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regression to the mean

Makayla McCoskey, Victoria Addis, Kendall Goodyear, Prithvi S Sankar, Gui-Shuang Ying, Yinxi Yu, Rebecca Salowe, Qi N Cui, Eydie Miller-Ellis, Maureen Maguire, Joan M O Apos Brien
BACKGROUND: It is currently unclear whether primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) affects neurological functions outside of vision, such as cognition. OBJECTIVE: This study examined the association between POAG and cognitive impairment in African Americans. METHODS: Masked interviewers administered the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) to patients enrolled in the Primary Open-Angle African American Glaucoma Genetics (POAAGG) study at the Scheie Eye Institute...
March 20, 2019: Neuro-degenerative Diseases
Gisung Son, Suhwan Lee, Yoon Jeon Kim, Joo Yong Lee, June-Gone Kim, Young Hee Yoon
We aimed to correlate the visual function and structural characteristics of the retina and choroid in advanced retinitis pigmentosa (RP) patients. A cross-sectional, retrospective review was conducted of medical records of 149 RP patients who reported visual field constriction on a central 30-2 Humphrey visual field chart. Using spectral domain-optical coherence tomography, central foveal thickness (CFT), ellipsoid zone (EZ) length, macular volume (MV), and submacular choroidal thickness (SMChT) were measured...
March 20, 2019: Ophthalmologica. Journal International D'ophtalmologie
Anthony J Hardy, Erin Angel, Maryam Bostani, Chris Cagnon, Michael McNitt-Gray
PURPOSE: The purpose of this work was to estimate scanner independent CTDIvol -to-fetal-dose coefficients for tube current modulated (TCM) and fixed tube current (FTC) CT examinations of pregnant patients of various gestational ages undergoing abdominal/pelvic CT examinations. METHODS: For 24 pregnant patients of gestational age from less than 5 to 36 weeks who underwent clinically-indicated CT examinations, voxelized models of maternal and fetal (or embryo) anatomy were created from abdominal/pelvic image data...
March 20, 2019: Medical Physics
Heiko Wagner, Christian Jebsen, Christian Wilhelm
Statistical growth rate modelling can be applied in a variety of ecological and biotechnological applications. Such models are frequently based on Monod or Droop equations and, especially for the latter, require reliable determination of model input parameters such as C:N quotas. Besides growth rate modelling, a C:N quota quantification can be useful for monitoring and interpretation of physiological acclimation to abiotic and biotic disturbances (e.g., nutrient limitations). However, as high throughput C:N quota determination is difficult to perform, alternatives need to be established...
March 20, 2019: Journal of Phycology
Guangju Yang, Sha Su, Huifei Jie, Lene Baad-Hansen, Kelun Wang, Shudong Yan, Hongwei Liu, Qiu-Fei Xie, Peter Svensson
AIMS: To compare somatosensory function profiles and psychologic factors in patients with primary burning mouth syndrome (BMS) and healthy controls and to evaluate correlations of subjective pain ratings with somatosensory and psychologic parameters. METHODS: A quantitative sensory testing (QST) protocol-including cold detection threshold (CDT), warmth detection threshold (WDT), thermal sensory limen (TSL), paradoxical heat sensation (PHS), cold pain threshold (CPT), heat pain threshold (HPT), mechanical pain threshold (MPT), wind-up ratio (WUR), and pressure pain threshold (PPT)-was performed at the oral mucosa of the tongue, buccal, and palatal sites in 30 Chinese patients (25 women and 5 men, mean age 50...
March 20, 2019: Journal of Oral & Facial Pain and Headache
Yuli Park, Kyong Jin Cho
PURPOSE: To evaluate choroidal structural changes in glaucoma using choroidal vascularity index (CVI) compared to healthy subjects. METHODS: This retrospective study included 56 patients with open angle glaucoma (OAG), 50 patients with preperimetric glaucoma (PPG) and 50 age-matched healthy eyes. Choroidal images were binarized into luminal area (LA) and stromal area. CVI was defined as the ratio of LA to total circumscribed choroid area (TCA). Mean choroidal thickness (CT) and mean CVI between glaucoma patients and healthy subjects were compared...
2019: PloS One
Mike Murray
METHODOLOGY: This paper uses regression adjustment and entropy matching to achieve an appropriate balance between the two groups. Having achieved this balance any difference in the overall performance between the two groups can then be attributed directly to the new language policy that has been implemented. Our results indicate, after matching, that a significant difference in performance between the two groups occurs with Black African Zulu home language speakers in particular not performing as well as students from the other race and language groups...
