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Public health emergency

Kriszta Farkas, Ellicott C Matthay, Kara E Rudolph, Dana E Goin, Jennifer Ahern
Police use of force is an important public health issue in the US. Recent high-profile incidents suggest a potential link between mental disorders and police use of force, however little research has examined their co-occurrence in the general population. We aimed to assess the overall association between specific mental and substance use disorders (MSUDs) and nonfatal legal intervention injury. We identified nonfatal legal intervention injury cases (n = 90,099) and MSUD diagnoses from all hospital and emergency department (ED) records in California between 2005 and 2014...
February 10, 2019: Preventive Medicine
Eu Chang Hwang, Jae Hung Jung, Michael Borofsky, Myung Ha Kim, Philipp Dahm
BACKGROUND: New, minimally invasive surgeries have emerged as alternatives to transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) for the management of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in men with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Aquablation is a novel, minimally invasive, water-based therapy, combining image guidance and robotics for the removal of prostatic tissue. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of Aquablation for the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms in men with benign prostatic hyperplasia...
February 13, 2019: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Fred Pampel, Myriam Khlat, Damien Bricard, Stéphane Legleye
Introduction: Immigrants in the United States are less likely to smoke than those born in the U.S, but studies have not fully described the diversity of their smoking patterns. We investigate smoking by world region of birth and duration of residence in the United States, with a comprehensive approach covering current prevalence levels, education gradients, and male-to-female ratios. Methods: The data originate from the National Health Interview Surveys, 2000-2015, and the sample of 365,404 includes both U...
February 13, 2019: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Angeliki Kerasidou, Patricia Kingori
In 2010, the UK embarked on a self-imposed programme of contractionary measures signalling the beginning of a so-called "age of austerity" for the country. It was argued that budgetary cuts were the most appropriate means of eliminating deficits and decreasing national debt as percentage of General Domestic Product (GDP). Although the budget for the National Health Service (NHS) was not reduced, a below-the-average increase in funding, and cuts in other areas of public spending, particularly in social care and welfare spending, impacted significantly on the NHS...
2019: PloS One
Xinyi Lu, Runtong Zhang, Wen Wu, Xiaopu Shang, Lily Sun, Xiaomin Zhu
BACKGROUND: Through mass media, some patients tend to seek mature treatment-related health information whereas some prefer information related to emerging treatments, which may influence patient compliance, specifically, following the medical diagnoses and treatment regimens. Given that traditional mass media (TMM) and the internet (INT) may promote the publication of different treatment-related information, this study aims to identify the difference between TMM and the INT in influencing patient compliance with mature treatments (PCMTs)...
February 13, 2019: Telemedicine Journal and E-health: the Official Journal of the American Telemedicine Association
Dinelia Rivera-Burgos, Michael C Babin, Jillian M Staugler, Thomas Vinci, Mark R Perry
Cyanides are highly toxic compounds that have been used as weapons of terrorism throughout history. Cyanide (CN) is acutely toxic by all routes of administration; however, inhalation is the main exposure route. To adequately test effective countermeasures against inhalational CN threats, robust and well-characterized animal models are needed. This paper describes the initial development of a hydrogen cyanide (HCN) exposure swine model for documenting the physiological effects and toxicological profile during and after HCN inhalation exposure...
February 13, 2019: Inhalation Toxicology
Benjamin Shickel, Tyler J Loftus, Lasith Adhikari, Tezcan Ozrazgat-Baslanti, Azra Bihorac, Parisa Rashidi
Traditional methods for assessing illness severity and predicting in-hospital mortality among critically ill patients require time-consuming, error-prone calculations using static variable thresholds. These methods do not capitalize on the emerging availability of streaming electronic health record data or capture time-sensitive individual physiological patterns, a critical task in the intensive care unit. We propose a novel acuity score framework (DeepSOFA) that leverages temporal measurements and interpretable deep learning models to assess illness severity at any point during an ICU stay...
