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Understanding schizophrenia

Sophie E Legge, James Tr Walters
Clozapine is the only effective antipsychotic for treatment-resistant schizophrenia but remains widely under prescribed, at least in part due to its potential to cause agranulocytosis and neutropenia. In this article, we provide an overview of the current understanding of the genetics of clozapine-associated agranulocytosis and neutropenia. We now know that the genetic etiology of clozapine-associated neutropenia is complex and is likely to involve variants from several genes including HLA-DQB1, HLA-B and SLCO1B3/SLCO1B7...
February 15, 2019: Pharmacogenomics
Katrine Røhder, Maja Nyström-Hansen, Angus MacBeth, Kirstine Agnete Davidsen, Andrew Gumley, Jessica Brennan, Carol George, Susanne Harder
OBJECTIVE: The study explores predictors of antenatal caregiving representations among mothers with a history of severe mental illness (SMI). BACKGROUND: Attachment research has demonstrated that multifactorial assessment of antenatal caregiving representations predicts later maternal behaviour and child attachment. However, the field lacks research among clinical groups. Knowledge of factors influencing caregiving representations during pregnancy can contribute to our understanding of caregiving risk among SMI-mothers and inform intervention decisions...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology
Shanthi Saha, Claire McCarthy, Rohan Dhillon
OBJECTIVES: This paper outlines the use of psychodynamic psychotherapy as an adjunct to treatment as usual for addressing challenging behaviours in a patient with schizophrenia under the care of a community mental health team (CMHT) in South Australia. METHODS: Ms P suffered from schizophrenia and demonstrated challenging behaviours in the context of being administered depot medication under a community treatment order (CTO). Multiple attempts at addressing non-compliance and consistently disruptive behaviour through conventional methods had failed...
February 14, 2019: Australasian Psychiatry: Bulletin of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists
Markus M Nöthen, Franziska Degenhardt, Andreas J Forstner
A long-established hypothesis is that genetic factors contribute to the development of psychiatric diseases, including common illnesses such as schizophrenia and the affective disorders; however, reliable molecular identification of these factors represents a far more recent innovation. This has been rendered possible by technological advances in the individual characterization of the human genome and the combining of large genetic datasets at the international level. For the first time, the results of genome-wide analyses provide researchers with systematic insights into disease-relevant biological mechanisms...
February 2019: Der Nervenarzt
Randall M Golovin, Jacob Vest, Dominic J Vita, Kendal Broadie
Critical periods are windows of development when the environment has a pronounced effect on brain circuitry. Models of neurodevelopmental disorders including autism spectrum disorders, intellectual disabilities and schizophrenia are linked to disruption of critical period remodeling. Critical periods open with the onset of sensory experience, however it remains unclear exactly how sensory input modifies brain circuits. Here, we examine olfactory sensory neuron (OSN) innervation of the Drosophila antennal lobe (AL) of both sexes as a genetic model of this question...
February 12, 2019: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
David C Cicero, Katherine G Jonas, Kaiqiao Li, Greg Perlman, Roman Kotov
The associations among normal personality and many mental disorders are well established, but it remains unclear whether and how symptoms of schizophrenia and schizotypal traits align with the personality taxonomy. This study examined the joint factor structure of normal personality, schizotypy, and schizophrenia symptoms in people with psychotic disorders (n = 288) and never-psychotic adults (n = 257) in the Suffolk County Mental Health Project. First, we evaluated the structure of schizotypal (positive schizotypy, negative schizotypy, and mistrust) and normal traits...
February 9, 2019: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Velprashanth Venkatesan, Sourav Khanra, Kamalika Mandal, M B Deepak
OBJECTIVE: Long-acting depot preparations of antipsychotics are the mainstay of treatment for patients with schizophrenia who show nonadherence to their medications. Olanzapine pamoate is one of the recently approved long-acting depot psychotropic preparations that have shown its efficacy both in clinical trials and in clinical uses against the illness. However, emerging literature indicates toward a cluster of adverse effects known as postinjection delirium/sedation syndrome (PDSS). METHODS: We here present a case of PDSS in a woman with paranoid schizophrenia...
