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Placental protein

Wei Peng, Chao Tong, Lei Li, Chengyu Huang, Yuxin Ran, Xuehai Chen, Yuxiang Bai, Yamin Liu, Jianlin Zhao, Bin Tan, Xiaofang Luo, Hao Wang, Li Wen, Chen Zhang, Hua Zhang, Yubin Ding, Hongbo Qi, Philip N Baker
Successful pregnancy requires normal placentation, which largely depends on the tight regulation of proliferation, invasion, and migration of trophoblast cells. Abnormal functioning of trophoblast cells may cause failure of uterine spiral artery remodeling, which may be related to pregnancy-related disorders, such as preeclampsia. Here, we reported that an actin-binding protein, α-actinin (ACTN)4, was dysregulated in placentas from early onset preeclampsia. Moreover, knockdown of ACTN4 markedly inhibited trophoblast cell proliferation by reducing AKT membrane translocation...
February 18, 2019: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Wan Xu, Hongyan Wu, Lixin Shang
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to identify potential zinc status indicators and to clarify the mechanisms underlying zinc deficiency-induced organ damage and mortality in mice. METHODS: The dataset GSE97112, including placental tissues of mice fed diets containing normal and low concentrations of zinc, was downloaded and preprocessed. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were calculated and identified for zinc deficiency-related gene clusters by using the weighed gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) algorithm...
February 15, 2019: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
Leena Kadam, Brian Kilburn, Dora Baczyk, Hamid Reza Kohan-Ghadr, John Kingdom, Sascha Drewlo
Increased inflammation and abnormal placentation are common features of a wide spectrum of pregnancy-related disorders such as intra uterine growth restriction, preeclampsia and preterm birth. The inflammatory response of the human placenta has been mostly investigated in relation to cytokine release, but the direct molecular consequences on trophoblast differentiation have not been investigated. This study measured the general effects of LPS on both extravillous and villous trophoblast physiology, and the involvement of the transcription factors PPARγ and NF-κB, specifically using 1st trimester explants and HTR-8/ SVneo cell line models...
February 14, 2019: Scientific Reports
Renato Barboza, Lutero Hasenkamp, André Barateiro, Oscar Murillo, Erika Paula Machado Peixoto, Flávia Afonso Lima, Aramys Silva Reis, Lígia Antunes Gonçalves, Sabrina Epiphanio, Claudio R F Marinho
Placental malaria (PM) remains a severe public health problem in areas of high malaria transmission. Despite the efforts to prevent infection poor outcomes in Plasmodium endemic areas, there is still a considerable number of preterm births and newborns with low birth weight resulting from PM. Although local inflammation triggered in response to malaria is considered crucial in inducing placental damage, little is known about the differential influence of maternal and fetal immune responses to the disease progression...
2019: Frontiers in Microbiology
M A Velázquez-Cervantes, M Martínez-Castillo, L D González-García, T A Vargas-Pavía, M G Martínez-Salazar, I Mancilla-Herrera, G León-Reyes, J García-Cordero, A C Helguera-Repetto, M León-Juárez
The respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the main pathogen associated with upper respiratory tract infections during early childhood. Vertical transmission of this virus has been suggested in humans, based on observations recorded during animal studies that revealed an association of RSV with persistent structural and functional changes in the developing lungs of the offspring. However, human placentas have not yet been evaluated for susceptibility to RSV infection. In this study, we examined the capacity of RSV to infect a human trophoblast model, the BeWo cell line...
February 13, 2019: Virus Genes
Jufeng Wei, Yufen Fu, Xiaoling Mao, Yuhui Jing, Jiangbo Guo, Yuanhua Ye
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to investigate the expression of Filamin b in the placental placenta of patients with early or late onset pre-eclampsia (PE) and its potential effects on the pathophysiology of the disease. METHODS AND METHODS: Immunohistochemistry staining, western blot assays and real time PCR were used to detect the expression level of FLN-b. The expression levels of MMP-2, MMP-9 and ERK1/2 proteins from control and FLN-b-silenced JEG-3 cells were also detected by western blot and JEG-3 cell invasion...
2019: Ginekologia Polska
Laura A Leaton, Jonathan Shortt, Katherine M Kichula, Sudan Tao, Neda Nemat-Gorgani, Alexander J Mentzer, Stephen J Oppenheimer, Zhihui Deng, Jill A Hollenbach, Christopher R Gignoux, Lisbeth A Guethlein, Peter Parham, Mary Carrington, Paul J Norman
Natural killer (NK) cell functions are modulated by polymorphic killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR). Among 13 human KIR genes, which vary by presence and copy number, KIR3DL3 is ubiquitously present in every individual across diverse populations. No ligand or function is known for KIR3DL3, but limited knowledge of expression suggests involvement in reproduction, likely during placentation. With 157 human alleles, KIR3DL3 is also highly polymorphic and we show heterozygosity exceeds that of HLA-B in many populations...
