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Neurological biomarkers

Prisca R Bauer, Robert M Helling, Matthijs J L Perenboom, Fernando H Lopes da Silva, Else A Tolner, Michel D Ferrari, Josemir W Sander, Gerhard H Visser, Stiliyan N Kalitzin
BACKGROUND: Epilepsy and migraine are paroxysmal neurological conditions associated with disturbances of cortical excitability. No useful biomarkers to monitor disease activity in these conditions are available. Phase clustering was previously described in electroencephalographic (EEG) responses to photic stimulation and may be a potential epilepsy biomarker. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate EEG phase clustering in response to transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), compare it with photic stimulation in controls, and explore its potential as a biomarker of genetic generalized epilepsy or migraine with aura...
March 12, 2019: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
M Catarina Silva, Stephen J Haggarty
Development of effective therapeutics for neurological disorders has historically been challenging partly because of lack of accurate model systems in which to investigate disease etiology and test new therapeutics at the preclinical stage. Human stem cells, particularly patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) upon differentiation, have the ability to recapitulate aspects of disease pathophysiology and are increasingly recognized as robust scalable systems for drug discovery. We review advances in deriving cellular models of human central nervous system (CNS) disorders using iPSCs along with strategies for investigating disease-relevant phenotypes, translatable biomarkers, and therapeutic targets...
March 15, 2019: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Ahmareen Baten, Masoom Desai, Miguel Melo-Bicchi, Camilo Gutierrez
OBJECTIVE: Herpes simplex virus encephalitis (HSE) is the most common cause of sporadic fatal encephalitis worldwide and remains a devastating disease despite antiviral therapy. EEG can be an important tool in the diagnosis of HSE, and we propose that it can be used to monitor the progression of the disease in patients with treatment refractory HSE. METHODS: This is a case report of a patient with HSE who was monitored on continuous EEG (CEEG) throughout course of her disease...
March 15, 2019: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience: Official Journal of the EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ENCS)
Roberto Rodríguez-Labrada, Luis Velázquez-Pérez, Ricardo Ortega-Sánchez, Arnoy Peña-Acosta, Yaimeé Vázquez-Mojena, Nalia Canales-Ochoa, Jacqueline Medrano-Montero, Reidenis Torres-Vega, Yanetza González-Zaldivar
Background: Cognitive decline is a common non-motor feature characterizing Spinocerebellar Ataxia type 2 (SCA2) during the prodromal stage, nevertheless a reduced number of surrogate biomarkers of these alterations have been described. Objective: To provide insights into cognitive dysfunction in SCA2 patients using P300 event-related potentials (ERP) and to evaluate these measures as biomarkers of the disease. Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed with 30 SCA2 patients, 20 preclinical carriers and 33 healthy controls, who underwent visual, auditory P300 ERPs, and neurological examinations and ataxia scoring...
2019: Cerebellum & Ataxias
Hyungoo Shin, Jae Guk Kim, Wonhee Kim, Tae Ho Lim, Bo-Hyoung Jang, Youngsuk Cho, Kyu-Sun Choi, Chiwon Ahn, Juncheol Lee, Min Kyun Na
AIM: This study aimed to seek evidence for the usefulness of the procalcitonin as a prognostic blood biomarker for outcomes in post-cardiac arrest patients. METHODS: We systematically searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library (search date: 8 Jan, 2019). Studies on patients who experienced return of spontaneous circulation, who had out of hospital cardiac arrest and had their level of procalcitonin measured and outcomes assessed at and after hospital discharge, were included...
March 11, 2019: Resuscitation
Marc Kent, Eric N Glass, Lindsay Boozer, Rachel B Song, Elyshia J Hankin, Renee M Barber, Simons R Platt, Alexander de Lahunta, Andrew D Miller
Two cats were presented with multifocal neurological signs. One cat's signs progressed over 2 wk; the other cat progressed over 5 days. Examinations were consistent with a process involving the prosencephalon, vestibular system, and general proprioceptive/upper motor neuron systems. MRI of the brain and cervical spinal cord reveal widespread T2 hyperintensity of the white matter. Affected areas included the cerebrum, cerebral peduncles, corticospinal tracts of the pons and medulla, and the cerebellum. T2 hyperintensity was present in all funiculi of the spinal cord...
March 14, 2019: Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
Andreas Charidimou, Gregoire Boulouis, Li Xiong, Marco Pasi, Duangnapa Roongpiboonsopit, Alison Ayres, Kristin M Schwab, Jonathan Rosand, M Edip Gurol, Anand Viswanathan, Steven M Greenberg
Background and Purpose- We investigated cortical superficial siderosis (cSS) progression and its clinical relevance for incident lobar intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) risk, in probable cerebral amyloid angiopathy presenting with neurological symptoms and without ICH at baseline. Methods- Consecutive patients meeting modified Boston criteria for probable cerebral amyloid angiopathy from a single-center cohort who underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at baseline and during follow-up were analyzed. cSS progression was assessed by comparison of the baseline and follow-up images...
