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L Wang, M M Ren, Y L Jian, B X Meng, F L Ma, W J Wang, S Y Guo
Objective: To investigate the effects of the repair and restitution of ear-shaped cartilage by adipose tissue-derived stem cells(ADSC) and cartilage acellular extracellular matrix. Methods: ADSC were extracted by digesting with collagenase type II from the adipose tissue from 32 patients with adiposity whose fats were drawn, and were cultured and subcultured in vitro. The natural biological scaffolds were prepared by acellular method using porcine ear cartilage, and then the second generation ADSC(5.0×10(7)/ml) were inoculated on the preformed natural bio-scaffold scaffold by culturing in vitro for 3 days to form a cell scaffold complex...
February 7, 2019: Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery
Josué M Silla, Laize A F Andrade, Matheus P Freitas
The Perlin effect and its analog for fluorinated compounds (the fluorine Perlin-like effect) manifest on one-bond C-H (C-F for the fluorine Perlin-like effect) spin-spin coupling constants (SSCC´s) in six-membered rings. These effects can be useful to probe the stereochemistry (axial or equatorial) of the C-H and C-F bonds, respectively. The origin of these effects has been debatable in the literature as being due to hyperconjugative interactions, dipolar effects and induced current density. Accordingly, a variety of model compounds has been used to probe such effects, since the cyclohexanone carbonyl group and the endocyclic heteroatom lone pairs play different roles on the above-mentioned effects...
February 18, 2019: Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry: MRC
Jane Macnaughton, Keziah Latham, Marta Vianya-Estopa
PURPOSE: To evaluate outcome measures of the Participation and Activity Inventory (PAI) in a sample of adults with acquired visual impairment entering vision rehabilitation. Both Priority Scores, indicating level of rehabilitative need, and Person Measures, indicating goal difficulty, were considered. METHODS: Participants were newly registered adults with visual impairment within Leicestershire, United Kingdom. The importance and difficulty of 48 goals of the PAI were assessed, as were demographic factors, clinical visual function (visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, reading function) and psychosocial function (adjustment to visual loss, depression, anxiety and fear of falling)...
March 2019: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
Kannan Sridharan, Gowri Sivaramakrishnan
BACKGROUND: Vasoactives such as terlipressin, somatostatin, vasopressin, octreotide and nitrates are commonly used to treat variceal bleeding. The present study is a network meta-analysis comparing the efficacy and safety of the above vasoactive agents for treating variceal bleeding. METHODS: Electronic databases were searched for appropriate randomized clinical trials evaluating vasoactives in cirrhotic patients with variceal bleeding. Random-effects model was used to generate the pooled estimates...
February 18, 2019: Drug Research
Adam J Nelson, Christopher B Granger
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 19, 2019: Annals of Internal Medicine
Jiapeng Lu, Yuan Lu, Hao Yang, Wuhan Bilige, Yetong Li, Wade Schulz, Frederick A Masoudi, Harlan M Krumholz
Background: As cardiovascular risk increases in China, interest in strategies to mitigate it is growing. However, national information about the prevalence and treatment of high cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk is limited. Objective: To assess the prevalence and treatment of high CVD risk as well as variations in risk across population subgroups. Design: National project of CVD screening and management. Setting: 141 county-level regions in all 31 provinces of China...
February 19, 2019: Annals of Internal Medicine
Lisa A Prosser, Rafael Harpaz, Angela M Rose, Acham Gebremariam, Angela Guo, Ismael R Ortega-Sanchez, Fangjun Zhou, Kathleen Dooling
Background: The U.S. Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recently developed recommendations for use of a new recombinant zoster vaccine (RZV). Objective: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of vaccination with RZV compared with zoster vaccine live (ZVL) and no vaccination, the cost-effectiveness of vaccination with RZV for persons who have previously received ZVL, and the cost-effectiveness of preferential vaccination with RZV over ZVL. Design: Simulation (state-transition) model using U...
