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Oncology cancer tumor

David M Kingsley, Cassandra L Roberge, Alena Rudkouskaya, Denzel E Faulkner, Margarida Barroso, Xavier Intes, David T Corr
3D multicellular aggregates, and more advanced organotypic systems, have become central tools in recent years to study a wide variety of complex biological processes. Most notably, these model systems have become mainstream within oncology (multicellular tumor spheroids) and regenerative medicine (embryoid bodies) research. However, the biological behavior of these in vitro tissue surrogates is extremely sensitive to their aggregate size and geometry. Indeed, both of these geometrical parameters are key in producing pathophysiological gradients responsible for cellular and structural heterogeneity, replicating in vivo observations...
February 15, 2019: Acta Biomaterialia
Enhui Zhang, Ronge Xing, Song Liu, Pengcheng Li
Docetaxel (DTX) is one of the most important chemotherapeutic agents and has been widely used for treatment of various types of cancers. However, the clinical chemotherapy of DTX gives many undesirable side effects due to the usage of organic solvent in the injection and its low selectivity for tumor cells. With the evolution of pharmaceutical technologies, great efforts have been paid to develop new DTX formulations to overcome these problems. Areas covered: This review provided an overview on the preparation and activities of new DTX formulations, which were classified by administration methods, including injection, oral, transdermal and rectal administration...
February 16, 2019: Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery
Xiangqi Meng, Chunbin Duan, Hengyuan Pang, Qun Chen, Bo Han, Caijun Zha, Magafurov Dinislam, Pengfei Wu, Ziwei Li, Shihong Zhao, Ruijia Wang, Lin Lin, Chuanlu Jiang, Jinquan Cai
BACKGROUND: DNA damage repair (DDR) alterations are important events in cancer initiation, progression, and therapeutic resistance. However, the involvement of DDR alterations in glioma malignancy needs further investigation. This study aims to characterize the clinical and molecular features of gliomas with DDR alterations and elucidate the biological process of DDR alterations that regulate the cross talk between gliomas and the tumor microenvironment. METHODS: Integrated transcriptomic and genomic analyses were undertaken to conduct a comprehensive investigation of the role of DDR alterations in glioma...
February 14, 2019: EBioMedicine
Yan Shi, Xianhui Xu, Yongliang Zhao, Feng Qian, Bo Tang, Yingxue Hao, Huaxing Luo, Jun Chen, Peiwu Yu
BACKGROUND: Laparoscopy-assisted gastrectomy is a feasible and safe procedure for treating advanced gastric cancer in terms of short-term outcomes. However, concern about long-term oncologic outcomes has limited the adoption of laparoscopy-assisted gastrectomy for advanced gastric cancer. METHODS: We launched a prospective randomized controlled trial comparing laparoscopic and open gastrectomy with D2 lymph node dissection for locally advanced gastric cancer to evaluate long-term oncologic feasibility...
February 13, 2019: Surgery
Angelena Crown, Ruby Laskin, Flavio G Rocha, Janie Grumley
INTRODUCTION: Presence of multiple lesions and/or tumor span ≥5 cm are traditional indications for mastectomy. Patient desire for breast conservation has increased the interest in extreme oncoplastic breast conserving surgery (EOBCS) to avoid mastectomy; however, perioperative outcomes in this population have not been well described. METHODS: This is an observational cohort of breast cancer patients with multiple lesions and disease span ≥5 cm who underwent EOBCS...
January 24, 2019: American Journal of Surgery
Ping Zhu, Xianglin L Du, Jay-Jiguang Zhu, Yoshua Esquenazi
OBJECTIVEThe present study was designed to explore the association between facility type (academic center [AC] vs non-AC), facility volume (high-volume facility [HVF] vs low-volume facility [LVF]), and outcomes of glioblastoma (GBM) treatment.METHODSBased on the National Cancer Database (NCDB), GBM patients were categorized by treatment facility type (non-AC vs AC) and volume [4 categories (G1-G4): < 5.0, 5.0-14.9, 15.0-24.9, and ≥ 25.0, cases/year]. HVF was defined based on the 90th percentile of annual GBM cases (≥ 15...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Neurosurgery
Arrvind Raghunath, Kunal Desai, Manmeet S Ahluwalia
In the past, the standard of care for treatment of BM was whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT), stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), and surgery. There has been a greater role for medical therapies in the last two decades due to the discovery of driver mutations and corresponding targeted therapies. These innovations have dramatically altered the approach to treating these patients. Some of the important mutations include epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) mutations in small cell lung cancer, human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER2) mutation in breast cancer, and BRAF mutation in melanoma...
