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Muscular balance

Hua Zhao, Jie Jiang
Endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) is one of the major defense networks in mammals, but continuous ERS will lead to cell apoptosis, inducing initiation and progression of many human diseases. Biochemical, physiological and pathological stimuli induced ERS may help the cells adapt to and survive stress conditions by activating unfolded protein response (UPR), ER-overload response and sterol modulation cascade reaction. Abundant outcomes of clinical and experimental studies in recent 5 years showed that acupuncture and moxibustion therapies are effective in improving some symptoms of nervous system diseases as stroke, Parkinson's disease, convulsion, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, spinal cord injury, muscular injury, etc...
January 25, 2019: Zhen Ci Yan Jiu, Acupuncture Research
Nurdan Bilgin, M Kemal Özgören
This study aims to estimate the control law employed by the central nervous system (CNS) to keep a person in balance after a sudden disturbance. For this aim, several experiments were carried out, in which the subjects were perturbed sagittally by using a single-axis tilt-platform and their motions were recorded with appropriate sensors. The analysis of the experimental results leads to the contribution of this paper as a conjecture that the CNS commands the muscular actuators of the joints according to an adaptive proportional-derivative (PD) control law such that its gains and set points are updated continuously...
April 1, 2019: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
Christopher A Green, Charles J Sande, Elisa Scarselli, Stefania Capone, Alessandra Vitelli, Alfredo Nicosia, Laura Silva-Reyes, Amber J Thompson, Catherine M de Lara, Kathryn S Taylor, Kathryn Haworth, Claire L Hutchings, Tamsin Cargill, Brian Angus, Paul Klenerman, Andrew J Pollard
OBJECTIVES: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes respiratory infection across the world, with infants and the elderly at particular risk of developing severe disease and death. The replication-defective chimpanzee adenovirus (PanAd3-RSV) and modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA-RSV) vaccines were shown to be safe and immunogenic in young healthy adults. Here we report an extension to this first-in-man vaccine trial to include healthy older adults aged 60-75 years. METHODS: We evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of a single dose of MVA-RSV given by intra-muscular (IM) injection (n=6), two doses of IM PanAd3-RSV given 4-weeks apart (n=6), IM PanAd3-RSV prime and IM MVA-RSV boost 8-weeks later (n=6), intra-nasal (IN) spray of PanAd3-RSV prime and IM MVA-RSV boost 8-weeks later (n=6), or no vaccine (n=6)...
February 8, 2019: Journal of Infection
Mayumi Wagatsuma, Taehoon Kim, Paulo Sitagata, Eunbi Lee, Konstantinos Vrongistinos, Taeyou Jung
BACKGROUND: Impaired balance and weak muscle strength are common deficits associated with stroke. Limited research has examined the relationship between balance and strength in people post-stroke. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between balance and muscular strength in people post-stroke. METHODS: A total of 11 people with chronic stroke, who were community dwelling and ambulatory, completed balance and strength assessments. A computerized dynamic posturography system was used for Limits of Stability (LOS) test, Sit-to-Stand (STS) test, and the Modified Clinical Test of Sensory Interaction on Balance (mCTSIB)...
February 11, 2019: Topics in Stroke Rehabilitation
David H Hawkes, Omid A Khaiyat, Anthony J Howard, Graham J Kemp, Simon P Frostick
The shoulder relies heavily on coordinated muscle activity for normal function owing to its limited osseous constraint. However, previous studies have failed to examine the sophisticated interrelationship between all muscles. It is essential for these normal relationships to be defined as a basis for understanding pathology. Therefore, the primary aim of the study was to investigate shoulder inter-muscular coordination during different planes of shoulder elevation. Twenty healthy subjects were included. Electromyography was recorded from 14 shoulder girdle muscles as subjects performed shoulder flexion, scapula plane elevation, abduction and extension...
2019: PloS One
Andrew D Williams, Albert H Vette
Postural perturbations, motion tracking, and sensory feedback are modern techniques used to challenge, assess, and train upright sitting, respectively. The goal of the developed protocol is to construct and operate a sitting platform that can be passively destabilized while an inertial measurement unit quantifies its motion and vibrating elements deliver tactile feedback to the user. Interchangeable seat attachments alter the stability level of the device to safely challenge sitting balance. A built-in microcontroller allows fine-tuning of the feedback parameters to augment sensory function...
