the eye and visual pathways, larger refractive errors, absent binocularity and poor fixation control. Reading spectacles is commonly prescribed in our clinic and well tolerated. The purpose was to evaluate whether the accommodative response is typical or affected in comparison to a reference group. METHODS: Twenty-two children with albinism (median: 13.5 years) and 12 controls (median: 13 years) underwent a full optometric examination and an objective accommodation measurement (WAM-5500 @ 6 Hz; Grand Seiko) in response to minus-lens-blur (-1, -2 and -3 D) and to a prolonged near viewing task (20 cm) for 5 min...
January 31, 2019: Acta Ophthalmologica
Byunghoon Chung, Seonghee Choi, Yong Woo Ji, Eung Kweon Kim, Kyoung Yul Seo, Tae-Im Kim
PURPOSE: To compare objective accommodation of phakic and pseudophakic eyes between two different age groups. METHODS: Eighty-three eyes (83 participants aged ≥ 40 years) with a visual acuity of 20/25 or better, and refractive error < spherical - 1.0 diopters (D) and cylindrical 1.0 D, were included. Forty-four patients had undergone phacoemulsification and monofocal intraocular lens implantation and were examined 6 months post-surgery. Participants were divided into groups 1 (pseudophakic, age < 60 years), 2 (pseudophakic, ≥ 60 years), 3 (phakic, < 60 years), and 4 (phakic, ≥ 60 years)...
January 30, 2019: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
Chigusa Iyama, Yuta Shigeno, Eri Hirano, Mamoru Kamoshita, Norihiro Nagai, Misa Suzuki, Sakiko Minami, Toshihide Kurihara, Hideki Sonobe, Kazuhiro Watanabe, Hajime Shinoda, Kazuo Tsubota, Yoko Ozawa
Visual field defects interfere with free actions and influence the quality of life of patients with retinitis pigmentosa; the prevalence of this disease is increasing in aging societies. Patients with progressive disease may require visual aids; however, no such devices are currently available. We utilized a retinal projection eyewear system, QD laser eyewear, which includes a projector inside the spectacle frame, to draw the image taken by a connected portable camera with a wide field lens. The images are projected onto the retina using a Maxwellian view optical system, which is not influenced by refractive error or the amount of incident light...
January 30, 2019: Scientific Reports
Brittany J Carr, Cynthia T Nguyen, William K Stell
BACKGROUND: The putative myopia-controlling receptor is thought to be muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtype M4 , because mamba toxin-3 can inhibit form-deprivation myopia in chicks at a far lower concentration than atropine. However, mamba toxin-3 is equally potent at the human α1A -, α1D -, and α2A -adrenoceptors. To test the hypothesis that α-adrenoceptors might be involved in regulation of eye growth, the treatment effects of α2 -adrenoceptor agonists brimonidine, clonidine, and guanfacine, and antagonist yohimbine, on form-deprivation myopia in the chick were measured...
January 30, 2019: Clinical & Experimental Optometry: Journal of the Australian Optometrical Association
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