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Assessment Evaluation

Nianyu Li, Susan A Ludmann, Lisa Anest, Ching He, Padma Kumar Narayanan
Macrophages are innate immune cells that play important roles in various physiological and pathological processes. Evaluation of pro-inflammatory effects of drugs on macrophages has become commonplace in preclinical drug development prior to human clinical trials. Despite their body-wide distribution, tissue macrophages are often difficult to collect from large animals and humans in a noninvasive manner. Therefore, in vitro-differentiated macrophages are important tools to facilitate cross-species analysis of macrophage function...
April 14, 2019: Current Protocols in Toxicology
Sook Wah Yee, Marilyn M Giacomini, Hong Shen, W Griffith Humphreys, Howard Horng, William Brian, Yurong Lai, Deanna L Kroetz, Kathleen M Giacomini
Understanding transporter-mediated drug-drug interactions is an integral part of risk assessment in drug development. Recent studies support the use of hexadecanedioate (HDA), tetradecanedioate (TDA), coproporphyrin (CP)-I, and CP-III as clinical biomarkers for evaluating organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP)1B1 (SLCO1B1) inhibition. The current study investigated the effect of OATP1B1 genotype c.521T>C (OATP1B1-Val174Ala) on the extent of interaction between cyclosporin A (CsA) and pravastatin, and associated endogenous biomarkers of the transporter (HDA, TDA, CP-I, and CP-III), in 20 healthy volunteers...
April 13, 2019: Clinical and Translational Science
Xiangfei Meng, Guichen Li, Yong Jia, Yufei Liu, Binghan Shang, Peng Liu, Xueying Bao, Li Chen
OBJECTIVE: To summarize and assess the effects of dance intervention on global cognition, executive function and memory in older adults. METHODS: We searched the databases PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, Clinical Trials.Gov and four Chinese databases (CNKI, CBM, Wan Fang Data and VIP) to identify articles written in English or Chinese and published until April 2018. Randomized controlled trials and quasi-experiment were included if they evaluated the impact of dance on cognition, and individuals aged 60 and over...
April 13, 2019: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research
Tanja Grandinetti, Luc Biedermann, Christian Bussmann, Alex Straumann, Petr Hruz
BACKGROUND: Eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EGE) is a rare, chronic inflammatory condition of the gastrointestinal tract. Little is known about its natural history and treatment outcomes. The aims of our analysis were to describe clinical presentation, response to current medical treatments, and to evaluate the response of refractory EGE to anti-integrin therapy. METHODS: Patients with confirmed diagnosis of EGE fulfilling the diagnostic criteria: (1) the presence of gastrointestinal symptoms, (2) dense eosinophilic infiltration of the gastrointestinal mucosa, and (3) exclusion of other conditions leading to gastrointestinal eosinophilia were included in this analysis...
April 13, 2019: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Daniel N Cagney, Nayan Lamba, Sofia Montoya, Puyao Li, Luke Besse, Allison M Martin, Rachel H Brigell, Paul J Catalano, Paul D Brown, Jose P Leone, Shyam K Tanguturi, Daphne A Haas-Kogan, Brian M Alexander, Nancy U Lin, Ayal A Aizer
PURPOSE: Brain metastases from breast cancer are frequently managed with brain-directed radiation but the impact of subtype on intracranial recurrence patterns after radiation has not been well-described. We investigated intracranial recurrence patterns of brain metastases from breast cancer after brain-directed radiation to facilitate subtype-specific management paradigms. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 349 patients with newly diagnosed brain metastases from breast cancer treated with brain-directed radiation at Brigham and Women's Hospital/Dana-Farber Cancer Institute between 2000 and 2015...
April 13, 2019: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
Feng Jiang, Bozhi Ren, Andrew Hursthouse, Renjian Deng, Zhenghua Wang
The exploitation of thallium (Tl) resources through mining poses a significant threat to ecological systems and human health due to its high toxicity and ready assimilation by human body. We report the first assessment of the pollution, spatial distribution, source, and ecological-health risks of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) in Tl mining area of southwest Guizhou, China. Spatial distribution maps for PTEs were visualized by ArcGIS to identify their distribution trends. We use the enrichment factor (EF), correlation analysis, and principal component analysis to identify likely sources of seven PTEs mining area...