February 15, 2019: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
David Ball, G Tao Mai, Shalini Vinod, Scott Babington, Jeremy Ruben, Tomas Kron, Brent Chesson, Alan Herschtal, Marijana Vanevski, Angela Rezo, Christine Elder, Marketa Skala, Andrew Wirth, Greg Wheeler, Adeline Lim, Mark Shaw, Penelope Schofield, Louis Irving, Benjamin Solomon
BACKGROUND: Stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy (SABR) is widely used to treat inoperable stage 1 non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), despite the absence of prospective evidence that this type of treatment improves local control or prolongs overall survival compared with standard radiotherapy. We aimed to compare the two treatment techniques. METHODS: We did this multicentre, phase 3, randomised, controlled trial in 11 hospitals in Australia and three hospitals in New Zealand...
February 12, 2019: Lancet Oncology
S Alves, D R N Sonego, K A Fudimura, M L Hallack, L A Azzalis, V B C Junqueira, K C Rocha, R L A Fonseca, F W S Figueiredo, F L A Fonseca
Cancer is a disease that affects cell metabolism causing an imbalance in the health of the patient. On the other hand, malnutrition, presented by oncological patients, is caused by both the disease and its treatment. Some serum biochemical parameters cannot be determined by the traditional method of laboratory blood analysis (spectrophotometry). Among the various techniques that could be used for blood biochemical analysis, we opted for the Z-Scan technique, due to its sensitivity to the reading of blood components...
February 12, 2019: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
Yada Kanjanapan, Daphne Day, Lisa Wang, Hamad Al-Sawaihey, Engy Abbas, Amirali Namini, Lillian L Siu, Aaron Hansen, Albiruni Abdul Razak, Anna Spreafico, Natasha Leighl, Anthony M Joshua, Marcus O Butler, David Hogg, Mary Anne Chappell, Ludmilla Soultani, Kayla Chow, Samantha Boujos, Philippe L Bedard
BACKGROUND: A subset of patients treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors experience an accelerated tumor growth rate (TGR) in comparison with pretreatment kinetics; this is known as hyperprogression. This study assessed the relation between hyperprogressive disease (HPD) and treatment-related toxicity and clinical factors. METHODS: This study reviewed patients with solid tumors who were enrolled in early-phase immunotherapy trials at Princess Margaret Cancer Centre between August 2012 and September 2016 and had computed tomography scans in the pre-immunotherapy (reference) and on-immunotherapy (experimental) periods...
February 15, 2019: Cancer
Hisataka Kobayashi
Near infrared photoimmunotherapy(NIR-PIT)is a new molecularly-targeted cancer photo-therapy based on conjugating a near infrared silica-phthalocyanine dye, IRDye700DX(IR700), to a monoclonal antibody(mAb)targeting cell-surface molecules. NIR-PIT targetingEGFR usingthe cetuximab-IR700 conjugate is now in transition to fast-track global Phase Ⅲ clinical trial in late-stage head and neck squamous cell cancer patients. When exposed to NIR light, the conjugate induces a highlyselective necrotic/immunogenic cell death(ICD)only in target-positive, mAb-IR700-bound cancer cells...
January 2019: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
Hayato Konno, Yasuhisa Ohde
This review article describes limited resection for lung cancer based on previous reports and a retrospective examination of the operative results at our hospital.The importance of limited resection as a surgical treatment is becoming much greater than before. In minimally invasive surgery for lung cancer, ① limited resection for pulmonary functional preservation, ② limited resection of lymph node dissection, and ③ minimally invasive thoracic approach may be considered. Radical segmentectomy was limited to the cases registered in the clinical trials [the Japan Clinical Oncology Group (JCOG) study 0802/1211]to verify the validity of limited surgery...
January 2019: Kyobu Geka. the Japanese Journal of Thoracic Surgery
Gloria Salvo, Pedro T Ramirez, Mario Leitao, David Cibula, Christina Fotopoulou, Ali Kucukmetin, Gabriel Rendon, Myriam Perrotta, Reitan Ribeiro, Marcelo Vieira, Glauco Baiocchi, Henrik Falconer, Jan Persson, Xiaohua Wu, Mihai Emil Căpilna, Nicolae Ioanid, Berit Jul Mosgaard, Igor Berlev, Dilyara Kaidarova, Alexander Babatunde Olawaiye, Kaijiang Liu, Silvana Pedra Nobre, Roman Kocian, Srdjan Saso, Stuart Rundle, Florencia Noll, Audrey Tieko Tsunoda, Kolbrun Palsdottir, Xiaoqi Li, Elena Ulrikh, Zhijun Hu, Rene Pareja
BACKGROUND: Radical trachelectomy is considered a viable option for fertility preservation in patients with low-risk, early-stage cervical cancer. Standard approaches include laparotomy or minimally invasive surgery when performing radical trachelectomy. PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: To compare disease-free survival between patients with FIGO (2009) stage IA2 or IB1 (≤2cm) cervical cancer who underwent open versus minimally invasive (laparoscopic or robotic) radical trachelectomy...
