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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30776778/skeletal-age-at-death-estimation-bayesian-versus-regression-methods
#1
Efthymia Nikita, Panos Nikitas
Age-at-death estimation in a skeletal assemblage (target sample) is biased by the demographic profile of the material used for age prediction (training sample) when this profile is different from that of the target sample. This bias is minimized if the demographic profile of the target sample is properly taken into account in the method developed for age-at-death estimation. In the Bayesian approach this is accomplished via the informative prior. For methods based on regression, we propose two techniques: (a) using weighting factors taken from the demographic profile of the target sample, and (b) creating a new hypothetical training sample that has a demographic profile similar to that of the target sample...
February 5, 2019: Forensic Science International
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30776698/cerebrovascular-disease-burden-in-late-onset-non-lesional-focal-epilepsy
#2
Laura Abraira, Laura Ludovica Gramegna, Manuel Quintana, Estevo Santamarina, Javier Salas-Puig, Silvana Sarria, Alex Rovira, Manuel Toledo
PURPOSE: Late-onset non-lesional focal epilepsy, defined as new-onset seizures in patients older than 60 years, is diagnosed increasingly more often in relation to aging of the population. It has been attributed mainly to occult cerebral small vessel disease (SVD), although high levels of evidence to support this notion are lacking. This study aimed to evaluate the burden of leukoaraiosis, a marker of cerebral SVD, and hippocampal atrophy in patients with late-onset epilepsy (LOE). METHODS: Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies were retrospectively analyzed by two blinded radiologists...
February 8, 2019: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30776446/spontaneous-and-iatrogenic-hypoglycaemia-related-to-mortality-in-the-icu
#3
Simon Lebech Cichosz, Finn Redke, Ole K Hejlesen
AIM: - Our study investigated the relationship between both spontaneous and iatrogenic hypoglycaemia and mortality. METHODS: - A total of 200,859 patients from the eICU Collaborative Research Database were grouped by whether they had registered episodes of hypoglycaemia or not. Patients with hypoglycaemia were then further divided into subgroups according to type of hypoglycaemia-whether spontaneous or iatrogenic. Spontaneous hypoglycaemia during an ICU stay was defined as one or more registered blood glucose measurements < 70 mg/dL (3...
February 15, 2019: Diabetes & Metabolism
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30776433/nicotinamide-metabolism-modulates-the-proliferation-differentiation-balance-and-senescence-of-human-primary-keratinocytes
#4
Chye Ling Tan, Toby Chin, Christina Yan Ru Tan, Holly A Rovito, Ling Shih Quek, John E Oblong, Sophie Bellanger
Nicotinamide (NAM) is the main precursor of NAD+ , a co-enzyme essential for DNA repair, glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). NAM has anti-aging activity on human skin, but the underlying mechanisms of action are unclear. Using 3D organotypic skin models, we show that NAM inhibits differentiation of the upper epidermal layers and maintains proliferation in the basal layer. In 2D culture, NAM reduces the expression of early and late epidermal differentiation markers and increases the proliferative capacity of human primary keratinocytes (HPKs)...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30776090/gaba-is-a-modulator-rather-than-a-classical-transmitter-in-the-mntb-lso-sound-localization-circuit
#5
Alexander U Fischer, Nicolas Ic Müller, Thomas Deller, Domenico Del Turco, Jonas O Fisch, Désirée Griesemer, Kathrin Kattler, Ayse Maraslioglu, Vera Roemer, Matthew A Xu-Friedman, Jörn Walter, Eckhard Friauf
KEY POINTS: The LSO, a brainstem hub involved in sound localization, integrates excitatory and inhibitory inputs from the ipsilateral and the contralateral ear, respectively. In gerbils and rats, inhibition to the LSO reportedly shifts from GABAergic to glycinergic within the first three postnatal weeks. Surprisingly, we found no evidence for synaptic GABA signalling during this time window in mouse LSO principal neurons. However, we found that presynaptic GABAB Rs modulate Ca2+ influx into MNTB axon terminals, resulting in reduced synaptic strength...