April 13, 2019: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Chunyan Tang, Yiping Li, Kumud Acharya, Wei Du, Xiaomeng Gao, Liancong Luo, Zhongbo Yu
Intermittent turbulent bursts have great impacts on sediment resuspension in coastal regions, tidal estuaries, and lakes. In this study, the role of turbulence structure on sediment resuspension was examined at Meiliang Bay of Lake Taihu, the third largest freshwater lake in China. The instantaneous three-dimensional velocity and suspended sediment concentrations were synchronously recorded by Acoustic Doppler Velocimetry (ADV) and Optical Backscatter Sensor (OBS) placed close to the lakebed. Statistical and quadrant analyses results revealed that the coherent structure contributed significantly to sediment particle entrainment...
April 13, 2019: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Xiao-Long Guo, Gang Li, Shuang Yin, Ruo-Han Ma, Yu-Jiao Guo, Michael M Bornstein
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate the effect of fracture orientation on the detection accuracy of vertical root fractures (VRFs) in non-endodontically treated teeth using four different cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) units. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty eight out of 148 extracted human permanent teeth were chosen randomly, and VRFs were artificially induced to result in 20 mesiodistally and 18 buccolingually oriented root fractures. The fracture width was subsequently measured...
April 13, 2019: Clinical Oral Investigations
Poonkiat Suchonwanit, Salinee Rojhirunsakool, Saranya Khunkhet
Fractional 1550-nm erbium-glass (Er:Glass) laser therapy is effective in inducing hair regrowth. Combining fractional Er:Glass laser therapy with topical minoxidil may yield therapeutic benefits for patients with androgenetic alopecia (AGA). To compare the efficacy and safety of fractional Er:Glass laser used in combination with topical 5% minoxidil versus 5% minoxidil alone for the treatment of male AGA, 30 men with AGA were randomized to 24 weeks of split-scalp treatment using fractional Er:Glass laser and 5% minoxidil on one side (combined therapy) or 5% minoxidil alone on the other side (monotherapy)...
April 13, 2019: Lasers in Medical Science
Lisa G Shaffer, Anja Geretschlaeger, Christina J Ramirez, Blake C Ballif, Casey Carl
There is currently no oversight for canine clinical genetic testing laboratories. We published an initial set of standards and guidelines with the goal of providing a basis for which canine testing laboratories could evaluate their quality assurance programs. To further those standards and guidelines, we have developed a checklist that can be used as a self-evaluation to identify gaps in their programs for continual quality improvement over time. Because there is currently no organization willing to oversee an external proficiency program, the checklist provides the first step toward an internal, self-assessment that can be used periodically to monitor improvements...
April 13, 2019: Human Genetics
Mitsuru Koizumi, Kazuki Motegi, Takuro Umeda
OBJECTIVE: There is no good response evaluation method for skeletal metastasis. We aimed to develop a novel quantitative method to evaluate the response of skeletal metastasis, especially lytic lesions, for treatment. METHODS: A method to measure active bone metastatic burden quantitatively using F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography with computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) in breast cancer patients, whole skeletal total lesion glycolysis (WS-TLG), a summation of each skeletal lesion's TLG, was developed...
April 13, 2019: Annals of Nuclear Medicine
Sarah K Carter, Erica Fleishman, Ian I F Leinwand, Curtis H Flather, Natasha B Carr, Frank A Fogarty, Matthias Leu, Barry R Noon, Martha E Wohlfeil, David J A Wood
The concept of ecological integrity has been applied widely to management of aquatic systems, but still is considered by many to be too vague and difficult to quantify to be useful for managing terrestrial systems, particularly across broad areas. Extensive public lands in the western United States are managed for diverse uses such as timber harvest, livestock grazing, energy development, and wildlife conservation, some of which may degrade ecological integrity. We propose a method for assessing ecological integrity on multiple-use lands that identifies the components of integrity and levels in the ecological hierarchy where the assessment will focus, and considers existing policies and management objectives...
April 13, 2019: Environmental Management
Hamid Reza Baghani
The effects of scattered radiation on image quality in brain imaging with fan-beam collimator were quantitatively evaluated. A commercial gamma camera in conjunction with a fan-beam collimator was simulated using MCNPX code. The effects of radiation scattering on image quality were evaluated by employing the Snyder phantom and comparing the system response to an isotropic 99m Tc point source in both spatial and frequency domains. The trans-axial spatial resolution of the obtained point spread functions were studied in the spatial domain, at source-to-collimator distances of 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 cm...
