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Peter L Nesper, Hee Eun Lee, Alaa E Fayed, Gregory W Schwartz, Fei Yu, Amani A Fawzi
Purpose: To assess retinal microvascular reactivity during dark adaptation and the transition to ambient light and after flicker stimulation using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). Methods: Fifteen eyes of 15 healthy participants were dark adapted for 45 minutes followed by OCTA imaging in the dark-adapted state. After 5 minutes of normal lighting, subjects underwent OCTA imaging. Participants were then subjected to a flashing light-emitting diode (LED) light and repeat OCTA...
February 1, 2019: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Matthias Erb, Philippe Reymond
Diverse molecular processes regulate the interactions between plants and insect herbivores. Here, we review genes and proteins that are involved in plant-herbivore interactions and discuss how their discovery has structured the current standard model of plant-herbivore interactions. Plants perceive damage-associated and, possibly, herbivore-associated molecular patterns via receptors that activate early signaling components such as Ca2+ , reactive oxygen species, and MAP kinases. Specific defense reprogramming proceeds via signaling networks that include phytohormones, secondary metabolites, and transcription factors...
February 20, 2019: Annual Review of Plant Biology
Norma Verdolini, Giulia Menculini, Giulio Perugi, Andrea Murru, Ludovic Samalin, Jules Angst, Jean-Michel Azorin, Charles L Bowden, Sergey Mosolov, Allan H Young, Margherita Barbuti, Dina Popovic, Eduard Vieta, Isabella Pacchiarotti
OBJECTIVE: This post hoc analysis of the BRIDGE-II-MIX study is aimed at evaluating affective lability (AL) as a possible clinical feature of mixed depression and assessing the relationship with atypical depressive features, particularly mood reactivity (MR). METHODS: In the BRIDGE-II-MIX multicenter, cross-sectional study, 2,811 individuals suffering from a major depressive episode (MDE; DSM-IV-TR criteria), in the context of bipolar I or II disorder (BD-I, BD-II, respectively) or major depressive disorder, were enrolled between June 2009 and July 2010...
February 19, 2019: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Austin D Marchese, Florian Lind, Áine E Mahon, Hyung Yoon, Mark Lautens
A diastereoselective dearomative carboiodination reaction is reported. We report a novel metal-catalyzed approach to install reactive secondary benzylic iodides. Utilizing the unique reactivity of nickel, we have expanded the carboiodination reaction onto non-activated aromatic double bonds forming a previously unattainable class of iodides. We also report a broadly applicable method to avoid the use of a metallic reducing agent by utilizing an alkyl phosphite as the ligand. The reaction is thought to proceed through a syn intramolecular carbonickelation onto a 2-substituted indole followed by a diastereoretentive reductive elimination of the carbon-iodine bond...
February 20, 2019: Angewandte Chemie
Doyoung Kwon, Yeon-Mi Lim, Jung-Taek Kwon, Ilseob Shim, Eunji Kim, Doo-Hee Lee, Byung-Il Yoon, Pilje Kim, Hyun-Mi Kim
Benzalkonium chloride (BAC) is a widely used disinfectant/preservative, and respiratory exposure to this compound has been reported to be highly toxic. Spray-form household products have been known to contain BAC together with triethylene glycol (TEG) in their solutions. The purpose of this study was to estimate the toxicity of BAC and TEG mixtures to pulmonary organs using in vitro and in vivo experiments. Human alveolar epithelial (A549) cells incubated with BAC (1-10 μg/mL) for 24 hours showed significant cytotoxicity, while TEG (up to 1000 μg/mL) did not affect cell viability...
