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Health Interventions

Happiness Muhimbula, Joyce Kinabo, Aifric O'Sullivan
Infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices determine infant growth, development and health. Despite global recommendations for exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) until 6-months, adherence rates are low worldwide for different reasons, largely dependent on environment. In low-income countries, inappropriate IYCF leads to poor nutrition status. This study examined IYCF practices and nutrition outcomes in rural farming households in Tanzania before and after harvest. Mothers and their infants were recruited from two regions in Tanzania...
March 21, 2019: Maternal & Child Nutrition
Jan Henrik Terheyden, Robert Patrick Finger
Patient-reported outcome measures have been met with increasing interest, particularly in clinical research. They are used to capture the patient-relevant impact of an intervention or a loss of function. In patients with loss of vision, vision-related quality of life is assessed in order to quantify the impact of visual impairment in everyday life. When using quality of life instruments, psychometric characteristics - such as reliability, validity and responsiveness - are of great importance to ensure that the collected data are robust...
March 2019: Klinische Monatsblätter Für Augenheilkunde
Thomas Kötter
A trend towards reduced resilience to stress and impaired psychosocial well-being begins early on in medical education. Our own results confirm the early deterioration of the psychosocial health of medical students observed internationally. Students who simultaneously demonstrate high levels of perfectionism, an insufficient ability to distance themselves from work, as well as a lack of regular physical activity appear to form a special risk group. Therefore, it seems rational to implement interventions that counteract this development by enhancing individual resources and preventing harmful curriculum-associated influences as early as possible during medical education...
April 2019: Aktuelle Urologie
Estefania C Botelho, Pilar S R Mataratzis, Débora L Lino, Andreia N de Oliveira, Flávia F Bezerra, Flávia Dos Santos Barbosa Brito, Marta Citelli, Cláudia Dos S Cople-Rodrigues
Children with sickle cell anemia (SCA) often exhibit nutritional deficiencies and are at high risk of dying before the age of 5 years. Ensuring adequate nutrition is a critical part of health care for such children. This study aimed to investigate the association between nutritional status, nutrient intake, and food diversity in children with SCA. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on 74 children with SCA, between 24 and 71 months of age. Anthropometric measurements, food and nutrients consumption were determined...
April 2019: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
Qiong Wang, Weihua Xu, Longfei Ren, Wenhao Wang, Yang Wang
BACKGROUND: Parents who lost their only child and can not conceive another child, are known as shidu parents in China. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and examine the mediating role of perceived stress between hope and PTSD symptoms in Chinese shidu parents. METHODS: 295 shidu mothers and 197 shidu fathers were recruited in Shenyang city. Shidu parents were asked to complete a questionnaire including the PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5), the Herth hope index (HHI) and the Perceived Stress Scale-10 (PSS-10)...
March 13, 2019: Journal of Affective Disorders
Martha S Ryan, Devaki Nambiar, Laura Ferguson
Sex work-related stigma is prevalent in urban India. While HIV-stigma is often discussed in urban Indian health contexts, rarely is sex work-related stigma investigated as it shapes sex workers' health experiences. This paper discusses the findings of an ethnographic study with women who practice sex work (WPSW), healthcare providers, and NGO workers in Delhi, India over seven months in 2017. We apply a tri-tiered model of stigma as constituted of experiential, symbolic, and structural forms, to better understand how WPSW experience sex work-related stigma as it relates to their health...
March 3, 2019: Social Science & Medicine
Ulf Strömberg, Stefan Peterson, Anders Holmén, Erik Holmberg, Rolf Hultcrantz, Anna Martling, Mef Nilbert
BACKGROUND: Sociodemographic and spatial disparities in incidence and mortality burden of colorectal cancer (CRC) are important to consider in the implementation of population screening, in order to achieve expected benefit and not increase health inequities. Analytic methods should be adapted to provide rational support for targeted interventions. METHODS: CRC incidence rates by tumor stage (I-IV) and location (colon vs. rectum) were analyzed for the time period 2008-2016 within a screening-relevant age interval of 55-74 years for the population of South and West Sweden, where screening is planned for...