February 8, 2019: Clinical Neuropharmacology
Melissa Quintero, Danijela Stanisic, Guilherme Cruz, João G M Pontes, Tássia Brena Barroso Carneiro Costa, Ljubica Tasic
Psychiatric disorders are some of the most impairing human diseases. Among them, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia are the most common. Both have complicated diagnostics due to their phenotypic, biological, and genetic heterogeneity, unknown etiology, and the underlying biological pathways, and molecular mechanisms are still not completely understood. Given the multifactorial complexity of these disorders, identification and implementation of metabolic biomarkers would assist in their early detection and diagnosis and facilitate disease monitoring and treatment responses...
2019: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Joshua J Chauvin, Thomas R Insel
Millions of people suffer from serious mental illness, but very few receive consistent coordinated care. Since leaving his post in 2015 after 13 years as director of the National Institute of Mental Health, co-author Tom Insel has been on a mission to use technology (such as mining your smartphone) to better understand your state of mind and treat depression, schizophrenia, and other disorders. Insel and co-author Joshua Chauvin, part of the team at a healthcare innovation company, examine the potential and pitfalls of this next digital frontier ...
November 2018: Cerebrum: the Dana Forum on Brain Science
Jessica S Suddaby, Josh Silver, Joyce So
The sodium voltage-gated channel α subunit 2 (SCN2A) gene encodes a subunit of sodium voltage-gated channels expressed primarily in the central nervous system that are responsible for action potential initiation and propagation in excitable cells. SCN2A mutations underlie a spectrum of distinct phenotypes, including seizure disorders, neurodevelopmental disorders, and rarer instances of episodic ataxia and schizophrenia. We report on a 38-year-old patient with adult-onset psychotic symptoms on a background of infantile-onset seizures, autistic features and episodic ataxia...
February 6, 2019: Psychiatric Genetics
Yoshiki Takamatsu, Gilbert Ho, Masaaki Waragai, Ryoko Wada, Shuei Sugama, Takato Takenouchi, Eliezer Masliah, Makoto Hashimoto
Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common neurodegenerative dementia, leads to memory dysfunction due to widespread neuronal loss associated with aggregation of amyloidogenic proteins (APs), while schizophrenia (SCZ) represents a major psychiatric disorder characterized by delusions, hallucinations, and other cognitive abnormalities, the underlying mechanisms of which remain obscure. Although AD and SCZ partially overlap in terms of psychiatric symptoms and some aspects of cognitive impairment, the causal relationship between AD and SCZ is unclear...
February 6, 2019: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Hannah C Chapman, Katherine F Visser, Vijay A Mittal, Brandon E Gibb, Meredith E Coles, Gregory P Strauss
Emotion regulation dysfunction is characteristic of psychotic disorders, but little is known about how the use of specific types of emotion regulation strategies differs across phases of psychotic illness. This information is vital for understanding factors contributing to psychosis vulnerability states and developing targeted treatments. Three studies were conducted to examine emotion regulation across phases of psychosis, which included (a) adolescent community members with psychotic-like experiences (PLEs; n = 262) and adolescents without PLEs (n = 1,226); (b) adolescents who met clinical high-risk criteria for a prodromal syndrome (n = 29) and healthy controls (n = 29); and (c) outpatients diagnosed with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (SZ; n = 61) and healthy controls (n = 67)...
February 11, 2019: Development and Psychopathology
Aamir Fahira, Zhiqiang Li, Ning Liu, Yongyong Shi
Recent genome-wide association study (GWAS) identified 12 independent loci for Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, the causal genes expression and pathways of ADHD is still vague. We integrated GWAS, eQTL and genes expression data to find the causal genes, genes expression, and genes prioritization in the different brain tissues and whole blood cells. Overall 47 genes were prioritized, the most promising genes were LSG1, HYAL3, PIDD, PNPLA2, BLOC1S2, PLK1S1, CALN1, KAT2B, CTNNB1 and WDR11...
February 6, 2019: Behavioural Brain Research
Tom Macpherson, Takatoshi Hikida
Over the last few decades, advances in human and animal-based techniques have greatly enhanced our understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying psychiatric disorders. Many of these studies have indicated connectivity between and alterations within basal ganglia structures to be particularly pertinent to the development of symptoms associated with several of these disorders. Here we summarize the connectivity, molecular composition, and function of sites within basal ganglia neurocircuits. Then we review the current literature from both human and animal studies concerning altered basal ganglia function in four common psychiatric disorders; obsessive compulsive disorder, substance-related and addiction disorders, major depressive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and schizophrenia...
