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Carolin Kaufung, Martin Holtmann, Isabel Boege
The Development of Medication and Psychotherapy from 1952 to 1957 in the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics Weissenau and Gütersloh Abstract. OBJECTIVE: As a result of recent discussions concerning the misuse of medication in children in postwar Germany, the paper analyzes the treatment methods, especially psychopharmacotherapy, as well as therapeutic approaches employed in two German child and adolescent psychiatric hospitals (Weissenau and Guetersloh). We investigated the progression of prescription and the administration of psychotropic and experimental drugs between 1952 and 1957...
February 19, 2019: Zeitschrift Für Kinder- und Jugendpsychiatrie und Psychotherapie
Angela Iannitelli, Serena Parnanzone, Giulia Pizziconi, Giulia Riccobono, Francesca Pacitti
The discovery of psychoanalysis and of psychotropic medications represent two radical events in understanding and treatment of mental suffering. The growth of both disciplines together with the awareness of the impracticality of curing mental suffering only through pharmacological molecules-the collapse of the "Great Illusion"-and the experience of psychoanalysts using psychotropic medications along with depth psychotherapeutic treatment, have led to integrated therapies which are arguably more effective than either modality alone...
2019: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Pia Baldinger-Melich, Gregor Gryglewski, Cécile Philippe, Gregory M James, Chrysoula Vraka, Leo Silberbauer, Theresa Balber, Thomas Vanicek, Verena Pichler, Jakob Unterholzner, Georg S Kranz, Andreas Hahn, Dietmar Winkler, Markus Mitterhauser, Wolfgang Wadsak, Marcus Hacker, Siegfried Kasper, Richard Frey, Rupert Lanzenberger
BACKGROUND: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) constitutes one of the most effective antidepressant treatment strategies in major depression (MDD). Despite its common use and uncontested efficacy, its mechanism of action is still insufficiently understood. Previously, we showed that ECT is accompanied by a global decrease of serotonin-1A receptors in MDD; however, further studies to investigate the involvement of the serotonergic system in the mechanism of action of ECT are warranted. The monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) represents an important target for antidepressant treatments and was found to be increased in MDD...
January 2, 2019: Brain Stimulation
Ahmed Naguy, Najah Al-Enezi
BACKGROUND: Lamotrigine (LAM), an antiepileptic, with panoply of indications and uses in neurology, is FDA approved, in psychiatry, for bipolar prophylaxis. Apart from this indication, trend of its use in psychiatry is on the rise addressing a multitude of disorders. STUDY QUESTION: LAM remains one of only few psychotropic drugs with antiglutamate activity. This might render LAM a potential therapeutic option in treatment-resistant major psychiatric disorders. We reviewed LAM pharmacology and its diverse indications while examining the extant evidence...
January 2019: American Journal of Therapeutics
Raghunath Singh, Yashika Bansal, Bikash Medhi, Anurag Kuhad
Atypical antipsychotics (AAPs) are the drug of choice in the management of mental illnesses by virtue of their advantage over typical antipsychotics i.e. least tendency of producing extrapyramidal motor symptoms (EPS) or pseudoparkinsonism. Despite the clinical efficacy, AAPs produces troublesome adverse effects, particularly hyperphagia, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia weight gain, diabetes mellitus, insulin resistance and QT prolongation which further develops metabolic and cardiac complications with subsequent reduction in life expectancy, poor patient compliance, and sudden death...
February 5, 2019: European Journal of Pharmacology
Bert Theodor Te Wildt
Internet dependence, especially online computer games, social networks and online pornography, is increasingly understood as a behavioral addiction. Addiction criteria, as used in the diagnosis of substance-related addiction disorders, have also proven effective in these cases. Prevalence estimates for Germany assume a frequency of around 1%, although the proportion in younger populations is already significantly higher and is therefore expected to increase for the time being. In diagnosis and treatment, comorbid disorders such as depression, anxiety disorders, Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and substance-related dependencies should be taken into account, especially when psychopharmacotherapy is considered...