February 20, 2019: Environmental Toxicology
Hsiao Hsin Sung Hsieh, Shailesh Agarwal, David J Cholok, Shawn J Loder, Kieko Kaneko, Amanda Huber, Michael T Chung, Kavitha Ranganathan, Joe Habbouche, John Li, Jonathan Butts, Jonathan Reimer, Arminder Kaura, James Drake, Christopher Breuler, Caitlin R Priest, Joe Nguyen, Cameron Brownley, Jonathan Peterson, Serra Ucer Ozgurel, Yashar S Niknafs, Shuli Li, Maiko Inagaki, Greg Scott, Paul Krebsbach, Michael T Longaker, Kenneth Westover, Nathanael Gray, Jun Ninomiya-Tsuji, Yuji Mishina, Benjamin Levi
Aberrant wound healing presents as inappropriate or insufficient tissue formation. Using a model of musculoskeletal injury, we demonstrate that loss of TGF-β activated kinase 1 (TAK1) signaling reduces inappropriate tissue formation (heterotopic ossification) through reduced cellular differentiation. Upon identifying increased proliferation with loss of TAK1 signaling, we considered a regenerative approach to address insufficient tissue production through coordinated inactivation of TAK1 to promote cellular proliferation, followed by re-activation to elicit differentiation and extracellular matrix (ECM) production...
February 20, 2019: Stem Cells
Quanli An, Wei Peng, Yuyao Cheng, Zhenzhen Lu, Chuan Zhou, Yong Zhang, Jianmin Su
Oocyte quality, which is directly related to reprogramming competence, is a major important limiting factor in animal cloning efficiency. Compared with oocytes matured in vivo, in vitro matured oocytes exhibit lower oocyte quality and reprogramming competence primarily because of their higher levels of reactive oxygen species. In this study, we investigate whether supplementing the oocyte maturation medium with melatonin, a free radical scavenger, could improve oocyte quality and reprogramming competence. We found that 10-9 M melatonin effectively alleviated oxidative stress, markedly decreased early apoptosis levels, recovered the integrity of mitochondria, ameliorated the spindle assembly and chromosome alignment in oocytes, and significantly promoted subsequent cloned embryo development in vitro...
February 20, 2019: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Martial Caillaud, Jérôme Guillard, Damien Richard, Serge Milin, Damien Chassaing, Marc Paccalin, Guylène Page, Agnès Rioux Bilan
As Alzheimer's disease (AD) induces several cellular and molecular damages, it could be interesting to use multi-target molecules for therapeutics. We previously published that trans ε-viniferin induced the disaggregation of Aβ42 peptide and inhibited the inflammatory response in primary cellular model of AD. Here, effects of this stilbenoid were evaluated in transgenic APPswePS1dE9 mice. We report that trans ε-viniferin could go through the blood brain barrier, reduces size and density of amyloid deposits and decreases reactivity of astrocytes and microglia, after a weekly intraperitoneal injection at 10 mg/kg from 3 to 6 months of age...
2019: PloS One
Bo Wang, Biting Bian, Chunlei Wang, Changxia Li, Hua Fang, Jing Zhang, Dengjing Huang, Jianqiang Huo, Weibiao Liao
Hydrogen gas (H2) plays an important role in plant development and stress responses. Here, cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) explants were used to investigate the roles of H2 in adventitious root development under cadmium (Cd) stress and its physiological mechanism. The results showed that hydrogen-rich water (HRW) promoted adventitious rooting under Cd stress and 50% HRW obtained the maximal biological response. Compared with Cd treatment, HRW + Cd treatment significantly reduced the content of malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), superoxide radical (O2-), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), ascorbic acid (AsA) and reduced glutathione (GSH), as well as relative electrical conductivity (REC), lipoxygenase (LOX) activity, AsA/docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) ratio, and GSH/oxidized glutathione (GSSG) ratio, while increasing DHA and GSSG content...
