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Anita Hartung, Oliwia Makarewicz, Renate Egerer, Matthias Karrasch, Anne Klink, Andreas Sauerbrei, Karim Kentouche, Mathias W Pletz
The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) produces different microRNAs (miRNA) with distinct regulatory functions within the infectious cycle. These viral miRNAs regulate the expression of viral and host genes and have been discussed as potential diagnostic markers or even therapeutic targets, provided that the expression profile can be unambiguously correlated to a specific stage of infection or a specific EBV-induced disorder. In this context, miRNA profiling becomes more important since the roles of these miRNAs in the pathogenesis of infections and malignancies are not fully understood...
2019: PloS One
Nicholas C Woodward, Amanda L Crow, Yang Zhang, Sam Epstein, Jaana Hartiala, Richard Johnson, Heidi Kocalis, Arian Saffari, Ishwarya Sankaranarayanan, Omid Akbari, Gajalakshmi Ramanathan, Jesus A Araujo, Caleb E Finch, Sebastien G Bouret, Constantinos Sioutas, Todd E Morgan, Hooman Allayee
Emerging evidence from epidemiological and animal studies suggests that exposure to traffic-related air pollutants and particulate matter less than 2.5 µm in diameter (PM2.5 ) contributes to development of obesity and related metabolic abnormalities. However, it is not known whether nanoscale particulate matter (nPM) with aerodynamic diameter ≤200 nm have similar adverse metabolic effects. The goal of the present study was to determine the effects of prenatal and early life exposure to nPM on metabolic homeostasis in mice...
February 12, 2019: Scientific Reports
Lauriane Galle-Treger, Ishwarya Sankaranarayanan, Benjamin P Hurrell, Emily Howard, Richard Lo, Hadi Maazi, Gavin Lewis, Homayon Banie, Alan L Epstein, Peisheng Hu, Virender K Rehan, Frank D Gilliland, Hooman Allayee, Pejman Soroosh, Arlene H Sharpe, Omid Akbari
Metabolic syndrome is characterized by disturbances in glucose homeostasis and the development of low-grade systemic inflammation, which increase the risk to develop type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Type-2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) are a recently discovered immune population secreting Th2 cytokines. While previous studies show how ILC2s can play a critical role in the regulation of metabolic homeostasis in the adipose tissue, a therapeutic target capable of modulating ILC2 activation has yet to be identified...
February 12, 2019: Nature Communications
Dejan Jakimovski, Murali Ramanathan, Bianca Weinstock-Guttman, Niels Bergsland, Deepa P Ramasamay, Ellen Carl, Michael G Dwyer, Robert Zivadinov
BACKGROUND: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection has been associated with higher clinical activity and risk of multiple sclerosis (MS). OBJECTIVE: To evaluate associations between EBV-specific humoral response and magnetization transfer ratio (MTR)-derived measure in MS patients and healthy controls (HCs). METHODS: The study included 101 MS patients (69 relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) and 32 secondary-progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS)) and 41 HCs who underwent clinical, serological, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) investigations...
February 13, 2019: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
Mengmeng Zhao, Asuka Nanbo, Lichun Sun, Zhen Lin
Extracellular vesicles (EVs), including exosomes and microvesicles, are evolutionarily conserved phospholidpid membrane-bound entities secreted from most eukaryotic cell types. They carry bioactive cargos such as protein and nucleic acids derived from their cells of origin. Over the past 10 years, they have been attracting increased attention in many fields of life science, representing a new route for intercellular communication. In this review article, we will discuss the current knowledge of both normal and virally modified EVs in the regulation of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)'s life cycle and its associated pathogenesis...
February 11, 2019: Microorganisms
Andreia Costa, Anusca Paixão, Henrique Santos, Fernando Salvador
Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis is a rare, aggressive and life-threatening syndrome, characterized by an excessive immune activation. It is triggered by multiple stimuli, with infections having an important role. The most common infectious trigger is viral infection, particularly by Epstein-Barr virus. Coagulation disorders are common in hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis and disseminated intravascular coagulation can be present in severe cases. We report a clinical case of Epstein-Barr virus-associated hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, complicated with disseminated intravascular coagulation which evolved favorably with only supportive therapy and without specific treatment...
February 1, 2019: Acta Médica Portuguesa
Jia-Hui Deng, Han-Yu Chen, Chun Huang, Jia-Min Yan, Zhinan Yin, Xiao-Lian Zhang, Qin Pan
Macrophages are the primary host target cells of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb). As a subunit of immunoregulatory cytokines IL-27 and IL-35, Epstein-Barr virus-induced gene 3 (EBI3) has typically been explored as the secreted form and assessed in terms of its effects triggered by extracellular EBI3. However, little is known about intracellular EBI3 function. In the current study, we report that EBI3 production by macrophages is elevated in TB patients. We further demonstrate that increased EBI3 accumulates in virulent M...