October 2018: Die Rehabilitation
Michael Paulzen, Julia C Stingl, Marc Augustin, Helena Saßmannshausen, Cordula Franz, Gerhard Gründer, Georgios Schoretsanitis
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to measure and investigate correlations of lamotrigine concentrations in maternal as well as umbilical cord blood, amniotic fluid, and breast milk to account for the distribution of the drug. METHODS: Concentrations of lamotrigine were measured in 19 mother-infant pairs at the time of delivery. To account for the penetration ratio into amniotic fluid, cord blood and breast milk, the concentration of lamotrigine in the particular environment was divided by the concentration in maternal serum...
September 25, 2018: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
Aribert Rothenberger, Veit Roessner
While Behavioral Therapy (BT) should be recommended as the first step in the treatment of OCD as well as TS, medication can be added for augmentation and in certain situations (e.g. family preference, BT not available or feasible) the priority may even reverse. This narrative review is given on the complexity of drug treatment in patients comorbid for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and Tourette syndrome (TS) and other tic problems. OCD with TS is a co-occuring combination of two generally delimitable, but in detail also overlapping disorders which wax and wane with time but have different courses and necessities and options of treatment...
August 27, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
A Yu Egorov
Today, there are no standards of therapy for non-chemical (behavioral) addictions. The article examines in detail modern psychological (classes in the 12 step program groups, various psychotherapeutic interventions) and pharmacological (antidepressants, opioid receptor antagonists, normotimics, glutamatergic agents, etc.) approaches to the treatment of pathological gambling. The possibilities of therapy of love and sexual addiction are analyzed. Separately, the problems of correction of the so-called socially acceptable addictions, as well as Internet addictions, are considered...
2018: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
John Q Young, Rehana Rasul, Patricia S O'Sullivan
OBJECTIVE: The Psychopharmacotherapy-Structured Clinical Observation (P-SCO) is a direct observation tool designed to assess resident performance of a medication visit. This study examines two dimensions of validity for the P-SCO: internal structure and how scores correlate with another variable associated with competence (experience). METHODS: The faculty completed 601 P-SCOs over 4 years. Multilevel exploratory factor analysis was performed with minimum thresholds for eigenvalue (≥ 1...
June 27, 2018: Academic Psychiatry
Darko Marčinko, Sanda Radanović Ćorić, Maja Šeparović Lisak, Duško Rudan, Vjeko Jeleč, Vedran Bilić
Optimal psychopharmacotherapy is based upon the results of many different factors. One of the main factors is therapeutic alliance. The role of psychodynamic is very important in the context of good therapeutic alliance. Lack of mentalizing capacity implies disturbed view of psychopharmacotherapy. Therapeutic relationship and optimal alliance offers the frame for acceptance of psychiatric drugs as positive and useful for psychological growth. Our literature search of a recent papers relating psychopharmacology and psychodynamic have revealed progress in psychoanalytic theory related to medication...
June 2018: Psychiatria Danubina
N N Ivanets, M A Kinkulkina, K M Tartynskiy, G L Krenkel
AIM: To develop therapeutic programs for treatment of depression with panic attacks on the basis of their clinical and psychopathological features. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 100 in- and outpatients, aged from 18 to 60 years, with depression of mild and moderate severity with panic attacks were studied. The investigation was carried out using clinical, psychopathological and psychometric (the Atypical Depression Diagnostic Scale (ADDS), the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scales (MADRS), and the Sheehan Anxiety Rating Scale (ShARS)) methods...
2018: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
Ahmed Naguy
One or more comorbidities occur in up to 80% of children with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder. Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder is also over-represented in several special populations. Pharmacotherapy can be challenging in these individuals with other conditions due to a suboptimal therapeutic response and an increased likelihood of adverse reactions. This article reviews the evidence supporting the psychopharmacologic management attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder when it occurs in individuals with common comorbidities...