January 20, 2019: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Nurdan Bilgin, M Kemal Ozgoren
This study aims to estimate the control law employed by the CNS (Central Nervous System) to keep a person in balance after a sudden disturbance. For this aim, several experiments were carried out, in which the subjects were perturbed sagittally by using a single-axis tilt-platform and their motions were recorded with appropriate sensors. The analysis of the experimental results leads to the conjecture that the CNS commands the muscular actuators of the human joints according to a PD control law but it updates the control gains and the set points continuously...
February 4, 2019: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
Alyt Oppewal, Thessa I M Hilgenkamp
PURPOSE: Evaluating physical fitness in individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) is challenging, and a multitude of different versions of tests exist. However, psychometric properties of these tests are mostly unknown, and both researchers as clinical practitioners struggle with selecting appropriate tests for individuals with ID. We aim to present a selection of field tests with satisfactory feasibility, reliability, and validity, and of which reference data are available. METHODS: Tests were selected based on (1) literature review on psychometric properties, (2) expert meetings with physiotherapists and movement experts, (3) studies on population specific psychometric properties, and (3) availability of reference data...
February 2, 2019: Disability and Rehabilitation
Min-Seong Ha, Ji-Hyeon Kim, Soo-Min Ha, You-Sin Kim, Do-Yeon Kim
Health issues in elderly individuals are often complex and tend to lead to chronic diseases; such issues can be due to a decline in fitness resulting from lack of physical activity. Aqua exercise and burdock are positive effects on cardiovascular disease and vascular health. This study investigated the changes due to aqua exercise and burdock extract intake in senior fitness, prostaglandin I2 (PGI2 ), and thromboxane A2 (TXA2 ) in elderly women. Forty elderly women (65-80 years) volunteered for this study. After baseline measurements, participants were randomized into control ( n  = 8), aqua exercise ( n  = 11), aqua exercise and burdock extract intake combination ( n  = 11), and burdock extract intake groups ( n  = 10)...
January 2019: Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition
Dhargave Pradnya, Atchayaram Nalini, Raghuram Nagarathna, Trichur R Raju, Ragupathy Sendhilkumar, Adoor Meghana, Talakad N Sathyaprabha
Background: Duchene muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a progressive muscular disorder. Cardiac disorder is the second-most common cause of death in children with DMD, with 10%-20% of them dying of cardiac failure. Heart rate variability (HRV) is shown to be a predictor of cardio-autonomic function. Physiotherapy (PT) is advised for these children as a regular treatment for maintaining their functional status. The effect of yogic practices on the cardio-autonomic functions has been demonstrated in various neurological conditions and may prove beneficial in DMD...
January 2019: International Journal of Yoga
Mesfin Yimam, Shawn M Talbott, Julie A Talbott, Lidia Brownell, Qi Jia
PURPOSE: Sudden and exhaustive exercise causes muscle damage accompanied by oxidative stress and inflammation, leading to muscle fatigue and soreness. AmLexin contains a standardized blend of extracts from the heartwood of Acacia catechu and the root bark of Morus alba, and is known to possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of this proprietary blend supplementation on muscular pain and redox balance in healthy runners, in comparison to a placebo...
December 31, 2018: Journal of Exercise Nutrition & Biochemistry
Rubens A da Silva, Edgar R Vieira, Guillaume Léonard, Louis-David Beaulieu, Suzy Ngomo, Alexandre H Nowotny, César F Amorim
BACKGROUND: Postural control declines with age and can be affected by low back pain. Poor balance has been reported in people with chronic low back pain (CLBP), which in turn could be explained by the changes in trunk muscle activation. RESEARCH QUESTION: Are there differences between younger and older adults with and without chronic low back pain (CLBP) on trunk muscle activity during one-legged stance task? METHODS: Twenty (20) with, and 20 subjects without nonspecific CLBP participated in the study...
January 11, 2019: Gait & Posture
Francesco Muntoni, Bina Tejura, Stefan Spinty, Helen Roper, Imelda Hughes, Gary Layton, Kay E Davies, Shawn Harriman, Jonathon Tinsley
Ezutromid (SMT C1100) is a small-molecule utrophin modulator that was developed to treat Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Previous clinical trials of this agent revealed lower exposure in DMD patients compared with healthy volunteers, which may reflect differences in diet. This study evaluated the pharmacokinetics of ezutromid in patients with DMD who followed a balanced diet. This was a multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, ascending single and multiple oral dose study. Twelve pediatric patients were randomly allocated to 1 of 3 treatment sequences within which were 3 treatment periods of 2 weeks each...