March 18, 2019: Cancer Epidemiology
A Sever, J Essa-Hadad, A Luder, O Weiss, K Agay-Shay, M Rudolf
OBJECTIVE: Existing research on recurrent unintentional injury (UI) focuses on the individual child rather than family risks. This study developed a statistical model for identifying families at highest risk, for potential use in targeting public health interventions. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective birth cohort study of hospital and emergency room (ER) medical records of children born in Ziv hospital between 2005 and 2012, attending ER for UI between 2005 and 2015, was conducted...
March 18, 2019: Public Health
Adrian Furnham, Helen Cheng
This study investigated the change in the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) scores from teenage years to young adulthood using a large, nationally representative sample in the UK. It took account of socio-demographic variables, childhood intelligence, behavioural problems and self-esteem at teenage and educational qualifications in early adulthood. In total, 3942 cohort members had the complete data on GHQ at ages 16 and 30 years. T-tests showed that there was statistically significant increase of GHQ mean scores over the 14 years (p < ...
March 11, 2019: Journal of Psychiatric Research
J O Sotunsa, A A Adeniyi, J O Imaralu, B Fawole, O Adegbola, C O Aimakhu, A S Adeyemi, K Hunyinbo, O A Dada, O O Adetoro, O T Oladapo
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the burden and health service events surrounding severe maternal outcomes (SMO) related to life-threatening postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) in Nigerian public tertiary hospitals. DESIGN: Secondary analysis of a nationwide cross-sectional study. SETTING: Forty-two tertiary hospitals. POPULATION: Women admitted for pregnancy, childbirth or puerperal complications. METHODS: All cases of SMO [maternal near miss (MNM) or maternal death (MD)] due to PPH were prospectively identified using WHO criteria over a 1-year period...
March 21, 2019: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
A S Adeniran, A N Ocheke, D Nwachukwu, N Adewole, B Ageda, T Onile, A C Umezulike, A P Aboyeji, O T Oladapo
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the burden, causes and outcomes of severe non-obstetric maternal complications in Nigerian public tertiary hospitals. DESIGN: Secondary analysis of a nationwide cross-sectional study. SETTING: Forty-two tertiary health facilities. POPULATION: Women admitted with complications during pregnancy, childbirth or puerperium. METHODS: All cases of severe maternal outcome (SMO: maternal near-miss or maternal death) due to non-obstetric causes were prospectively identified over a 1-year period...
March 21, 2019: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Sangeeta Suku, Jinal Soni, Molly A Martin, Mansha Parven Mirza, Anne Elizabeth Glassgow, Michael Gerges, Benjamin W Van Voorhees, Rachel Caskey
BACKGROUND: Social determinants of health play a vital role in population health. Awareness of household social factors and their impact on health can help health professionals to provide effective strategies in health promotion, especially for children and adolescents showing signs of psychosocial dysfunction. The objective of this study was to explore the association between parents' perceptions of the psychosocial behavior of their children and the functionality of their household...
March 21, 2019: Child: Care, Health and Development
Karen Hughes, Mark A Bellis, Dinesh Sethi, Rachel Andrew, Yongjie Yon, Sara Wood, Kat Ford, Adriana Baban, Larisa Boderscova, Margarita Kachaeva, Katarzyna Makaruk, Marija Markovic, Robertas Povilaitis, Marija Raleva, Natasa Terzic, Milos Veleminsky, Joanna Włodarczyk, Victoria Zakhozha
BACKGROUND: Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) can increase risks of health-harming behaviours and poor health throughout life. While increases in risk may be affected by resilience resources such as supportive childhood relationships, to date few studies have explored these effects. METHODS: We combined data from cross-sectional ACE studies among young adults (n = 14 661) in educational institutions in 10 European countries. Nine ACE types, childhood relationships and six health outcomes (early alcohol initiation, problem alcohol use, smoking, drug use, therapy, suicide attempt) were explored...
March 20, 2019: European Journal of Public Health
Hayley Lewthwaite, Tim Olds, Marie T Williams, Tanja W Effing, Dorothea Dumuid
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: This study explored whether, for people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), changes to the 24-hour composition of physical activity (PA), sedentary behaviour (SB) and sleep were associated with changes in symptoms and health-related quality of life (HRQoL); and how time re-allocations between these behaviours were associated with changes in outcomes. METHODS: This study pools data on people with COPD drawn from two previous studies: a randomised controlled trial of cognitive behavioural therapy and pulmonary rehabilitation and a usual care cohort...