May 2018: Pediatric Neurology
Hélène Font, Jean-Luc Roelandt, Hélène Behal, Pierre-Alexis Geoffroy, Baptiste Pignon, Ali Amad, Nicolas Simioni, Guillaume Vaiva, Pierre Thomas, Alain Duhamel, Imane Benradia, Benjamin Rolland
PURPOSE: No lifetime utilization of mental health treatment (NUMT) is an indicator of the treatment gap among people in need of treatment. Until now, the overall prevalence and predictors of NUMT have never been explored in France. METHODS: In a 39,617-respondent survey, participants were assessed for NUMT, i.e., no lifetime psychotherapy, psychopharmacotherapy, or psychiatric hospitalization. Mental disorders were investigated using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI 5...
June 2018: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
P Riedel, M N Smolka, M Bauer
More than half of the patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and a subgroup of patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder show impairment in neurocognitive and social cognitive performance. The degree of impairment varies from person to person. An improvement of cognitive impairment results in increased subjective quality of life and increased psychosocial functioning, to a much greater extent than successful treatment of other symptoms. Therefore, it is reasonable to not only recognize and bear decreased cognitive functioning in mind but also to offer specific treatment of impairments...
July 2018: Der Nervenarzt
Jasna Neumann, Olof Beck, Norbert Dahmen, Michael Böttcher
BACKGROUND: Oral fluid (OF) is being developed as a specimen for the determination of drug intake as an alternative to serum and plasma. It is generally considered as an attractive specimen due to the noninvasive nature of the sampling procedure and the relation to the free fraction of drug in the blood. These features are of particular value in drug treatment of psychiatric disorders. To establish OF for the purpose of monitoring drug therapy, the relationship between concentrations in OF and serum/plasma must be documented...
April 2018: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
Maximilian Gahr, Bernhard J Connemann, René Zeiss, Albrecht Fröhlich
OBJECTIVE: Psychopharmacotherapy is essential in the treatment of many mental disorders. Adverse drug reactions (ADR) have impact on compliance and tolerability. Sleep disorders or impaired sleep may occur as ADRs of psychopharmacotherapy. Sleep disorders are associated with an increased risk for physical and mental illness and may impair cognition, impulse control, emotion regulation and mood. Objective of the following study was the systematic presentation of type and risk of sleep disorders/impairments of sleep of frequently prescribed psychotropic drugs...
July 2018: Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie
Winfried Rief, Stefan G Hofmann
In virtually every field of medicine, non-inferiority trials and meta-analyses with non-inferiority conclusions are increasingly common. This non-inferiority approach has been frequently used by a group of authors favoring psychodynamic therapies (PDTs), concluding that PDTs are just as effective as cognitive-behavioral therapies (CBT). We focus on these examples to exemplify some problems associated with non-inferiority tests of psychological treatments, although the problems also apply to psychopharmacotherapy research, CBT research, and others...
June 2018: Psychological Medicine
John Q Young, David M Irby, Martin Kusz, Patricia S O'Sullivan
OBJECTIVE: The Psychopharmacotherapy-Structured Clinical Observation (P-SCO) tool is designed to assess performance of a medication management visit and to enhance feedback. Prior research indicated that the P-SCO was feasible to implement in a resident clinic and generated behaviorally specific, high-quality feedback. This research also highlighted problems with some of the instrument's items. This study seeks to improve the items. METHODS: The authors initially revised the P-SCO items based on the problems identified by a prior study...
January 29, 2018: Academic Psychiatry
Francisco Miguel Correia Sampaio, Odete Araújo, Carlos Sequeira, María Teresa Lluch Canut, Teresa Martins
AIM: To evaluate the short-term efficacy of a psychotherapeutic intervention in nursing on Portuguese adult psychiatric outpatients with the nursing diagnosis "anxiety." BACKGROUND: Several efficacious forms of treatment for anxiety are available, including different forms of psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy. However, literature tends to favour findings from studies on the efficacy of psychotherapies and therapies provided by nurses to the detriment of those arising from studies on the efficacy of nursing psychotherapeutic interventions (interventions which are classified, for instance, on Nursing Interventions Classification)...
May 2018: Journal of Advanced Nursing
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