2019: PloS One
Tesfahun Mulatu Wachamo, Nigus Bililign Yimer, Asmamaw Demis Bizuneh
BACKGROUND: Low birth weight at birth is an important underlying contributor for neonatal and infant mortality. It accounts for nearly half of all perinatal deaths. Identifying predictors of low birth weight is the first essential step in designing appropriate management strategies. Hence, this study aimed to identify risk factors for low birth weight in hospitals of northeastern Ethiopia. METHODS: An institution based case-control study design was conducted from 10th April to 15th December 2016...
2019: PloS One
Kexin Jiang, Linli Tian, Cunling Yan, Ying Li, Huiying Fang, Sun Peihang, Peng Li, Haonan Jia, Yameng Wang, Zheng Kang, Yu Cui, He Liu, Siqi Zhao, Gamburg Anastasia, Mingli Jiao, Qunhong Wu, Ming Liu
OBJECTIVES: This study aims to investigate patient safety culture in secondary hospitals of Heilongjiang, Northeast China, and explore the implications of patient safety culture and practices through the perspectives of various healthcare workers. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey using the Safety Attitude Questionnaire (SAQ) was conducted to ascertain the status of patient safety culture in nine secondary hospitals across the six dimensions of the SAQ. Among the 900 staff members who were invited to participate, 665 completed the questionnaire...
2019: PloS One
Tamsin K Phillips, Phumla Sinxadi, Elaine J Abrams, Allison Zerbe, Catherine Orrell, Nai-Chung Hu, Kirsty Brittain, Yolanda Gomba, Jennifer Norman, Lubbe Wiesner, Landon Myer, Gary Maartens
BACKGROUND: Tenofovir-diphosphate (TFV-DP) in dried blood spots (DBS) is an objective long-term adherence measure but data are limited on its ability to predict virologic suppression (VS) in people on antiretroviral (ARV) treatment. There are also no data comparing DBS TFV-DP with plasma ARV concentrations as predictors of VS. METHODS: Women who were on a first-line regimen of tenofovir, emtricitabine, and efavirenz (EFV) were enrolled in a cross-sectional study...
March 8, 2019: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Johannes Mofors, Elizabeth V Arkema, Albin Björk, Linnea Westermark, Marika Kvarnström, Helena Forsblad-d'Elia, Sara Magnusson Bucher, Per Eriksson, Thomas Mandl, Gunnel Nordmark, Marie Wahren-Herlenius
OBJECTIVE: Environmental factors have been suggested in the pathogenesis of rheumatic diseases. We here investigated whether infections increase the risk of developing primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS). METHODS: Patients with pSS in Sweden (n=945) and matched controls from the general population (n=9,048) were included, and data extracted from the National Patient Register to identify infections occurring before pSS diagnosis during a mean observational time of 16...
March 20, 2019: Journal of Internal Medicine
Yi Long Toh, Juliana Shariq Mujtaba, Sumit Bansal, Angie Yeo, Maung Shwe, Aik Jiang Lau, Alexandre Chan
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfated form (DHEAS)-jointly referred as DHEA(S)-are neurosteroids known to regulate brain development and function that have been found to be positively correlated with cognitive function. It is unknown whether prechemotherapy plasma DHEA(S) levels are associated with the onset of cancer-related cognitive impairment (CRCI). The objective of this study was to evaluate whether an association exists between prechemotherapy plasma DHEA(S) levels and onset of CRCI in patients with breast cancer receiving chemotherapy...
March 20, 2019: Pharmacotherapy
Elias Atallah, Hassan Saad, Nikolaos Mouchtouris, Kimon Bekelis, Jackson Walker, Nohra Chalouhi, Stavropoula Tjoumakaris, Michelle Smith, Robert H Rosenwasser, Hekmat Zarzour, Nabeel Herial, James Feghali, Michael Reid Gooch, Symeon Missios, Ahmad Sweid, Pascal Jabbour
BACKGROUND: Pipeline embolization device (PED; Medtronic, Dublin, Ireland) utilization is not limited to the treatment of giant wide-necked aneurysms. It has been expanded to handle small blisters, fusiforms, and dissecting intracranial aneurysms. OBJECTIVE: To report the use of the PED in various off-label distal cerebral circulation (DCC) arteries with a follow-up to assess clinical outcomes. METHODS: Between 2011 and 2016, of 437 consecutive patients, 23 patients with aneurysms located in DCCs were treated with PED...
