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Ibtissem Ben Fekih, Annette Bruun Jensen, Sonia Boukhris-Bouhachem, Gabor Pozsgai, Salah Rezgui, Christopher Rensing, Jørgen Eilenberg
Pandora neoaphidis and Entomophthora planchoniana (phylum Entomophthoromycota) are important fungal pathogens on cereal aphids, Sitobion avenae and Rhopalosiphum padi . Here, we evaluated and compared for the first time the virulence of these two fungi, both produced in S. avenae cadavers, against the two aphid species subjected to the same exposure. Two laboratory bioassays were carried out using a method imitating entomophthoralean transmission in the field. Healthy colonies of the two aphid species were exposed to the same conidial shower of P...
February 13, 2019: Insects
Daniel B Stouffer
In Focus: Curtsdotter, A., Banks, H. T., Banks, J. E., Jonsson, M., Jonsson, T., Laubmeier, A. N., … Bommarco, R. (2019). Ecosystem function in predator-prey food webs-Confronting dynamic models with empirical data. Journal of Animal Ecology, 88, Species' population dynamics are influenced by a variety of abiotic and biotic factors. Curtsdotter et al. (2019) used a food web model to investigate the role of predator-prey interactions in the population dynamics of the bird cherry-oat aphid Rhopalosiphum padi...
February 2019: Journal of Animal Ecology
Shuzheng Song, Yingyan Yu
The citrullination modification (Cit) of proteins has received increasing attention in recent years. This kind of protein modification was first discovered in autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis. The citrullination modification process is catalyzed by the peptidyl arginine deiminases (PADIs) family. A well-known citrullination of histone involves the key mechanism of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) of inflammation in the peripheral blood. Further studies revealed that citrullination modification of proteins also involves in carcinogenesis in human being...
2019: Frontiers in Oncology
Inger Åhman, Therése Bengtsson
Long-term pre-breeding using Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum as a donor of bird cherry-oat aphid resistance has resulted in agronomically improved resistance sources of barley along with easy-to-use molecular markers. Bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi L.) is a pest and a virus vector in barley to which there are no bred-resistant cultivars. The present study describes how resistance from Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum has been introgressed in cultivated barley via five successive crosses with the same cultivar Lina (BC) and in parallel with other more modern barley cultivars...
February 2, 2019: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
Julien Rabatel, Elena Arsevska, Mathieu Roche
Monitoring animal health worldwide, especially the early detection of outbreaks of emerging pathogens, is one of the means of preventing the introduction of infectious diseases in countries (Collier et al., 2008) [3]. In this context, we developed PADI-web, a Platform for Automated extraction of animal Disease Information from the Web (Arsevska et al., 2016, 2018). PADI-web is a text-mining tool that automatically detects, categorizes and extracts disease outbreak information from Web news articles. PADI-web currently monitors the Web for five emerging animal infectious diseases, i...
February 2019: Data in Brief
Talima Pearson, J Gregory Caporaso, Monica Yellowhair, Nicholas A Bokulich, Megha Padi, Denise J Roe, Betsy C Wertheim, Mark Linhart, Jessica A Martinez, Cherae Bilagody, Heidie Hornstra, David S Alberts, Peter Lance, Patricia A Thompson
It has been previously reported that ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), a therapeutic bile acid, reduced risk for advanced colorectal adenoma in men but not women. Interactions between the gut microbiome and fecal bile acid composition as a factor in colorectal cancer neoplasia have been postulated but evidence is limited to small cohorts and animal studies. Using banked stool samples collected as part of a phase III randomized clinical trial of UDCA for the prevention of colorectal adenomatous polyps, we compared change in the microbiome composition after a 3-year intervention in a subset of participants randomized to oral UDCA at 8-10 mg/kg of body weight per day (n = 198) or placebo (n = 203)...
January 16, 2019: Cancer Medicine
Joakim Pålsson, Gunda Thöming, Rodrigo Silva, Mario Porcel, Teun Dekker, Marco Tasin
Upon herbivory, plants release herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs), which induce chemical defenses in the plant as well as recruit natural enemies. However, whether synthetic HIPVs can be employed to enhance biological control in a cultivated crop in the field is yet to be explored. Here we show that a biodegradable formulation loaded with induced and food-signaling volatiles can selectively recruit the common green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea , and reduce pest population under field conditions. In apple orchards, the new formulation attracted lacewing adults over a 4-week period, which correlated well with independent assessments of the longevity of the slow-release matrix measured through chemical analyses...