February 11, 2019: Pathogens and Disease
Raffaele Nardone, Francesco Brigo, Markus Covi, Luca Carnicelli, Francesca Caleri, Hannes Tischler, Larissa Hauer, Johann Sellner
Hypertrophic pachymeningitis is a rare inflammatory condition characterized by the thickening of the dura mater. We describe a patient who presented with intractable headache and complex cranial nerve palsy. Hypertrophy of the frontal dura was accompanied by pleocytosis and detection of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) by PCR in cerebrospinal fluid. Clinical symptoms gradually improved after acyclovir and corticosteroid treatment, whereas dural pathology remained unchanged on neuroimaging. This case points at an expansion of the spectrum of neurological manifestations for EBV...
February 11, 2019: Journal of Neurovirology
Huan Zhou, Shun Tan, Hong Li, Xiangtao Lin
AT‑rich interaction domain 1A (ARID1A) and phosphatidylinositol‑4,5‑bisphosphate 3‑kinase catalytic subunit α (PIK3CA) serve important roles in the formation and development of numerous malignancies including gastric cancer. Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that Epstein‑Barr virus (EBV) is a pathogenic virus associated with gastric cancer. The present study aimed to investigate the association between EBV infection, and the expression levels of ARID1A and PIK3CA in gastric cancer. EBER in situ hybridization was performed to detect EBV infection...
January 22, 2019: Molecular Medicine Reports
Hiroki Tanabe, Katsuyoshi Ando, Daisuke Sutoh, Katsuhisa Ohta, Hironori Ohdaira, Yutaka Suzuki, Mikihiro Fujiya, Toshikatsu Okumura
Endoscopic ultrasound-guided sampling is indicated to achieve an accurate diagnosis of subepithelial lesions of the stomach when a standard biopsy fails. Gastric carcinoma with lymphoid stroma (GCLS) is located under the epithelial layer with dense lymphocytic infiltration, making a pathological diagnosis by a biopsy difficult. We herein report a case of the pathological diagnosis of GCLS using an endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle biopsy. The patient underwent distal gastrectomy and was diagnosed with Epstein-Barr virus-negative cancer...
February 12, 2019: Journal of Clinical Ultrasound: JCU
Kyoungmi Min, Suk Kyeong Lee
In Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-infected epithelial cancers, Bam HI A rightward transcript (BART) miRNAs are highly expressed. However, only a few target genes of BART miRNAs have been investigated. Our mRNA microarray data showed that DKK1 was markedly down-regulated in EBV-associated gastric carcinoma (EBVaGC) cells. Using luciferase reporter assay we tested whether miR-BART10-3p regulates DKK1 by directly targeting the 3'-UTR of DKK1 mRNA. We observed that miR-BART10-3p transfection decreased DKK1 expression, while an LNA inhibitor of miR-BART10-3p (LNA-miR-BART10-3p(i)) increased DKK1 expression...
2019: International Journal of Biological Sciences
Ronald M Epstein, Michael R Privitera
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 7, 2019: Lancet Psychiatry
Xiaofeng Zhou, David N O'Dwyer, Meng Xia, Holly K Miller, Paul R Chan, Kelsey Trulik, Mathew M Chadwick, Timothy C Hoffman, Camille Bulte, Kevin Sekerak, Carol A Wilke, Swapneel J Patel, Wayne M Yokoyama, Susan Murray, Gregory A Yanik, Bethany B Moore
RATIONALE: "Non-infectious" pulmonary complications are significant causes of morbidity and mortality post allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant. Early onset viral reactivations or infections are common after transplant. Whether the first onset viral infection causes "non-infectious" pulmonary complications is unknown. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether the first onset viral infection within 100 days post-transplant predisposes to development of "non-infectious" pulmonary complications...
February 11, 2019: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
I V Kosova, O B Loran, L A Sinyakova, L V Gundorova, V A Kosov, I E Pogodina, D N Kolbasov
INTRODUCTION: Serological diagnosis of virus-associated tumors attracts the attention of many specialists. The changes in the level of antiviral antibodies in tumors of different localizations are proved. In some cases, the authors suggest using these data either for screening of tumors or for controlling the cure. AIM: to evaluate the predictive value of antiviral antibodies for the recurrence of bladder cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: a level of antiviral antibodies (IgG, M) against Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), herpes simplex virus (HSV) 1 and 2 types, cytomegalovirus (CMV) of 100 patients with bladder cancer (72 men and 28 women) aged from 38 to 90 years (mean age 65+/-10) was studied...
December 2018: Urologii︠a︡
Annika Wyss, Tina Raselli, Nathan Perkins, Florian Ruiz, Gérard Schmelczer, Glynis Klinke, Anja Moncsek, René Roth, Marianne R Spalinger, Larissa Hering, Kirstin Atrott, Silvia Lang, Isabelle Frey-Wagner, Joachim C Mertens, Michael Scharl, Andreas W Sailer, Oliver Pabst, Martin Hersberger, Caroline Pot, Gerhard Rogler, Benjamin Misselwitz
The gene encoding for Epstein-Barr virus-induced G-protein-coupled receptor 2 (EBI2) is a risk gene for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Together with its oxysterol ligand 7α,25-dihydroxycholesterol, EBI2 mediates migration and differentiation of immune cells. However, the role of EBI2 in the colonic immune system remains insufficiently studied. We found increased mRNA expression of EBI2 and oxysterol-synthesizing enzymes (CH25H, CYP7B1) in the inflamed colon of patients with ulcerative colitis and mice with acute or chronic dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) colitis...