2019: Frontiers in Immunology
Carole-Anne Whigham, Teresa M MacDonald, Susan P Walker, Natalie J Hannan, Stephen Tong, Tu'uhevaha J Kaitu'u-Lino
Pregnancy complications such as fetal growth restriction and preeclampsia are diseases with limited biomarkers for prediction, and a complete lack of therapeutic options. We define placenta-enriched molecules as those that are highly expressed in the placenta relative to all other human tissues. Many exist including mRNAs, miRNAs and proteins. It is now well established that placenta-enriched mRNAs are found within the maternal circulation and are cleared rapidly after birth. Similarly, distinct clusters of miRNAs that are placenta-enriched have been identified and are measurable within the circulation...
February 4, 2019: Placenta
Maruhen A D Silveira, João Paulo C Marcondes, Juliana R Lara, Wellerson R Scarano, Iracema M P Calderón, Marilza V C Rudge, Daisy M F Salvadori
We investigated whether mitochondrial-related genes and proteins are modulated by hyperglycemia promoted by gestational diabetes (GDM), thereby increasing neonate obesity predisposition. 19 healthy pregnant women, 16 pregnant women with GDM and their respective neonates were enrolled. Additionally, 19 obese and 19 eutrophic adults were recruited as a reference population. Umbilical cord, peripheral blood and placental (villous and decidua) tissues were collected to evaluate SOD2, PPAR-α and PPARGC-1β and their respective protein expressions...
February 6, 2019: Reproductive Toxicology
Norbert Krautenbacher, Nicolai Flach, Andreas Böck, Kristina Laubhahn, Michael Laimighofer, Fabian J Theis, Donna P Ankerst, Christiane Fuchs, Bianca Schaub
BACKGROUND: Associations between childhood asthma phenotypes and genetic, immunological and environmental factors have been previously established. Yet, strategies to integrate high-dimensional risk factors from multiple distinct data sets, and thereby increase the statistical power of analyses, have been hampered by a preponderance of missing data and lack of methods to accommodate them. METHODS: We assembled questionnaire, diagnostic, genotype, microarray, RT-qPCR, flow cytometry and cytokine data (referred to as data modalities) to use as input factors for a classifier that could distinguish healthy children, mild-to-moderate allergic asthmatics and non-allergic asthmatics...
February 9, 2019: Allergy
Hye-Yon Cho, Min Sun Kyung
BACKGROUND This study evaluated the performance of serum CYFRA 21-1 and placental growth factor (PIGF) as screening markers for endometriosis. MATERIAL AND METHODS In this prospective study included 81 female patients who underwent laparoscopy to treat benign ovarian tumors. Serum samples were obtained from all study patients before surgery. Serum marker levels, including CYFRA 21-1, PIGF, cancer antigen (CA)125, CA19-9, and human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) were measured using a fluorescence immunoassay technique...
February 9, 2019: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Yeukai Tm Mangwiro, James Sm Cuffe, Dayana Mahizir, Kristina Anevska, Sogand Gravina, Tania Romano, Karen M Moritz, Jessica F Briffa, Mary E Wlodek
KEY POINTS: Fetal growth is dependent on effective placental nutrient transportation, which is regulated by mTORC1 modulation of nutrient transporter expression. These transporters are dysregulated in pregnancies affected by uteroplacental insufficiency and maternal obesity. Nutrient transporters and mTOR were altered in placentae of mothers born growth restricted compared to normal birth weight dams, with maternal diet- and fetal sex-specific responses. Exercise initiated during pregnancy (PregEx) downregulated MTOR protein expression, despite an increase in mTOR activation in male associated placentae, and reduced nutrient transporter gene abundance, which was also dependent on maternal diet and fetal sex...
February 7, 2019: Journal of Physiology
Perrine Nogues, Esther Dos Santos, Hélène Jammes, Paul Berveiller, Lucie Arnould, François Vialard, Marie-Noëlle Dieudonné
BACKGROUND: It is well established that obesity is associated with dysregulation of the ratio between the two major adipokines leptin and adiponectin. Furthermore, it was recently reported that maternal obesity has a significant impact on placental development. Leptin and adiponectin are present at the fetal-maternal interface and are involved in the development of a functional placenta. However, less is known about leptin and adiponectin's involvement in the placental alterations described in obese women...
February 7, 2019: Clinical Epigenetics
Carsten Balser, Anne Wolf, Marc Herb, Thomas Langmann
BACKGROUND: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of visual impairment in the elderly. The neovascular (wet) form of AMD can be treated with intravitreal injections of different anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) agents. Placental growth factor (PGF) is another member of the VEGF family of cytokines with pro-angiogenic and pro-inflammatory effects. Here, we aimed to compare single and combined inhibition of VEGF-A and PGF in the laser-induced mouse model of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) with a focus on the effects on retinal mononuclear phagocytes...