January 16, 2019: Clinical Pharmacology in Drug Development
Ly Tu, Agnes Castan, Christine Mallet, Laurent Guyon, Amélie Cumont, Carole Phan, Florian Robert, Raphaël Thuillet, Jennifer Bordenave, Ayumi Sekine, Alice Huertas, Olli Ritvos, Laurent Savale, Jean-Jacques Feige, Marc Humbert, Sabine Bailly, Christophe Guignabert
RATIONALE: Although many familial cases of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) exhibit an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance with the majority having mutations in essential constituents of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling, the specific contribution of the long-term loss of signal transduction triggered by the type 2 BMP receptor (BMPR2) remains poorly characterized. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of BMP9, the main ligand of ALK1/BMPR2 heterocomplexes, in pulmonary hypertension (PH)...
January 14, 2019: Circulation Research
Daniel Boari Coelho, Corina Aparecida Fernandes, Alessandra Rezende Martinelli, Luis Augusto Teixeira
OBJECTIVE: Fast and scaled muscular activation is required to recover body balance following an external perturbation. An issue open to investigation is the extent to which the cerebral hemisphere lesioned by stroke leads to asymmetric deficits in postural reactive responses. In this experiment, we aimed to compare muscular responses to unanticipated stance perturbations between individuals who suffered unilateral stroke either to the right or to the left cerebral hemisphere. METHODS: Stance perturbations were produced by releasing a load attached to the participant's trunk, inducing fast forward body oscillation...
January 8, 2019: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
Chia-Yen Wu, David A Gagnon, Juliette S Sardin, Urva Barot, Alex Telenson, Paulo E Arratia, Robert G Kalb
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a neuromuscular disease characterized by degeneration of spinal motor neurons resulting in variable degrees of muscular wasting and weakness. It is caused by a loss-of-function mutation in the survival motor neuron ( SMN1 ) gene. Caenorhabditis elegans mutants lacking SMN recapitulate several aspects of the disease including impaired movement and shorted life span. We examined whether genes previously implicated in life span extension conferred benefits to C. elegans lacking SMN...
November 2018: ENeuro
Faruk Incecik, Gamze Avcıoğlu, Özcan Erel, Salim Neşelioğlu, Ozlem M Hergüner
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a disorder that alter the expression of the dystrophin protein. Dystrophin deficiency alters the structural integrity of the contractile apparatus/sarcolemmal integrity, leading to dystrophic changes. Dystrophin deficiency results in an increase in oxidative stress. We aimed to investigate the thiol/disulfide balance as an oxidative stress marker in children with DMD. We included 24 DMD, and 22 healthy control group subjects in the study. The total thiol, native thiol, and disulphide levels were measured and the disulphide/native thiol, disulphide/total thiol and native thiol/total thiol ratios were calculated in DMD patients and healthy subjects...
January 3, 2019: Acta Neurologica Belgica
Timothy T T Yam, Peggy P L Or, Ada W W Ma, Shirley S M Fong, Man Sang Wong
BACKGROUND: Children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) have leg muscular deficits which negatively affects their dynamic postural stability. Kinesio tape (KT) could enhance muscle activation, postural control and functional activities in healthy individuals. Therefore, we hypothesized that the usage of KT may address the postural instability problem of children with DCD. RESEARCH QUESTION: To investigate the immediate effect of KT on dynamic postural stability and the associated lower limb muscle activity in children with DCD...
December 18, 2018: Gait & Posture
Davy Vancampfort, Hannelore Vandael, Mats Hallgren, Michel Probst, Noemi Hagemann, Filip Bouckaert, Tine Van Damme
Low physical fitness and physical inactivity have been recognized as prominent behavioral risk factors for cardiovascular diseases and an independent risk factor for all-cause mortality. To date, no studies have ystematically assessed physical fitness and physical activity in patients with alcohol use disorders (AUD) vs. a healthy comparison group. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess and compare the physical fitness and physical activity levels in patients with AUD against healthy controls. Thirty inpatients with AUD (22 males, 40...
August 8, 2018: Alcohol
Pei Jia Loh, Colin Levey
Data sourcesMedline, Scopus and Cochrane Library databases supplemented by searches in the journals; American Journal of Dentistry, Clinical Oral Investigation, International Journal of Prosthodontics, Journal of Dental Research, Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, Journal of Prosthodontics, Journal of Prosthodontic Research, Journal of Advanced Prosthodontics and Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry.Study selectionRandomised controlled trials (RCTs) or prospective studies comparing bilateral balanced occlusion (BBO) with other schemes, eg lingual occlusion (LO) canine guidance (CG) and neutral-centric or zero-degree (ZD)...
December 2018: Evidence-based Dentistry
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