February 11, 2019: Mucosal Immunology
D M Epstein, M S Gohel, F Heatley, X Liu, A Bradbury, R Bulbulia, N Cullum, I Nyamekye, K R Poskitt, S Renton, J Warwick, A H Davies
BACKGROUND: Treatment of superficial venous reflux in addition to compression therapy accelerates venous leg ulcer healing and reduces ulcer recurrence. The aim of this study was to evaluate the costs and cost-effectiveness of early versus delayed endovenous treatment of patients with venous leg ulcers. METHODS: This was a within-trial cost-utility analysis with a 1-year time horizon using data from the EVRA (Early Venous Reflux Ablation) trial. The study compared early versus deferred endovenous ablation for superficial venous truncal reflux in patients with a venous leg ulcer...
February 11, 2019: British Journal of Surgery
Koen Van Besien, Lizamarie Bachier-Rodriguez, Michael Satlin, Maxwell A Brown, Usama Gergis, Danielle Guarneri, Jingmei Hsu, Adrienne A Phillips, Sebastian A Mayer, Amrita D Singh, Rosemary Soave, Adriana Rossi, Catherine B Small, Thomas J Walsh, Hanna Rennert, Tsiporah B Shore
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) reactivation and post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD) are common and potentially fatal complications after allogeneic transplantation with mismatched donors and T-cell depletion. Haplo-cord transplantation combines a mismatched UCB graft with third-party cells. Conditioning involves thymoglobulin. EBV reactivation and PTLD were common in initial patients. As of March 2017, we administered a prophylactic dose of rituximab 375 mg/m2 pre-transplant. Among 147 patients who did not receive rituximab, the cumulative incidence of post-transplant EBV reactivation and of EBV PTLD was 13% and 8%, respectively...
February 10, 2019: Leukemia & Lymphoma
G Cristel, A Esposito, A Briganti, A Damascelli, G Brembilla, M Freschi, A Ambrosi, F Montorsi, A Del Maschio, F De Cobelli
AIM: To assess whether there is a significant difference in perfusion parameters between benign and malignant prostatic lesions, focusing on semi-quantitative analysis of dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and presence of late gadolinium enhancement (LGE). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Three hundred and thirteen patients who underwent multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) of the prostate and with available corresponding histology (prostatectomy or biopsy) were selected retrospectively for this study...
February 7, 2019: Clinical Radiology
R L Goetgebuer, C J van der Woude, L de Ridder, M Doukas, A C de Vries
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a proposed trigger in the etiopathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and is associated with lymphoproliferative diseases. Nevertheless, testing for EBV DNA in the intestinal mucosa and screening for EBV infection before initiation of a drug therapy are not routinely performed. The aim of this article is to increase awareness of the relevance of EBV infection in specific clinical situations. METHODS: In this short communication, we describe the disease course of three IBD patients with EBV infection, varying from EBV reactivation during disease flare up to a trigger of EBV-related mucocutaneous ulcer (EBV-MCU) and haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH)...
February 9, 2019: International Journal of Colorectal Disease
Wouter Froyman, Chiara Landolfo, Bavo De Cock, Laure Wynants, Povilas Sladkevicius, Antonia Carla Testa, Caroline Van Holsbeke, Ekaterini Domali, Robert Fruscio, Elisabeth Epstein, Maria José Dos Santos Bernardo, Dorella Franchi, Marek Jerzy Kudla, Valentina Chiappa, Juan Luis Alcazar, Francesco Paolo Giuseppe Leone, Francesca Buonomo, Lauri Hochberg, Maria Elisabetta Coccia, Stefano Guerriero, Nandita Deo, Ligita Jokubkiene, Jeroen Kaijser, An Coosemans, Ignace Vergote, Jan Yvan Verbakel, Tom Bourne, Ben Van Calster, Lil Valentin, Dirk Timmerman
BACKGROUND: Ovarian tumours are usually surgically removed because of the presumed risk of complications. Few large prospective studies on long-term follow-up of adnexal masses exist. We aimed to estimate the cumulative incidence of cyst complications and malignancy during the first 2 years of follow-up after adnexal masses have been classified as benign by use of ultrasonography. METHODS: In the international, prospective, cohort International Ovarian Tumor Analysis Phase 5 (IOTA5) study, patients aged 18 years or older with at least one adnexal mass who had been selected for surgery or conservative management after ultrasound assessment were recruited consecutively from 36 cancer and non-cancer centres in 14 countries...
February 5, 2019: Lancet Oncology
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