January 5, 2019: Insects
Francis Couturaud, Gilles Pernod, Emilie Presles, Elisabeth Duhamel, Patrick Jego, Karine Provost, Brigitte Pan-Petesch, Claire Bal Dit Sollier, Cécile Tromeur, Clément Hoffman, Luc Bressollette, Philippe Lorillon, Philippe Girard, Emmanuelle Le Moigne, Aurélia Le Hir, Marie Guégan, Silvy Laporte, Patrick Mismetti, Karine Lacut, Jean-Luc Bosson, Laurent Bertoletti, Olivier Sanchez, Guy Meyer, Christophe Leroyer, Dominique Mottier
(273 words) The optimal duration of anticoagulation after a first episode of unprovoked deep-vein thrombosis is uncertain. We aimed to assess the benefits and risks of an additional 18-month treatment with warfarin versus placebo, after initial 6-month anticoagulation for a first unprovoked proximal deep-vein thrombosis. We conducted a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, controlled trial comparing an additional 18 months of warfarin with placebo in patients with a unprovoked proximal deep-vein thrombosis initially treated for six months (treatment period: 18 months; follow-up after treatment period: 24 months)...
January 3, 2019: Haematologica
Qian Li, Jia Fan, Jingxuan Sun, Man-Qun Wang, Julian Chen
Hamiltonella defensa is mainly vertically transmitted, but evidence suggests that horizontal transmission may occur. Here, the first case of plant-mediated horizontal transmission of H. defensa between wheat aphids, Sitobion miscanthi, is reported. H. defensa was harbored in sheath cells, secondary bacteriocytes and hemolymph. After Hamiltonella-infected aphids fed on wheat leaves, H. defensa was observed in aphid stylets and plant phloem. H. defensa persisted in wheat leaves for at least 10 days. Most Hamiltonella-uninfected aphids became infected with H...
December 5, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Jun-Yu Cao, Kun Xing, Hui-Ping Liu, Fei Zhao
Most ectotherms are able to increase their tolerance to heat stress via the acclimation response. However, there is ongoing debate about whether the acclimation response is associated with fitness costs, and what factors can affect the consequences of acclimation are still unclear. To elucidate this, we sought to determine whether fitness costs varied with acclimation conditions in two cereal aphids, Sitobion avenae and Rhopalosiphum padi. Thus, the basal and inducible thermal tolerances (maximum critical temperature [CTmax ]) and fitness traits (proportion of adult emergence, adult longevity, fecundity, and population parameters) of adult aphids were measured under three conditions of developmental acclimation: 1) 22 °C constant temperature (no acclimation), 2) 22 °C + 34 °C for 2 h per day (low daytime temperature), and 3) 22 °C + 38 °C for 2 h per day (high daytime temperature)...
December 2018: Journal of Thermal Biology
Reut Shavit, Zhaniya S Batyrshina, Nitsan Dotan, Vered Tzin
Aphids are major pests in cereal crops that cause direct and indirect damage leading to yield reduction. Despite the fact that wheat provides 20% of the world's caloric and protein diet, its metabolic responses to aphid attack, in general, and specifically its production of benzoxazinoid defense compounds are poorly understood. The objective of this study was to compare the metabolic diversity of durum wheat seedlings (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum) under attack by three different cereal aphids: i) the English grain aphid (Sitobion avenae Fabricius), ii) the bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi L...
2018: PloS One
Priyanka Sharma, Antonios Lioutas, Narcis Fernandez-Fuentes, Javier Quilez, José Carbonell-Caballero, Roni H G Wright, Chiara Di Vona, François Le Dily, Roland Schüller, Dirk Eick, Baldomero Oliva, Miguel Beato
The post-translational modification of key residues at the C-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II (RNAP2-CTD) coordinates transcription, splicing, and RNA processing by modulating its capacity to act as a landing platform for a variety of protein complexes. Here, we identify a new modification at the CTD, the deimination of arginine and its conversion to citrulline by peptidyl arginine deiminase 2 (PADI2), an enzyme that has been associated with several diseases, including cancer. We show that, among PADI family members, only PADI2 citrullinates R1810 (Cit1810) at repeat 31 of the CTD...
January 3, 2019: Molecular Cell
Balachandar Balakrishnan, Sha Su, Cunhuan Zhang, Maohua Chen
The bird cherry-oat aphid, Rhopalosiphum padi (L.), is an insect pest that persistently attacks wheat crops worldwide. Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are important detoxification enzymes that play roles in insecticide resistance. In this study, we identified two GST genes (RpGSTS1 and RpGSTS2) from R. padi. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the genes are associated with the sigma class of insect GSTs. The RpGSTS1 and RpGSTS2 contain nine α-helices and five β-sheets connected by loops, and had 60 and 50% homology with the 3D structure of the Blattella germanica GST5...