February 18, 2019: Journal of Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30776063/heritability-of-cerebral-blood-flow-and-the-correlation-to-schizophrenia-spectrum-disorders-a-pseudo-continuous-arterial-spin-labeling-twin-study
#6
Christian S Legind, Brian V Broberg, Rachel Brouwer, René C W Mandl, Bjørn H Ebdrup, Simon J Anhøj, Maria H Jensen, Rikke Hilker, Birgitte Fagerlund, Hilleke E Hulshoff Pol, Birte Y Glenthøj, Egill Rostrup
Whether aberrant cerebral blood flow (CBF) in schizophrenia is affected by genetic influences, and consequently a potential marker for genetic susceptibility, is unknown. Our aims were to determine the heritability of CBF in thalamic, frontal, and striatal areas, and to ascertain if associations with disease were under genetic influence. Monozygotic (MZ) twin pairs concordant (n = 2) or discordant (n = 20) for schizophrenia spectrum disorders (ICD-10 F2x.x), matched on sex and age with dizygotic (DZ; n = 20) and healthy control pairs (MZ: n = 27; DZ: n = 18; total: n = 181 individuals), were recruited via the National Danish Twin Register...
February 18, 2019: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30776004/resistance-exercise-induced-responses-in-physiological-factors-linked-with-cognitive-health
#7
Kieran J Marston, Belinda M Brown, Stephanie R Rainey-Smith, Jeremiah J Peiffer
The global population is aging at an unprecedented rate giving rise to a greater prevalence of age-related illnesses such as dementia and vascular disease. Dementia affects approximately 47 million individuals globally with projections of 130 million by the year 2050. Late-onset Alzheimer's disease is the most common form of dementia, accounting for approximately 75% of all cases and is characterized by a progressive decline in cognitive function, memory, and cerebral volume. The pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease is poorly understood; however, aging, genetics, and an individual's diet and lifestyle over several decades appear to be key determinants...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30775998/ftir-spectroscopy-of-cerebrospinal-fluid-reveals-variations-in-the-lipid-protein-ratio-at-different-stages-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#8
Joanna Depciuch, Izabela Zawlik, Marzena Skrzypa, Justyna Pająk, Natalia Potocka, Kornelia Łach, Halina Bartosik-Psujek, Anna Koziorowska, Ewa Kaznowska, Józef Cebulski
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a disease of advanced civilization and a common form of dementia in people over 65 years of age. We used Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy combined with principal component analysis (PCA) to determine changes in the quantity and quality of the cerebrospinal fluid from AD patients at three different stages of the disease (ADI, ADII, and ADIII), as well as from patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Moreover, based on the FTIR spectra, we calculated the ratio of α-helix and β-sheet secondary protein structures as well as the lipid-protein balance as potential AD markers...
February 11, 2019: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30775983/distinctive-neurochemistry-in-alzheimer-s-disease-via-7-t-in-vivo-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy
#9
Małgorzata Marjańska, J Riley McCarten, James S Hodges, Laura S Hemmy, Melissa Terpstra
This study's objective was to increase understanding of biological mechanisms underlying clinical Alzheimer's disease (AD) by noninvasively measuring an expanded neurochemical profile and exploring how well this advanced technology distinguishes AD from cognitively normal controls. We measured concentrations of 14 neurochemicals using ultra-high field (7 T) ultra-short echo time (8 ms) magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in 16 participants with mild to moderate clinical AD and 33 age- and gender-matched control participants...
February 11, 2019: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30775897/evaluation-of-the-serum-mac-2-binding-protein-glycosylation-isomer-test-used-for-diagnosis-and-monitoring-of-liver-fibrosis-and-the-correlation-of-mac-2-binding-protein-glycosylation-isomer-with-hemoglobin-a1c
#10
Rihwa Choi, Youngju Oh, Sukjung Lee, Sang Gon Lee
BACKGROUND: Our aims in this study were to evaluate the performance of the Mac-2 binding protein glycosylation isomer (M2BPGi), a liver fibrosis marker, using Sysmex HISCL following user verification guidelines before clinical use. We also evaluated the correlation between M2BPGi and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) because HbA1c is known as another biomarker associated with glycosylation. METHODS: The analytical performance of M2BPGi was verified following user verification guidelines by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute...