2019: PloS One
Ellen M Godwin, Anthony D Uglialoro, Andaleeb Ali, Leah Yearwood, Mary Ann Banerji, John G Kral
BACKGROUND: This is an exploratory pilot study of novel technology enabling people with mobility disability to walk with minimal effort, in the "sedentary range". The study's premise is that impairment of the leading physical activity of daily living, walking, is a major contributor to a dysmetabolic state driving many prevalent "civilization diseases" associated with insulin resistance. METHODS: We explore within-subject changes in standard oral glucose tolerance (OGT) tests including metabotropic molecules after 22 twice-weekly, 30-minute bouts of weight-supported light-moderate physical activity in 16 non-diabetic obese, otherwise healthy, reproductive-age, volunteer women walking on an "anti-gravity" lower-body positive pressure (LBPP) treadmill...
2019: PloS One
Meng Wang, Ji Hu, Linling Yan, Yeping Yang, Min He, Meng Wu, Qin Li, Wei Gong, Yang Yang, Yi Wang, Diane E Handy, Bin Lu, Chuanming Hao, Qinghua Wang, Yiming Li, Ronggui Hu, Robert C Stanton, Zhaoyun Zhang
Oxidative stress contributes substantially to podocyte injury, which plays an important role in the development of diabetic kidney disease. The mechanism of hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress in podocytes is not fully understood. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is critical in maintaining NADPH, which is an important cofactor for the antioxidant system. Here, we hypothesized that high glucose induced ubiquitination and degradation of G6PD, which injured podocytes by reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation...
February 20, 2019: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Regina G Szlag, Leopoldo Suescun, B Dulani Dhanapala, Federico A Rabuffetti
Three novel bimetallic hybrid crystals featuring rubidium-alkaline-earth metal pairs and trifluoroacetato ligands were synthesized, and their utility as self-fluorinating single-source precursors to the corresponding mixed-metal fluorides was demonstrated. Rb2 Mg2 (tfa)6 (tfaH)2 ·3H2 O, RbCa(tfa)3 , and RbSr2 (tfa)5 (tfa = CF3 COO- ; tfaH = CF3 COOH) were synthesized in both single-crystal and polycrystalline forms via solvent evaporation. Their crystal structures were solved using single-crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD), and chemical purity was confirmed using thermal analysis (TGA/DTA)...
February 20, 2019: Inorganic Chemistry
Jing Yang, Junxue An, Lianpeng Tong, Baihua Long, Ting Fan, Lele Duan
Water oxidation is regarded as the bottleneck of the water splitting and the development of water oxidation catalysts is of importance in the view of reducing reaction barriers and promoting water oxidation efficiency. Recently, the Sun group has disclosed a family of highly active water oxidation catalysts, [Ru(bda)(L)2 ] (bda2- = 2,2'-bipyridine-6,6'-dicarboxylate; L = N-containing ligands). Herein, we replaced the bda2- ligand with a 2,2'-bipyridine-6,6'-dicarbothioate (bct2- ) ligand and prepared a mononuclear ruthenium complex [Ru(bct)(pic)2 ] (Ru-bct, pic = 4-picoline)...
February 20, 2019: Inorganic Chemistry
Xingfan Zhang, Chengrui Fu, Yujie Xia, Yunrui Duan, Yifan Li, Zhichao Wang, Yanyan Jiang, Hui Li
Metal nanoparticles usually show different oxidation dynamics from bulk metals, which results in various oxide nanostructures because of their size-related surface effects. In this work, we have found and investigated the chain-like nucleation and growth of oxides on the Aluminum nanoparticle (ANP) surface, using molecular dynamics simulations with the reactive force-field (ReaxFF). After nucleation, the chain-like oxide nuclei could stay on the ANP surface and continue growing into an oxide shell, or extend outward from the surface to form longer oxide chains, or detach from the ANP to generate independent oxide clusters, which is highly dependent on the oxygen content, temperature and nanoparticle size...
February 20, 2019: ACS Nano
Yang Zheng, Junqi Zhang, Xinpeng Cheng, Xinfang Xu, Liming Zhang
Gold-catalyzed oxidations of alkynes by N-oxides offer a direct access to reactive α-oxo gold carbene intermediates from benign and readily available alkynes instead of hazardous diazo carbonyl compounds. Despite various versatile synthetic methods developed based on this strategy, one of the hallmarks of α-oxo carbene/carbenoid chemistry, i.e., the Wolff rearrangement, has not been realized in this context. This study discloses the first examples that the Wolff rearrangement can be readily realized by α-oxo gold carbenes oxidatively generated from TBS-terminated alkynes...