October 27, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
Mathias Jaschhof, Voldemars Spungis
The taxonomy of Dicerura Kieffer, 1898, a genus of Porricondylinae now comprising 32 species in the Holarctic region, is revised. Three new species are described based on morphological characters of male adults: D. jakovlevi Jaschhof Spungis sp. nov. (from Finland), D. penttineni Jaschhof Spungis sp. nov. (Finland), and D. yezoensis Jaschhof Spungis sp. nov. (Japan). Dicerura padi Mamaev, 1975 syn. nov. is revealed to be a junior synonym of D. furculata Mamaev, 1968. Seven species, whose original descriptions are from a present-day perspective inadequate for the purpose of identification, are redescribed: D...
May 22, 2018: Zootaxa
Mary E Ferguson, Kristopher L Giles, Norman C Elliott, Mark E Payton, Tom A Royer
Winter canola Brassica napus L. (Brassicales: Brassicaceae) was introduced to U.S. Southern Great Plains (Kansas, Oklahoma, Texas) growers to manage some difficult-to-control grassy weeds in winter wheat Triticum aestivum L. (Poales: Poaceae). Two braconid parasitoids, Diaeretiella rapae (M'Intosh) and Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) are active in this cropping landscape. Both wasps move between crops but D. rapae has a limited ability to develop in the main wheat aphid hosts, so L...
October 12, 2018: Environmental Entomology
Wenqiang Li, Zengbin Lu, Lili Li, Yi Yu, Song Dong, Xingyuan Men, Baohua Ye
The bird cherry-oat aphid, Rhopalosiphum padi (L.), is a major insect pest of cereal crops in many countries. Imidacloprid has been widely used for controlling piercing-sucking insect pests worldwide, but its sublethal effects on R. padi have not been well addressed. In this study, we investigated the sublethal effects of imidacloprid on biological parameters and five enzyme activities of R. padi. The LC10, LC20, and LC25 of imidacloprid to adult aphids were 0.0053, 0.0329 and 0.0659 mg L-1, respectively. These concentrations significantly decreased pre-adult survival rate, but prolonged the development duration of 1st instar nymphs, pre-oviposition period, and adult longevity...
2018: PloS One
Rustinsyah Rustinsyah
This data article presents the information on stakeholders' power and interest indicators in agricultural irrigation management. The data were collected from a WUA (Water User Association) called Sekar padi which operates around Bengawan Solo river, East Java, Indonesia. This data article contains two major data. The first data consists of the power indicator from both primary and secondary stakeholders of WUAs. The second data is the stakeholders 'interest indicator of WUAs in agricultural irrigation management...
August 2018: Data in Brief
Jin H Song, Neha Singh, Libia A Luevano, Sathish K R Padi, Koichi Okumura, Virginie Olive, Stephen M Black, Noel A Warfel, David W Goodrich, Andrew S Kraft
Cancer resistance to PI3K inhibitor therapy can be in part mediated by increases in the PIM1 kinase. However, the exact mechanism by which PIM kinase promotes tumor cell resistance is unknown. Our study unveils the pivotal control of redox signaling by PIM kinases as a driver of this resistance mechanism. PIM1 kinase functions to decrease cellular ROS levels by enhancing nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2)/antioxidant response element activity. PIM prevents cell death induced by PI3K-AKT-inhibitory drugs through a noncanonical mechanism of NRF2 ubiquitination and degradation and translational control of NRF2 protein levels through modulation of eIF4B and mTORC1 activity...
September 6, 2018: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
Atsumi Tsuji-Hosokawa, Kenichi Kashimada, Tomoko Kato, Yuya Ogawa, Risa Nomura, Kei Takasawa, Rowena Lavery, Andrea Coschiera, David Schlessinger, Vincent R Harley, Shuji Takada, Tomohiro Morio
Peptidyl arginine deiminases (PADIs) are enzymes that change the charge of proteins through citrullination. We recently found Padi2 was expressed exclusively in fetal Sertoli cells. In this study, we analyzed the transcriptional regulation of Padi2 and the role of PADI2 in testicular development. We showed SOX9 positively regulated Padi2 transcription and FOXL2 antagonized it in TM3 cells, a model of Sertoli cells. The responsive region to SOX9 and FOXL2 was identified within the Padi2 sequence by reporter assay...
September 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
Peter Thorpe, Carmen M Escudero-Martinez, Peter J A Cock, Sebastian Eves-van den Akker, Jorunn I B Bos
Aphids are a diverse group of taxa that contain agronomically important species, which vary in their host range and ability to infest crop plants. The genome evolution underlying agriculturally important aphid traits is not well understood. We generated draft genome assemblies for two aphid species: Myzus cerasi (black cherry aphid) and the cereal specialist Rhopalosiphum padi. Using a de novo gene prediction pipeline on both these, and three additional aphid genome assemblies (Acyrthosiphon pisum, Diuraphis noxia, and Myzus persicae), we show that aphid genomes consistently encode similar gene numbers...
October 1, 2018: Genome Biology and Evolution
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