February 7, 2019: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Agata Sakowicz, Michalina Lisowska, Lidia Biesiada, Elżbieta Płuciennik, Agnieszka Gach, Magda Rybak-Krzyszkowska, Hubert Huras, Bartosz Sakowicz, Hanna Romanowicz, Agnieszka W Piastowska-Ciesielska, Mariusz Grzesiak, Tadeusz Pietrucha
Background: Preeclamptic pregnancies often present an intensified inflammatory state associated with the nuclear activity of NF κ B. NEMO is an essential regulator of nuclear factor kappa B (NF κ B) in cytoplasmic and nuclear cellular compartments. The aim of the present study is to examine the level and localization of the NEMO protein in preeclamptic and nonpreeclamptic placentas. Methods: The study includes 97 preeclamptic cases and 88 controls. NEMO distribution was analyzed immunohistochemically...
2019: Disease Markers
Antonio Travaglino, Antonio Raffone, Gabriele Saccone, Sonia Migliorini, Giuseppe Maria Maruotti, Gennaro Esposito, Antonio Mollo, Pasquale Martinelli, Fulvio Zullo, Maria D'Armiento
OBJECTIVES: Early-onset preeclampsia is a form of preeclampsia requiring delivery before 34 weeks of gestation. The etiology is unknown, but placental dysfunction appears crucial. We evaluated the immunohistochemical expression of the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2, the angiogenetic factors VEGF and PlGF, and the epithelial factors HGF, c-Met and STAT3 in placental samples of pregnancies complicated by early-onset preeclampsia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Placental sections were obtained from 41 women with early-onset preeclampsia (cases) and from 31 uncomplicated pregnancies (controls)...
January 14, 2019: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
S Karbanova, L Cerveny, L Jiraskova, R Karahoda, M Ceckova, Z Ptackova, F Staud
Ribavirin is a broad-spectrum nucleoside-derived antiviral drug used in combination pharmacotherapy treatment of hepatitis C virus infection. Current evidence indicates that ribavirin-associated teratogenicity is not significant in humans, but more information about the developmental toxicity and mechanisms involved in ribavirin placental kinetics is required to assure its safe use in pregnancy. Thus, we have investigated potential roles of equilibrative nucleoside transporters (ENTs, SLC29A), Na+ -dependent influx-mediating concentrative nucleoside transporters (CNTs, SLC28A), and ATP-binding cassette efflux pumps (ABC), in ribavirin placental pharmacokinetics...
February 1, 2019: Biochemical Pharmacology
Kelsey N Olson, Leanne M Redman, Jenny L Sones
Preeclampsia (PE) is a devastating adverse outcome of pregnancy. Characterized by maternal hypertension, when left untreated PE can result in death of both mother and baby. The cause of PE remains unknown and there is no way to predict which women will develop PE during pregnancy. The only known treatment is delivery of both the fetus and placenta, therefore an abnormal placenta is thought to play a causal role. Women with obesity before pregnancy have an increased chance of developing PE. Increased adiposity results in a heightened state of systemic inflammation which can influence placental development...
February 4, 2019: Physiological Genomics
Pascale Gerbaud, Padma Murthi, Jean Guibourdenche, Fabien Guimiot, Benoit Sarazin, Danièle Evain-Brion, Josette Badet, Guillaume Pidoux
Placental development is particularly altered in trisomy 21 (T21) affected pregnancies. We previously described in T21-affected placentae an abnormal paracrine crosstalk between villus mesenchymal core and villus trophoblasts. T21-affected are know to be characterized by their hypovascularity. However, the causes of this anomaly remain not fully elucidated. Therefore, hypothesis of an abnormal paracrine cross-talk between fetal mesenchymal core and placental endothelial cells (PLEC) was evocated. Villus mesenchymal cells from control (CMC) and T21 placentae (T21MC) were isolated and grown in culture to allow their characterization and collection of conditioned media for functional analyses (respectively CMC-CM and T21MC-CM)...
January 30, 2019: Endocrinology
Troy L Ott
Infertility and subfertility reduce the economic viability of dairy production. Inflammation reduces conception rates in dairy cattle, but surprisingly little information exists about the populations and the functions of immune cells at the conceptus-maternal interface during the periattachment period in dairy cattle. Early pregnancy is accompanied by immune stimulation at insemination and conceptus secretion of IFN-τ, pregnancy-associated glycoproteins, prostaglandins, and other molecules whose effects on immune function during early pregnancy have not been determined...
January 31, 2019: Journal of Dairy Science
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