February 13, 2019: International Journal of Gynecological Cancer
Tao Li, Hang Xu, Lu Yang, Ping Tan, Qiang Wei
BACKGROUND: To determine the predictive value of preoperative lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR) for pathological and survival outcomes in upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) after radical nephroureterectomy (RNU). METHODS: This retrospective study included 704 UTUC patients between 2008 and 2017. We used a cutoff LMR of 3.6 to evaluate its relationship with oncological outcomes after RNU, using the Kaplan-Meier method and logistic regression models. RESULTS: During median follow-up of 39 months, decreased preoperative LMR was an independent predictor of poor pathological outcomes...
February 11, 2019: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
Silvia Cantara, Eugenio Bertelli, Rossella Occhini, Marì Regoli, Lucia Brilli, Furio Pacini, Maria Grazia Castagna, Paolo Toti
PURPOSE: Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is a rare, highly aggressive form of thyroid cancer (TC) characterized by an aggressive behavior and poor prognosis, resulting in patients' death within a year. Standard treatments, such as chemo and radiotherapy, as well as tyrosine kinase inhibitors, are ineffective for ATC treatment. Cancer immunotherapy is one of the most promising research area in oncology. The PD-1/PD-L1 axis is of particular interest, in light of promising data showing a restoration of host immunity against tumors, with the prospect of long-lasting remissions...
February 14, 2019: Endocrine
Gabriele Bellio, Marina Troian, Arianna Pasquali, Nicolò De Manzini
BACKGROUND: Laparoscopy for locally advanced colorectal cancer is not standardized yet and its potential risks and benefits in elderly patients are still under debate. The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical and oncologic results of laparoscopic surgery for pT3/pT4 lesions in both old and young people. METHODS: Between 2006 and 2015, 115 patients aged <70 years and 112 patients aged ≥70 years underwent elective laparoscopic surgery for pT3/pT4 colorectal cancer presenting without distant metastasis at the Department of General Surgery, Trieste...
February 13, 2019: Minerva Chirurgica
Sharanya Mohan, Nadine Beydoun, Elias Nasser, Andrew Nguyen, Jesmin Shafiq, Shalini Vinod
OBJECTIVES: To describe patterns of follow-up care for non-small cell lung cancer patients treated with curative radiotherapy and to evaluate the role of routine imaging. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed follow-up care of patients with stage I-III non-small cell lung cancer treated with curative radiotherapy (minimum dose of 50 Gy) between 2007 and 2011 at three Sydney institutions. Patient demographics, tumor characteristics and treatment factors were collected from oncology and hospital records...
February 13, 2019: Asia-Pacific Journal of Clinical Oncology
Thomas J Jackson, Richard D Williams, Jesper Brok, Tanzina Chowdhury, Milind Ronghe, Mark Powis, Kathy Pritchard-Jones, Gordan M Vujanić
INTRODUCTION: The International Society of Paediatric Oncology (SIOP) protocols recommend preoperative chemotherapy appropriate for Wilms tumors (WTs) in children with renal tumors aged ≥6 months, reserving biopsy for "atypical" cases. The Children's Cancer and Leukaemia Group (CCLG) joined the SIOP-WT-2001 study but continued the national practice of biopsy at presentation. METHOD: Retrospective study of concordance between locally reported renal tumor biopsies and central pathology review nephrectomy diagnoses of children enrolled by CCLG centers in the SIOP-WT-2001 study...
February 13, 2019: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
Alex Avendano, Marcos Cortes-Medina, Jonathan W Song
The physical remodeling associated with cancer progression results in barriers to mass transport in the tumor interstitial space. This hindrance ultimately affects the distribution of macromolecules that govern cell fate and potency of cancer therapies. Therefore, knowing how specific extracellular matrix (ECM) and cellular components regulate transport in the tumor interstitium could lead to matrix normalizing strategies that improve patient outcome. Studies over the past decades have provided quantitative insights into interstitial transport in tumors by characterizing two governing parameters: (1) molecular diffusivity and (2) hydraulic conductivity...
2019: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Ahmet M Aydin, Nirmish Singla, Vandana Panwar, Solomon L Woldu, Yuval Freifeld, Christopher G Wood, Jose A Karam, Alon Z Weizer, Jay D Raman, Mesut Remzi, Nathalie Rioux-Leclercq, Andrea Haitel, Marco Roscigno, Christian Bolenz, Karim Bensalah, Mary E Westerman, Arthur I Sagalowsky, Shahrokh F Shariat, Yair Lotan, Aditya Bagrodia, Payal Kapur, Vitaly Margulis, Laura-Maria Krabbe
PURPOSE: To evaluate the prognostic value of BRCA1-associated protein-1 (BAP1) expression in upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC), as BAP1 mutations have been associated with prognostic implications in urologic and non-urologic malignancies. METHODS: We reviewed a multi-institutional cohort of patients who underwent radical nephroureterectomy (RNU) for high-grade UTUC from 1990-2008. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) for BAP1 was performed on tissue microarrays. Staining intensity was graded from 0-3, with BAP1 loss defined as an average intensity of < 1...
February 13, 2019: World Journal of Urology
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