January 1, 2019: Clinical Laboratory
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30775894/combined-laboratory-approach-to-detection-of-parvovirus-b19-and-coxiella-burnetii-in-patients-with-fever-of-unknown-origin
#11
Stefka Krumova, Adelina Pavlova, Kamelia Yotovska, Petia Genova-Kalou
BACKGROUND: Fever of unknown origin (FUO) is one of the greatest challenges for clinicians and patients. There are more than 200 etiological agents of FUO, among these the most common is the role of infection, neoplasms, and diseases of connective tissue. The aim of the present study is to investigate the role of the infectious agents parvovirus B19 (B19V) and Coxiella burnetii (C. burnetii) in the development of fever of unknown origin by a set of immunoenzymatic and molecular methods...
January 1, 2019: Clinical Laboratory
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30775884/gestational-diabetes-mellitus-is-associated-with-plasma-amylase-in-a-chinese-pregnant-women-population
#12
Fan Yu, Wenjie Zhou, Xi Tan, Yongmei Jiang
BACKGROUND: The study aimed to investigate the relationship between plasma amylase levels and the endocrine and metabolic biomarkers in Chinese pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in the southwest of China and to compare plasma amylase with other known biomarkers in relation to their contributions to identifying GDM, with a view to establishing plasma amylase as an independent laboratory-based risk factor for GDM. METHODS: This study included 1,870 pregnant women divided into three groups: early pregnancy, middle pregnancy, and late pregnancy according to weeks of gestation, and 164 pregnant women were excluded by diseases...
January 1, 2019: Clinical Laboratory
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30775623/left-ventricular-structure-in-patients-with-mild-to-moderate-ckd-a-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study
#13
Markus P Schneider, Johannes B Scheppach, Ulrike Raff, Sebastian Toncar, Christian Ritter, Thorsten Klink, Stefan Störk, Christoph Wanner, Georg Schlieper, Turgay Saritas, Sebastian D Reinartz, Jürgen Floege, Nele Friedrich, Rolf Janka, Michael Uder, Roland E Schmieder, Kai-Uwe Eckardt
Introduction: The high burden of left ventricular (LV) abnormalities in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) is well established. However, less is known about the prevalence, patterns, and determinants of LV abnormalities in patients with early CKD. Methods: We examined LV structure in 290 patients with a median estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 51 ml/min per 1.73 m2 by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We explored associations with clinical and hemodynamic parameters, hydration (bioimpedance), endothelial function, inflammation (including C-reactive protein and tumor necrosis factor-α and its soluble receptors) and mineral bone disease (MBD) markers (including vitamin D, parathyroid hormone, α-klotho and fibroblast growth factor-23)...
February 2019: KI Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30775537/safety-and-effectiveness-of-monthly-intravenous-ibandronate-injections-in-a-prospective-postmarketing-and-observational-study-in-japanese-patients-with-osteoporosis
#14
Yasuhiro Takeuchi, Junko Hashimoto, Yosuke Nishida, Chiemi Yamagiwa, Takashi Tamura, Akihide Atsumi
Objectives: This postmarketing, observational study evaluated the safety and effectiveness of monthly intravenous (IV) ibandronate in Japanese patients with osteoporosis. Methods: Eligible patients received monthly IV ibandronate 1 mg for 12 months. Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) were evaluated. Changes in bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover markers (BTMs) were assessed using matched t -test analysis. Cumulative fracture rates were analyzed by Kaplan-Meier methodology...
March 2018: Osteoporosis and Sarcopenia
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30775423/effect-of-lung-volume-reduction-surgery-on-respiratory-muscle-strength-in-advanced-emphysema
#15
Rachel N Criner, Daohai Yu, Michael R Jacobs, Gerard J Criner
Background: Long-term effects of lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) on respiratory muscle strength and effects of age, sex, and emphysema pattern on these changes are unknown. Therefore, we aimed to determine the long-term effect of LVRS on respiratory muscle strength changes in severe emphysema. Methods: The National Emphysema Treatment Trial was a prospective controlled multicentered trial, comparing LVRS to optimal medical treatment on survival and maximal exercise capacity. We examined percentage change in maximum inspiratory pressure (MIP) from baseline to 36 months follow-up to determine impact of LVRS as well as age, sex, emphysema pattern and exercise capacity on changes in MIP compared to medical treatment...