March 14, 2019: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
Verena Rass, Bogdan-Andrei Ianosi, Andreas Wegmann, Max Gaasch, Alois J Schiefecker, Mario Kofler, Anna Lindner, Alberto Addis, Salma S Almashad, Paul Rhomberg, Bettina Pfausler, Ronny Beer, Elke R Gizewski, Claudius Thomé, Raimund Helbok
Background and Purpose- Global cerebral edema occurs in up to 57% of patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and is associated with prolonged hospital stay and poor outcome. Recently, admission brain edema was successfully graded using a simplified computed tomography-based semiquantitative score (subarachnoid hemorrhage early brain edema score [SEBES]). Longitudinal evaluation of the SEBES grade may discriminate patients with rapid and delayed edema resolution after SAH. Here, we aimed to describe the resolution of brain edema and to study the relationship between this radiographic biomarker and hospital course and outcome after SAH...
March 14, 2019: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
Gaurav V Sarode, Kyoungmi Kim, Dorothy A Kieffer, Noreene M Shibata, Tomas Litwin, Anna Czlonkowska, Valentina Medici
INTRODUCTION: Wilson disease (WD) is characterized by excessive intracellular copper accumulation in liver and brain due to defective copper biliary excretion. With highly varied phenotypes and a lack of biomarkers for the different clinical manifestations, diagnosis and treatment can be difficult. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to analyze serum metabolomics profiles of patients with Wilson disease compared to healthy subjects, with the goal of identifying differentially abundant metabolites as potential biomarkers for this condition...
March 12, 2019: Metabolomics: Official Journal of the Metabolomic Society
Kunpeng Yang, Shuye Wang, Yafeng Cheng, Yaoyao Tian, Jinxiao Hou
Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) has a poor prognosis and requires early diagnosis and treatment. The aim of the present study was to investigate the difference between microRNA-21 (miRNA-21) expression in the plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with PCNSL, and to discuss the importance of miRNA-21 in its diagnostic and therapeutic evaluation. The research subjects were confirmed as patients with PCNSL with histopathological lesions at The First Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University (Harbin, China) between December 2011 and 2017...
March 2019: Oncology Letters
Edwin Jabbari, John Woodside, Tong Guo, Nadia K Magdalinou, Viorica Chelban, Dilan Athauda, Andrew J Lees, Thomas Foltynie, Henry Houlden, Alistair Church, Michele Tm Hu, James B Rowe, Henrik Zetterberg, Huw R Morris
OBJECTIVE: The high degree of clinical overlap between atypical parkinsonian syndromes (APS) and Parkinson's disease (PD) makes diagnosis challenging. We aimed to identify novel diagnostic protein biomarkers of APS using multiplex proximity extension assay (PEA) testing. METHODS: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from two independent cohorts, each consisting of APS and PD cases, and controls, were analysed for neurofilament light chain (NF-L) and Olink Neurology and Inflammation PEA biomarker panels...
March 13, 2019: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
Ning Gao, Xiaohui Zhang-Brotzge, Bushra Wali, Iqbal Sayeed, Joshua J Chern, Laura S Blackwell, Chia-Yi Kuan, Andrew Reisner
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of death in children and adolescents in developed countries, but there are no blood-based biomarkers to support the diagnosis or prognosis of pediatric TBI to-date. Here we report that the plasma levels of osteopontin (OPN), a phosphoprotein chiefly secreted by macrophages and/or activated microglia, may contribute to this goal. In animal models of TBI, while OPN, fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) were all readily induced by controlled cortical impact in the brains of one-month-old mice, only OPN and GFAP ascended in the blood in correlation with high neurological severity scores (NSS)...
March 13, 2019: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
Abeer A Tony, Effat Ae Tony, Wafaa Salah Mohammed, Emad F Kholef
Background: Inflammation constitutes a major component of ischemic stroke pathology. The prognostic value of "neopterin" and soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L), as a potential biomarker of ischemic stroke, has been less extensively studied. Objectives of the study: This study aims at assessing the serum levels of neopterin and sCD40L in acute ischemic stroke (AIS), to clarify its association with the severity, etiology, and risk factors of stroke, and to evaluate their relationship with the stroke functional outcome in our study sample within 90 days of follow-up...