2019: PloS One
Dev Ram Sunuwar, Raj Kumar Sangroula, Nani Shova Shakya, Renu Yadav, Narendra Kumar Chaudhary, Pranil Man Singh Pradhan
BACKGROUND: Anemia during pregnancy is a major public health problem globally with multiple causes including inadequate dietary intakes. The aim of the study was to assess the effect of nutrition education on nutritional knowledge, hemoglobin level and dietary intake of anemic pregnant women. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A quasi-experimental study was conducted among 115 mild to moderately anemic pregnant women attending ante natal clinics. Pregnant women were consecutively enrolled and assigned to receive nutrition education and diet plan in intervention group (n = 58) and general education only in control group (n = 57)...
2019: PloS One
Melissa J Gladstone, Jaya Chandna, Gwendoline Kandawasvika, Robert Ntozini, Florence D Majo, Naume V Tavengwa, Mduduzi N N Mbuya, Goldberg T Mangwadu, Ancikaria Chigumira, Cynthia M Chasokela, Lawrence H Moulton, Rebecca J Stoltzfus, Jean H Humphrey, Andrew J Prendergast
BACKGROUND: Globally, nearly 250 million children (43% of all children under 5 years of age) are at risk of compromised neurodevelopment due to poverty, stunting, and lack of stimulation. We tested the independent and combined effects of improved water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) and improved infant and young child feeding (IYCF) on early child development (ECD) among children enrolled in the Sanitation Hygiene Infant Nutrition Efficacy (SHINE) trial in rural Zimbabwe. METHODS AND FINDINGS: SHINE was a cluster-randomized community-based 2×2 factorial trial...
March 2019: PLoS Medicine
Vida Ami Kukula, Eleanor E MacPherson, Irene Honam Tsey, J Russell Stothard, Sally Theobald, Margaret Gyapong
BACKGROUND: Urogenital schistosomiasis is endemic throughout Ghana with elevated infection levels in certain areas e.g. Lake Volta Region. While the primary focus of the national control program is on mass drug administration of praziquantel to school-aged children, Female Genital Schistosomiasis (FGS), a disease-specific affliction of girls and women, has been largely overlooked. To better focus future actions, our study investigated the perceptions, knowledge and understanding of FGS amongst community members and health providers...
March 2019: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Maribeth C Lovegrove, Deborah Dowell, Andrew I Geller, Sandra K Goring, Kathleen O Rose, Nina J Weidle, Daniel S Budnitz
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the number of US emergency department visits for prescription opioid harms by patient characteristics, intent, clinical manifestations, and active ingredient. METHODS: We used data from medical record-based surveillance from a nationally representative 60-hospital sample. RESULTS: Based on 7769 cases, there were 267 020 estimated emergency department visits annually (95% confidence interval [CI] = 209 833, 324 206) for prescription opioid harms from 2016 to 2017...
March 21, 2019: American Journal of Public Health
Paul Campbell Erwin, Renee G Parks, Stephanie Mazzucca, Peg Allen, Elizabeth A Baker, Hengrui Hu, Johnnetta Davis-Joyce, Ross C Brownson
OBJECTIVES: To determine the extent to which US local health departments (LHDs) are engaged in evidence-based public health and whether this is influenced by the presence of an academic health department (AHD) partnership. METHODS: We surveyed a cross-sectional stratified random sample of 579 LHDs in 2017. We ascertained the extent of support for evidence-based decision-making and the use of evidence-based interventions in several chronic disease programs and whether the LHD participated in a formal, informal, or no AHD partnership...
March 21, 2019: American Journal of Public Health
Andrew H Rogers, Brooke Y Kauffman, Jafar Bakhshaie, R Kathryn McHugh, Joseph W Ditre, Michael J Zvolensky
BACKGROUND: The opioid epidemic is a significant public health crisis, and this problem is particularly prevalent among individuals with chronic pain. Accordingly, there is an urgent need for interventions to mitigate the risk for opioid misuse and opioid use disorder among people with pain. Given that mental health problems, specifically anxiety, are common among people who misuse opioids, it is important to examine factors that link mental health problems with opioid misuse to ultimately inform the development of novel interventions...
March 21, 2019: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
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