February 19, 2019: Annals of Internal Medicine
Qian Wang, Soumyaroop Bhattacharya, Jared A Mereness, Christopher Anderson, Jacquelyn A Lillis, Ravi S Misra, Stephen Romas, Heidie Huyck, Amanda Howell, Gautam Bandyopadhyay, Kathy Donlon, Jason R Myers, John Ashton, Gloria S Pryhuber, Thomas J Mariani
BACKGROUND: Current in vitro human lung epithelial cell models derived from adult tissues may not accurately represent all attributes that define homeostatic and disease mechanisms relevant to the pediatric lung. METHODS: We report methods for growing and differentiating primary Pediatric Human Lung Epithelial (PHLE) cells from organ donor infant lung tissues. We use immunohistochemistry, flow cytometry, quantitative RT-PCR, and single cell RNA sequencing (scRNAseq) analysis to characterize the cellular and transcriptional heterogeneity of PHLE cells...
February 18, 2019: Pediatric Research
Matt Brubaker, Kristen Genter, Alexana Roshko, Paul Blanchard, Bryan Spann, Todd Harvey, Kris Bertness
Ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (UV LEDs) fabricated from N-polar AlGaN/GaN core-shell nanowires with p-i-n structure produced electroluminescence at 365 nm with ~5x higher intensities than similar GaN homojunction LEDs. The improved characteristics were attributed to localization of spontaneous recombination to the nanowire core, reduction of carrier overflow losses through the nanowire shell, and elimination of current shunting. Poisson-drift-diffusion modeling indicated that a shell Al mole fraction of x=0...
February 18, 2019: Nanotechnology
Geraldine Chee, Dylan O'Connell, Youming Yang, Kamal Singhrao, Daniel A Low, John H Lewis
4D cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images of the thorax and abdomen can have reduced quality due to the limited number of projections per respiratory bin used in gated image reconstruction. In this work, we present a new algorithm to reconstruct high quality CBCT images by simultaneously reconstructing images and generating an associated respiratory motion model. This is done by updating model parameters to compensate for motion during the iterative image reconstruction process. CBCT image acquisition was simulated using the digital eXternal CArdiac Torso (XCAT) phantom, simulating breathing motion using four patient breathing traces...
February 18, 2019: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Andreas Bertsatos, Maria-Eleni Chovalopoulou
The diaphyseal cross-sectional geometric properties of the humerus, femur and tibia have been extensively used for studying their adaptation to mechanical loading. To date common practices for such studies involve either computed tomography or the latex cast method in conjunction with image analysis for calculating such properties. With the advent of modern laser scanning and photogrammetry technologies in biological anthropology, the computation of the cross-sectional geometric properties directly from 3D models is a viable and sensible alternative...
February 5, 2019: Forensic Science International
Efthymia Nikita, Panos Nikitas
Age-at-death estimation in a skeletal assemblage (target sample) is biased by the demographic profile of the material used for age prediction (training sample) when this profile is different from that of the target sample. This bias is minimized if the demographic profile of the target sample is properly taken into account in the method developed for age-at-death estimation. In the Bayesian approach this is accomplished via the informative prior. For methods based on regression, we propose two techniques: (a) using weighting factors taken from the demographic profile of the target sample, and (b) creating a new hypothetical training sample that has a demographic profile similar to that of the target sample...
February 5, 2019: Forensic Science International
Therese Graversen, Julia Mortera, Giampietro Lago
Here, we illustrate how statistical methods can help extract information from mixed DNA profiles pertaining to an Italian case, referred to by the media as The murder of Yara Gambirasio. We base the analysis on a model for DNA mixtures that takes fully into account the peak heights and possible artefacts, like stutter and dropout that might occur in the DNA amplification process. We show how to combine the evidence from multiple samples and from different marker systems all within the model framework. The combined evidence is used for deconvolution, where the focus is to find likely profiles for the donors to the sample...