February 8, 2019: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
David Dodell-Feder, Abhishek Saxena, Lauren Rutter, Laura Germine
Outcomes for people with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders (SSDs) are generally poor, making it important to understand risk states and illness transition. The network approach, which conceptualizes psychopathology as a network of causally interacting symptoms, may hold promise in this regard. Here, we present a network analysis of schizotypal personality traits (i.e., schizophrenia-like cognitive, perceptual, affective, interpersonal, and behavioral anomalies that may index one's vulnerability for a SSD) using an international sample...
February 4, 2019: Schizophrenia Research
M Friedman-Yakoobian, E M Parrish, A Thomas, R Lesser, A Gnong-Granato, S Eack, M S Keshavan
BACKGROUND: Cognitive deficits, a core feature contributing to disability in schizophrenia, are present in milder form in individuals at clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis. This study investigated the feasibility of Cognition for Learning and Understanding Everyday Social Situations (CLUES), an integrated neurocognitive and social cognitive treatment for youth at CHR. METHOD: This was an open, pilot feasibility trial. Seventeen individuals meeting CHR criteria were assessed prior to and following participation in CLUES for changes in symptoms, social and role functioning, and cognition...
February 4, 2019: Schizophrenia Research
Karola Kaefer, Hugo Malagon-Vina, Desiree D Dickerson, Joseph O'Neill, Svenja V Trossbach, Carsten Korth, Jozsef Csicsvari
Aberrant proteostasis of protein aggregation may lead to behavior disorders including chronic mental illnesses (CMI). Furthermore, the neuronal activity alterations that underlie CMI are not well understood. We recorded the local field potential and single-unit activity of the hippocampal CA1 region in vivo in rats transgenically overexpressing the Disrupted-in-Schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) gene (tgDISC1), modeling sporadic CMI. These tgDISC1 rats have previously been shown to exhibit DISC1 protein aggregation, disturbances in the dopaminergic system and attention-related deficits...
February 5, 2019: Hippocampus
Schaub Annette, Falkai Peter
The Sixth Kraepelin Symposium was held at the Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University Hospital, LMU Munich in October 2018, covering reports from 12 working groups (Keith H. Nuechterlein, Ph.D., University of California, Los Angeles; Kim T. Mueser, Ph.D., Center for Psychiatric Rehabilitation, Boston University, U.S.A.; Dominic Dwyer, Ph.D, Hospital LMU, Munich; David Fowler, Ph.D. University of Sussex, Brighton, U.K.; Martin Hautzinger, Ph.D., University of Tübingen; Nikolaos Koutsouleris, M...
February 5, 2019: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Eric C Shattuck
RATIONALE: As a species, humans are vulnerable to numerous mental disorders, including depression and schizophrenia. This susceptibility may be due to the evolution of our large, complex brains, or perhaps because these illnesses counterintuitively confer some adaptive advantage. Additionally, cultural and biological factors may contribute to susceptibility and variation in mental illness experience and expression. Taking a holistic perspective could strengthen our understanding of these illnesses in diverse cultural contexts...
February 5, 2019: Psychopharmacology
Tania Lecomte, Laurence Théroux, Karine Paquin, Stéphane Potvin, Amélie Achim
Social anxiety is highly prevalent in individuals with schizophrenia, with studies suggesting rates of 30%. This study aimed at determining if social anxiety is linked to specific emotion recognition deficits and to specific social functioning deficits. A total of 47 participants with a diagnosis of schizophrenia and receiving outpatient services answered measures of facial recognition (Ekman; Facial Emotion Identification Test), facial discrimination (Facial Emotion Discrimination Test), role-play, social anxiety (Social Interaction Anxiety Scale and Brief Social Phobia Scale), psychiatric symptoms (Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale), self-esteem (Self-Esteem Rating Scale-Short Form), and social functioning (Social Functioning Scale)...
January 31, 2019: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
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