April 13, 2019: Radiological Physics and Technology
Andreas Schatz, Carina Kelbsch, Christina Zeitz, Susanne Kohl, Eberhart Zrenner, Florian Gekeler, Helmut Wilhelm, Barbara Wilhelm, Gabriel Willmann
PURPOSE: To assess the pupil light response (PLR) to chromatic stimulation in patients with different types of X-linked congenital stationary night blindness (CSNB). METHODS: Eight patients with CSNB due to CACNA1F and NYX mutations were exposed to blue and red light stimuli, and PLR was evaluated using infrared video pupillography. Pupil responses were compared between CSNB patients and healthy subjects (n = 34) at baseline, at maximum of constriction, for post-illumination pupil responses (PIPR) and the slope of redilation using Cohen's d...
April 13, 2019: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
Stéphane Vignes, Pascal Fau-Prudhomot, Laura Simon, Marie-Laure Sanchez-Bréchot, Maria Arrault, Fabrice Locher
BACKGROUND: The professional impact of upper limb lymphedema, which affects 15-20% of women after breast cancer treatment, has been poorly evaluated. OBJECTIVE: To analyze lymphedema characteristics and global lymphedema- and/or sleeve-attributed impact (mildly inconvenient to severely debilitating) on professional activities, workplace relationships, and workstation ergonomics. METHODS: Patients received a standardized, anonymous, self-administered questionnaire at consultation/hospitalization for treatment in a specialized lymphedema management center...
April 13, 2019: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
Anja van der Hout, Koen I Neijenhuijs, Femke Jansen, Cornelia F van Uden-Kraan, Neil K Aaronson, Mogens Groenvold, Bernhard Holzner, Caroline B Terwee, Lonneke V van de Poll-Franse, Pim Cuijpers, Irma M Verdonck-de Leeuw
INTRODUCTION: The EORTC QLQ-CR29 is a patient-reported outcome measure to evaluate health-related quality of life among colorectal cancer patients in research and clinical practice. The aim of this systematic review was to investigate whether the initial positive results regarding the measurement properties of the QLQ-CR29 are confirmed in subsequent studies. METHODS: A systematic search of Embase, Medline, PsycINFO, and Web of Science was conducted to identify studies investigating the measurement properties of the QLQ-CR29 published up to January 2019...
April 13, 2019: Supportive Care in Cancer
Luísa Comerlato Jardim, Priscila Trindade Flores, Maria do Carmo Dos Santos Araújo, Juarez Chiesa, Cristina Machado Bragança de Moraes, Raquel Pippi Antoniazzi
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to evaluate oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) among breast cancer survivors and identify possible factors associated with the outcome. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 151 women in follow-up at a hospital after treatment for breast cancer. Data were collected on socio-demographic characteristics, general health, and breast cancer. Clinical examinations were performed to determine caries experience using the decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) index...
April 13, 2019: Supportive Care in Cancer
Filippo Natali, Alessandra Cancellieri, Carmine Tinelli, Annalisa De Silvestri, Vanina Livi, Marco Ferrari, Micaela Romagnoli, Daniela Paioli, Rocco Trisolini
BACKGROUND: The widespread use of rapid on-site evaluation is hampered by constraints related to time and resources, inadequate reimbursement, and evidence from randomized trials that show a lack of increase in diagnostic yield and specimen adequacy associated with its usage. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to verify whether a pulmonologist can assess endosonography-derived lymph node samples after a comprehensive and reproducible training provided by a specialist pathologist...
April 12, 2019: Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases
Ludmila Barbosa de Souza Balsimelli, Jamille Costa de Oliveira, Flora Ávila Adorno, Clarissa Almeida Brites, Giuliano Stefanello Bublitz, Lara Cristina de Carvalho Tavares, Karina Munhoz de Paula Alves Coelho, Jaqueline Stall, Paulo Henrique Condeixa de França
OBJECTIVE: Intraoperative examination is a highly valuable tool for the evaluation of central nervous system (CNS) lesions, helping the neurosurgeon to determine the best surgical management. This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy and to analyze the diagnostic disagreements and pitfalls of the intraoperative examinations through correlation with the final histopathological diagnosis in CNS lesions. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of intraoperative examination of CNS lesions and their final diagnosis obtained during 16 consecutive years...
April 12, 2019: Acta Cytologica
Scott Cuthbert, Charles Blum, Anthony Rosner
Background: This study examine whether there is an interrelationship between cranio-sacral dysfunctions and the muscle inhibitions found in the muscles attaching to the skull in patients with headaches. Primary Study Objective: To present a retrospective case series report assessing the prevalence of positive manual muscle tests (MMTs) in the assessment and management of adults with headache and cervico-cranial dysfunctions and to present patient outcomes pre- and posttreatment...
November 2018: Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine
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