January 5, 2019: Forensic Science International. Genetics
Yandong Wang, Jiping Liang, Jun Yang, Xingxia Ma, Xiaoqing Li, Jing Wu, Gaihe Yang, Guangxin Ren, Yongzhong Feng
Agricultural non-point source (NPS) pollution in water source protection areas poses serious challenges for governments in developing countries. It is important to consider the environmental behavior of farmers when exploring the causes of NPS pollution as well as when establishing scientific controls and management measures. However, the poor understanding of factors influencing the environmental behavior of farmers and the lack of a suitable environmental socio-psychological model limit the application of the environmental behavior of farmers in NPS pollution management...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Environmental Management
Alen Marijam, Jan Olbrecht, Alev Ozakay, Volkan Eken, Kinga Meszaros
BACKGROUND: The 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) is used for universal infant vaccination in Turkey. OBJECTIVES: To assess the cost effectiveness of replacing PCV13 with pneumococcal nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV). METHODS: A Markov cohort model with monthly cycles following 1 cohort of infants over a 10-year time horizon was used. Local input parameters were obtained from published sources and expert consultation whenever possible...
February 15, 2019: Value in Health Regional Issues
Michael S McLachlan, Sebastian Felizeter, Michael Klein, Matthias Kotthoff, Pim De Voogt
Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are environmental contaminants of concern in both food and drinking water. PFAA fate in agricultural soil is an important determinant of PFAA contamination of groundwater and crops. The fate of C4-C14 perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs) and two perfluorinated sulfonic acids (PFSAs) in an agricultural soil was studied in a field lysimeter experiment. Soil was spiked with PFAAs at four different levels and crops were planted. PFAA concentrations in soil were measured at the beginning and end of the growing season...
February 5, 2019: Chemosphere
Camila Batista de Melo, Francine Côa, Oswaldo Luiz Alves, Diego Stéfani T Martinez, Edison Barbieri
Graphene oxide (GO) has been evaluated for application in environmental remediation and pollution control strategies. However, the side effects caused by the interactions of GO with classical pollutants in aquatic environments are still largely unknown. In this work, the ecotoxicological effects of GO, cadmium, zinc and the interactions between GO and these trace elements (co-exposure) were evaluated through acute toxicity tests and routine metabolism (i.e., oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion) in Palaemon pandaliformis (shrimp)...
February 12, 2019: Chemosphere
Alex Stevens
BACKGROUND: Policy makers worldwide face the choice of whether to reform cannabis policy from the 'full prohibition' model. A paper by Shi et al. (2015) suggested that such 'liberalization' is significantly associated with higher odds of adolescent cannabis use. AIM: To test the validity and reliability of Shi et al's conclusion that the HBSC data show an association between policy 'liberalization' and increased likelihood of adolescent cannabis use. METHODS: Replication and re-analysis of the same pooled data from three waves of the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) survey (2001/2, 2005/6 and 2009/10)...
February 15, 2019: International Journal on Drug Policy
Gennady B Sushko, Ilia A Solov'yov, Andrey V Solov'yov
This paper introduces MesoBioNano (MBN) Studio - a graphical user interface for a popular multiscale simulation package MBN Explorer. MBN Studio has been developed to facilitate setting up and starting MBN Explorer calculations, monitoring their progress and examining the calculation results. It is tailored for any calculations that are supported by MBN Explorer, such as for example the single-point energy calculations, structure optimization, molecular dynamics, and kinetic Monte Carlo simulations. Apart from that MBN Studio has built-in tools allowing the calculation and analysis of specific characteristics that are determined by the output of the simulations, such as the diffusion coefficients of molecular species, melting temperatures and associated heat capacities, radial distribution function; a dedicated modeling plug-in allows constructing molecular systems in a quick and efficient manner...
February 7, 2019: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
Shengzhi Sun, Kate R Weinberger, Keith R Spangler, Melissa N Eliot, Joseph M Braun, Gregory A Wellenius
BACKGROUND: Days of extreme temperature may be associated with transiently higher risk of preterm birth, but prior studies have been limited and results have been heterogeneous. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the association between days of extreme heat and cold and risk of preterm birth among ~32 million live singleton births between 1989 and 2002 across 403 counties in the contiguous United States (US). METHODS: We used a distributed lag nonlinear model to estimate the association between population-weighted daily mean temperature and risk of preterm birth in each county and then pooled results across geographic regions and climate zones...
February 15, 2019: Environment International
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