February 12, 2019: Scientific Reports
M K Khan, M N Islam, J Ferdous, M M Alam
Tuberculosis (TB) is a progressive granulomatous infectious disease caused by the gram positive, acid fast bacilli classified under the genus Mycobacterium. Tuberculosis in human is mostly by Mycobacterium tuberculosis and primarily affects lungs causing pulmonary tuberculosis. It can also affect intestine, meninges, bones, joints, lymph nodes, skin and other tissues of the body causing extra-pulmonary tuberculosis. Human TB is transmitted mainly through droplet infection and droplet nuclei. Infection of human with M...
January 2019: Mymensingh Medical Journal: MMJ
Pantelis Sarafidis, Charles J Ferro, Enrique Morales, Alberto Ortiz, Jolanta Malyszko, Radovan Hojs, Khaled Khazim, Robert Ekart, Jose Valdivielso, Denis Fouque, Gérard M London, Ziad Massy, Petro Ruggenenti, Esteban Porrini, Andrej Wiecek, Carmine Zoccali, Francesca Mallamaci, Mads Hornum
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) is a major problem of public health. Currently, many of these patients experience progression of cardiovascular and renal disease, even when receiving optimal treatment. In previous years, several new drug classes for the treatment of type 2 DM have emerged, including inhibitors of renal sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT-2) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists. Apart from reducing glycaemia, these classes were reported to have other beneficial effects for the cardiovascular and renal systems, such as weight loss and blood pressure reduction...
February 1, 2019: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
Samuel J Moysés, Renata C Soares
The idea that the Holocene is over and a new human-dominated geological epoch, the Anthropocene, is in progress has been widely discussed. The article aims to outline the published definitions and current patterns on the Anthropocene, highlighting an agenda of emerging risks, challenges and possibilities for the health of the world's population in this new era. We performed a review on the complexities of planetary health in the Anthropocene, which generated 42 initial references for full-text reading; we selected 25 of them and carried out analysis and interpretation...
February 11, 2019: Health Promotion International
Ly M T Luong, Peter D Sly, Phong K Thai, Dung Phung
Several systematic reviews have been conducted so far to examine the effect of air pollution on respiratory diseases, but there has not been a corresponding meta-analysis to estimate the effect sizes for wheeze-associated diseases/disorders, which is one of the leading causes of emergency department visits and hospitalizations for children worldwide. The aim of this review is to systematically evaluate the relationship between air pollution and risk of wheeze-associated disorders in children in Southeast Asia...
February 12, 2019: Reviews on Environmental Health
Dennis M Perrotta, Jennifer Lemmings, Jean-Marie Maillard
CONTEXT: In late 2014, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention requested the support of the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists to enhance epidemiologic capacity in the West African countries impacted or threatened by an outbreak of Ebola virus disease. In response, the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists recruited 36 senior epidemiologists who, collectively, made 45 deployments to West Africa, averaging 42 days each. OBJECTIVE: To assess the self-reported experiences and contributions of the deployed epidemiologists, as well as the role of nonprofit public health organizations in large-scale emergency response...
February 7, 2019: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
K B Fuks, B Woodby, G Valacchi
Tropospheric (ground level) ozone (O3 ) is a secondary pollutant, emerging from other pollutants in the sunshine. Exposure to O3 correlates with higher pulmonary and cardiovascular mortality and affects reproductive health and the central nervous system acutely and chronically. Skin might be a potentially overlooked target organ of ambient O3 . The experimental evidence suggests a positive correlation of O3 exposure with oxidative damage, impaired antioxidant defence and proinflammatory response in the skin...