February 20, 2019: Angewandte Chemie
Xiaodong Wang, Zhaoliang Li, Xiaolei Huang, Fenghua Li, Jinbo Liu, Zhenzuo Li, Dongfang Bai
PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of exenatide on renal injury in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. METHODS: Fifty SD rats were randomly divided into normal control, model, exenatide-1, exenatide-2 and exenatide-3 groups, 10 rats in each group. The diabetic nephropathy model was constructed in later 4 groups. Then, the later 3 groups were treated with 2, 4 and 8 μg/kg exenatide for 8 weeks, respectively. The serum and urine biochemical indexes and oxidative stress and inflammatory indexes in renal tissue were determined...
February 14, 2019: Acta Cirúrgica Brasileira
I M Bensenor
Thyroid disorders are common diseases, both in Brazil and worldwide. The Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) is a prospective cohort study that investigates cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and associated factors, including non-classical cardiovascular risk factors such as thyroid function. Thyroid function was classified according to thyrotropin stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), and use of medication to treat thyroid disorders, after excluding participants who reported use of any medication that could alter the results of the TSH and FT4 tests...
February 14, 2019: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
M F M Santos, F C A C Oliveira, R K Kishimoto, D Borri, F P S Santos, P V Campregher, P A A Silveira, N Hamerschlak, C L P Mangueira, F B Duarte, A H Crepaldi, M A Salvino, E D R P Velloso
Cytogenetics is essential in myeloid neoplasms (MN) and pre-analytical variables are important for karyotyping. We assessed the relationship between pre-analytical variables (time from collection to sample processing, material type, sample cellularity, and diagnosis) and failures of karyotyping. Bone marrow (BM, n=352) and peripheral blood (PB, n=69) samples were analyzed from acute myeloid leukemia (n=113), myelodysplastic syndromes (n=73), myelodysplastic syndromes/myeloproliferative neoplasms (n=17), myeloproliferative neoplasms (n=137), and other with conclusive diagnosis (n=6), and reactive disorders/no conclusive diagnosis (n=75)...
February 14, 2019: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
Xianghong Niu, Yingwei Yi, Xiaowan Bai, Jian Zhang, Zhaobo Zhou, Liang Chu, Jianping Yang, Xing'ao Li
For atomically thin two-dimensional materials, van der Waals interlayer coupling is a crucial factor to tune or produce novel physicochemical properties. In terms of photocatalysis, however, researching into the interlayer coupling effect is still in its infancy, especially that involving excited state dynamics. Here, by performing many-body perturbation theory and ab initio nonadiabatic molecular dynamics, we find that metal-free few-layer graphitic C3N4 (g-C3N4) possesses a better photocatalytic hydrogen evolution performance due to interlayer coupling compared with ultrathin monolayer g-C3N4...
February 20, 2019: Nanoscale
Tingting Ren, Lili Zhu, Yanyan Shen, Qiuju Mou, Tao Lin, Hongchao Feng
Mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Our previous study has firstly reported that blueberry juice and probiotics (BP) effectively protect liver function in NAFLD. However, the role of BP in hepatic mitochondria is unknown. Here, we aimed to investigate the effects and mechanisms of BP on the mitochondrial function and oxidative stress of rats with NAFLD. The NAFLD rat models were established and treated with BP and SIRT1 siRNA. The mitochondrial ultrastructure was analyzed by electron microscopy, reactive oxygen species (ROS) was detected by immunofluorescence, and biomarkers of mitochondrial function and oxidative stress were examined via quantitative reverse transcription-PCR, western blot, and immunohistochemistry...
February 20, 2019: Food & Function
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