2019: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Sara H Lefman, Jennifer E Prittie
OBJECTIVE: To review the sources, adverse effects, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of psychogenic stress in hospitalized human and veterinary patients. DATA SOURCES: Data were collected by searching PubMed for veterinary and human literature from the past 10 years. HUMAN DATA SYNTHESIS: Psychogenic stress has been linked to immune suppression; gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, and cutaneous diseases; delayed wound healing; alterations in pain perception; and neurologic impairment...
March 12, 2019: Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care
Pedro Martínez-Losas, Esteban López de Sá, Eduardo Armada, Sandra Rosillo, María Carmen Monedero, Juan Ramón Rey, Juan Caro-Codón, Antonio Buño Soto, José Luis López Sendón
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: To analyze neuron-specific enolase (NSE) kinetics as a prognostic biomarker of neurological outcome in cardiac arrest survivors treated with targeted temperature management. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of patients resuscitated from in- or out-of-hospital cardiac arrest admitted from September 2006 to May 2018 in a single tertiary care center and cooled to 32°C to 34°C for 24 hours. Blood samples for measurement of NSE values were drawn at hospital admission and at 24, 48, and 72hours after return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC)...
March 8, 2019: Revista Española de Cardiología
Ryuta Kinno, Yukiko Mori, Satomi Kubota, Shohei Nomoto, Akinori Futamura, Azusa Shiromaru, Takeshi Kuroda, Satoshi Yano, Seiichiro Ishigaki, Hidetomo Murakami, Yasuhiko Baba, Kenjiro Ono
The issue of whether serum lipid marker values are cognitively and neurologically significant for elderly individuals attending a memory clinic has been controversial. We investigated the associations of serum lipid markers with the memory function and cortical structure in 52 patients aged ≥75 years who had attended our memory clinic based on their subjective memory complaints. None had a history of medication for hyperlipidemia. The Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R) was administered to all patients for the assessment of their memory function...
March 5, 2019: NeuroImage: Clinical
Tamil S Anthonymuthu, Elizabeth M Kenny, Andrew M Lamade, Hitesh Gidwani, Nicholas M Krehel, Amalea Misse, Xiaotian Gao, Andrew A Amoscato, Adam C Straub, Valerian E Kagan, Cameron Dezfulian, Hülya Bayır
OBJECTIVES: Brain mitochondrial dysfunction limits neurologic recovery after cardiac arrest. Brain polyunsaturated cardiolipins, mitochondria-unique and functionally essential phospholipids, have unprecedented diversification. Since brain cardiolipins are not present in plasma normally, we hypothesized their appearance would correlate with brain injury severity early after cardiac arrest and return of spontaneous circulation. DESIGN: Observational case-control study...
January 11, 2019: Critical Care Medicine
Yangyang Song, Mingqin Zhu, Caiyun Liu, Chao Zheng, Yang Zhou, Jie Zhu, Tao Jin
Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) is an autoimmune inflammatory neurological disease characterized by longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis (LETM) and optic neuritis. Interleukin (IL)-36 is a novel cytokine of the IL-1 family that is involved in the development of inflammatory diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of IL-36α in NMOSD. We retrospectively collected 73 patients, who fulfilled the 2015 criteria for NMOSD diagnosis and were admitted to the Department of Neurology of the First Hospital of Jilin University from 2015 to 2016...
March 1, 2019: Immunobiology
Xiao Yang, Zhenru Wang, Qian Zhang, Ran Liu, Huarong Xu, Kaishun Bi, Qing Li
Insomnia, depression and Alzheimer's disease are all neurodegenerative diseases and are associated with the levels of steroid hormones. To investigate the internal connection and difference of steroid hormones among these three diseases and distinguish them from the perspective of biomarkers, an easy, quick, and efficient HPLC-MS/MS method was established and validated to determine six steroid hormones simultaneously in rat serum. The separation was accomplished on a SHIM-PACK XR-ODS chromatographic column with 0...
March 8, 2019: Journal of Separation Science
Leonardo Biscetti, Nicola Salvadori, Lucia Farotti, Samuela Cataldi, Paolo Eusebi, Silvia Paciotti, Lucilla Parnetti
The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) signature of Alzheimer's disease (AD) includes abnormal levels of amyloid-β 1-42 (Aβ42), total tau (t-Tau) and phosphorylated tau (p-Tau). Several studies have reported that the CSF Aβ42/Aβ40 ratio could outperform CSF Aβ42 as a more accurate marker of brain amyloidosis, since it normalizes the CSF Aβ42 levels according to the total production of Aβ in the brain. In the present study, we wanted to assess the diagnostic utility of adding the Aβ42/Aβ40 ratio within the core AD CSF biomarkers for the classification of patients, according to NIA-AA criteria and Erlangen score...
March 4, 2019: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
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