February 12, 2019: Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift Für Dermatologie, Venerologie, und Verwandte Gebiete
Ahmed Ben Abdelaziz, Asma Ben Abdelaziz, Chokri Zoghlami, Mohamed Khelil, Tarek Barhoumi, Sami Ben Abdelfattah, Kamel Ben Salem
CONTEXT: Following the Tunisian revolution of 2010/2011, a new Public Health literature emerged, by the ministerial departments as well as the civil society, which was marked by the transparency and the comprehensiveness of the approach. OBJECTIVE: To identify the key ideas of the new Tunisian Public Health discourse, reconciling the principles of a globalizing paradigm with the health problems of a country in transition. METHODS: During this qualitative research, a selected series of three Tunisian reports of Public Health, published in the first quinquennium of the revolution, was read by an independent team of experts in Public Health, not having contributed to their elaboration, to identify the consensual foundations of the new Public Health discourse...
October 2018: La Tunisie Médicale
Mansour Njah, Mohamed Mahjoub, Mohamed-Lamine Atif, Radhouane Belouali
The epidemiology of Maternal Mortality (MM) associated with practical field specificities led, inter alia, to adopt consensus approaches developed by international community in order to control the situation (MM in 2015 of  303000 with 830 daily deaths by perinatal complications). Application degree of these approaches, while based on scientific evidence, remains country-dependent, with emerging problems within large geographical entities. This is the case of the Maghreb countries* that are facing concrete realities requiring better state commitment, allocation of resources and time, and improved accessibility to the continuum of care...
October 2018: La Tunisie Médicale
T Nacef, M A Baccar, B Zouari
The fight against tuberculosis remains a priority for world leaders: a re-emerging disease in developed countries, endemic elsewhere, it was declared in 1993, as a "world emergency" by the World Health Organization (WHO). The aim of programs is to prevent infection from spreading and perpetuating; the recommended strategies were the subject of common consent by expert committees convened by international agencies, primarily the WHO. As a result, programs of the Maghreb countries have great similarities...
October 2018: La Tunisie Médicale
Adrian B R Shatte, Delyse M Hutchinson, Samantha J Teague
BACKGROUND: This paper aims to synthesise the literature on machine learning (ML) and big data applications for mental health, highlighting current research and applications in practice. METHODS: We employed a scoping review methodology to rapidly map the field of ML in mental health. Eight health and information technology research databases were searched for papers covering this domain. Articles were assessed by two reviewers, and data were extracted on the article's mental health application, ML technique, data type, and study results...
February 12, 2019: Psychological Medicine
Waleed M Sweileh
BACKGROUND: Worldwide, natural disasters have caused a large number of deaths and considerable morbidity. Nevertheless, limited information is available on how the health-related literature on natural disasters has evolved. The current study aims to assess the growth and pattern of health-related literature on natural disasters. METHOD: A bibliometric method was implemented using Scopus database for the period from 1900 to 2017. Keywords used in the search strategy were obtained from the classifications of natural disasters presented by the Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters...
February 11, 2019: Health Research Policy and Systems
Ellen Childs, Sabrina A Assoumou, Katie B Biello, Dea L Biancarelli, Mari-Lynn Drainoni, Alberto Edeza, Peter Salhaney, Matthew J Mimiaga, Angela R Bazzi
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is increasingly prevalent among people who inject drugs (PWID) in the context of the current US opioid crisis. Although curative therapy is available and recommended as a public health strategy, few PWID have been treated. We explore PWID narratives that explain why they have not sought HCV treatment or decided against starting it. We then compare these narratives to evidence-based and guideline-concordant information to better enable health, social service, harm reduction providers, PWID, and other stakeholders to dispel misconceptions and improve HCV treatment uptake in this vulnerable population...
February 11, 2019: Harm Reduction Journal
Zhe Zheng, Yi Lu, Kirsty R Short, Jiahai Lu
BACKGROUND: With an increased incidence of viral zoonoses, there is an impetus to strengthen collaborations between public health, agricultural and environmental departments. This interdisciplinary cooperation, also known as the 'One Health' approach, has received significant support from various stakeholders. However, current efforts and policies still fall short of those needed for an effective One Health approach towards disease control and prevention. The avian-origin H7N9 influenza A virus outbreak in China serves as an ideal case study to emphasise this point...
February 11, 2019: BMC Infectious Diseases
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