March 20, 2019: Neurosurgery
Cornelia Then, Holger Then, Christa Meisinger, Margit Heier, Annette Peters, Wolfgang Koenig, Wolfgang Rathmann, Jürgen Scherberich, Jochen Seissler
AIMS: Serum uromodulin has recently emerged as promising biomarker for kidney function and was suggested to be associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D) in coronary patients. Here, we analyzed the association of serum uromodulin with T2D in the population-based KORA F4/FF4 study. METHODS: In 1119 participants of the KORA F4 study aged 62 - 81 years, serum uromodulin was measured and the association of serum uromodulin with T2D was assessed using logistic and linear regression models stratified for sex...
March 20, 2019: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Danilo Lima Carreiro, João Gabriel Silva Souza, Wagner Luiz Mineiro Coutinho, Desirée Sant'ana Haikal, Andréa Maria Eleutério de Barros Lima Martins
The scope of this study was to identify factors associated with lack of access to dental services. It involved a cross-sectional study and a probabilistic complex sample by conglomerates in two stages with 857 participants over 18 years of age in a large city. Multiple analyses by means of logistic and multivariate regression in decision trees were made. The lack of access to dental services was considered a dependent variable. It was identified that 10.3% did not have access. In the multiple and multivariate analyses an association with age was verified and in the logistic regression a greater possibility of lack of access was found for each year of increased age, among those with the lowest per capita income and those who ranked appearance of teeth and gums as "fair/poor/very poor...
March 2019: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
Armando Koichiro Kaieda, Jaqueline Vilela Bulgareli, Inara Pereira da Cunha, Sílvia Amélia Scudeler Vedovello, Luciane Miranda Guerra, Gláucia Maria Bovi Ambrosano, Antonio Carlos Pereira, Luiz Renato Paranhos, Karine Laura Cortellazzi
Satisfaction with dental aesthetics is a subjective indicator used in epidemiological studies and is related to health behaviours. Little is known about the factors that influence this indicator, particularly among adolescents who live in a situation of social vulnerability. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between malocclusion and dental appearance in underprivileged Brazilian adolescents. This analytical cross-sectional study was conducted in Piracicaba, Brazil, and evaluated 884 adolescents from 13 to 19 years of age...
March 18, 2019: Brazilian Oral Research
Khawana Faker, Mônica Almeida Tostes, Viviane Andrade Cancio de Paula
The oral health status of children with special health care needs (SHCN) can affect their quality of life wich domains of the Brazilian version of the Early Childohood Oral Health Impact Scale (B-ECOHIS). A cross-sectional study was conducted in children with SHCN (aged 1 to 9 years), who underwent an oral examination for the assessment of dental caries severity. Parents/caregivers answered two questionnaires, one on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) - B-ECOHIS, and one on socioeconomic characteristics...
March 18, 2019: Brazilian Oral Research
Haosheng Pang, Peng Huang, Weirong Zhuo, Minglin Li, Chenghui Gao, Dan Guo
The hysteresis phenomenon frequently arises in two-dimensional (2D) material nanoindentation, which is generally expected to be excluded from characterizing the elastic properties due to the imperfect elastic behaviour. However, the underlying mechanism of hysteresis and its effect on the characterization of the mechanical properties of 2D materials remain unclear. Cyclic loadings are exerted on the suspended monolayer molybdenum-disulfide (MoS2) films in atomic force microscopy (AFM) nanoindentation experiments...
March 20, 2019: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Kuang-Wei Hsu, Pein-Chi Wei, Yu-Ling Chen, Eric Jw Liou
PURPOSE: To evaluate the clinical outcomes of aftermarket computer-aided design/computer-assisted manufacturing (CAD/CAM) titanium abutments supporting splinted prostheses and single crowns in the posterior region. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study retrospectively evaluated the records of patients who received posterior implant-supported splinted restorations and single crowns supported by aftermarket CAD/CAM titanium abutments. Recall and clinical examination of the patients were performed between January 2017 and February 2018...
February 19, 2019: International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants
Jorgenson, J L Descourouez, B Cardinale, B Lyu, B C Astor, N Garg, C M Saddler, J A Smith, D A Mandelbrot
BACKGROUND: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in kidney transplant recipients has been anecdotally observed with concomitant or subsequent opportunistic infections (OI), but this association has yet to be defined or quantified. METHODS: Patients who received a renal transplant between 1/1/2005 and 6/30/2014 and developed CMV infection were matched to controls in a ratio of 1:2 and the rates of opportunistic co-infection were calculated within pre-specified time frames (-30 days to +90 days and -30 days to +180 days)...
March 20, 2019: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
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