October 12, 2018: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases: Journal of the COPD Foundation
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30775383/acute-effects-using-light-emitting-diode-therapy-ledt-for-muscle-function-during-isometric-exercise-in-asthma-patients-a-pilot-study
#16
Ivan Peres Costa, Fabiano Politti, Lawrence P Cahalin, Etiene Farah Teixeira de Carvalho, Dirceu Costa, João Carlos Ferrari Corrêa, Rodolfo P Vieira, Manoel Carneiro Oliveira-Junior, Kátia De Angelis, Roberto Stirbulov, Simone Dal Corso, Paulo de Tarso de Carvalho, Nivaldo Antonio Parizotto, Ross Arena, LucianaMaria Malosá Sampaio
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of acute application of LEDT in improving peripheral muscle performance during isometric exercise in patients with asthma. Eleven patients, with a mean age 38 ± 10, underwent a single LEDT and sham application in the femoral quadriceps' dominant member (cluster with 50 LED λ = 850 nm, 50 mW, 15 s; 37.5 J), 48 h apart in a randomized crossover design. Before and after LEDT and sham application, the patients were submitted an isometric endurance test (60% of the maximum isometric voluntary contraction), up to the limit of tolerance simultaneous recording of surface electromyography...
2019: BioMed Research International
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30775381/utility-of-the-serum-cystatin-c-level-for-diagnosis-of-osteoporosis-among-middle-aged-and-elderly-people
#17
Satoshi Tanaka, Kei Ando, Kazuyoshi Kobayashi, Tetsuro Hida, Kenyu Ito, Mikito Tsushima, Masayoshi Morozumi, Masaaki Machino, Kyotaro Ota, Koji Suzuki, Taisuke Seki, Naoki Ishiguro, Yukiharu Hasegawa, Shiro Imagama
Purpose: Osteoporosis is a common age-related disorder leading to increased bone fragility and risk of fracture. Early diagnosis of osteoporosis is a vital step in providing early therapeutic intervention. Serum cystatin C is a marker of early renal dysfunction, a predictor of cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases, and an inhibitor of the differentiation of osteoclast precursor cells. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between serum cystatin C and osteoporosis...
2019: BioMed Research International
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30775160/the-gender-risk-severity-paradox-for-alcohol-use-disorder-from-adolescence-through-young-adulthood
#18
Katherine T Foster, Brian M Hicks, C Emily Durbin, William G Iacono, Matt McGue
A large proportion of the public health costs of alcohol use disorder (AUD) can be accounted for by a small percentage of severe cases with a chronic course starting in adolescence and persisting into adulthood. However, chronicity may be a less effective marker of AUD severity in women than men due to a gender risk-severity paradox wherein comparable levels of risk exposure yield more co-occurring problems for women than men with AUD. To model this paradox, we compared trajectories of alcohol and drug use problems, depression symptoms, and antisocial behavior from ages 17 to 29 in men and women with a persistent, desistent, or no history of AUD...
December 2018: Emerging Adulthood
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30774963/simple-renal-cysts-and-bovine-aortic-arch-markers-for-aortic-disease
#19
Adam J Brownstein, Syed Usman Bin Mahmood, Ayman Saeyeldin, Camilo Velasquez Mejia, Mohammad A Zafar, Yupeng Li, John A Rizzo, Neera K Dahl, Young Erben, Bulat A Ziganshin, John A Elefteriades
Objective: This study aimed to assess the prevalence of thoracic aortic disease (TAD) and abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) among patients with simple renal cyst (SRC) and bovine aortic arch (BAA). Methods: Through a retrospective search for patients who underwent both chest and abdominal CT imaging at our institution from 2012 to 2016, we identified patients with SRC and BAA and propensity score matched them to those without these features by age, gender and presence of hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, diabetes and chronic kidney disease...
2019: Open Heart
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30774841/effects-of-intermittent-fasting-during-ramadan-on-insulin-like-growth-factor-1-interleukin-2-and-lipid-profile-in-healthy-muslims
#20
Ali R Rahbar, Eisa Safavi, Maryam Rooholamini, Fateme Jaafari, Sadegh Darvishi, Amin Rahbar
Background: Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and interleukin-2 (IL-2) play an essential role in pathophysiology of several chronic diseases. As a stressor, fasting in Ramadan may increase inflammatory markers such as IGF-1 and IL-2 in Muslims. The aim of this before-after study was to investigate the effects of fasting in Ramadan on IGF-1 and IL-2 levels in individuals. Methods: In all, 34 men age 16-64 years were selected out of the overall number of individuals who were ready for fasting entirely throughout Ramadan...
2019: International Journal of Preventive Medicine
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