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Beibei Zhang, Xiaoying Wu, Jiahua Liu, Langui Song, Qiuyue Song, Lifu Wang, Dongjuan Yuan, Zhongdao Wu
Schistosomiasis japonica is a significant health problem that leads to morbidity and mortality of humans. It is characterized by hepatic granulomatous response and fibrosis caused by eggs deposition in the liver. β-actin, a traditional housekeeping gene, is widely used as an internal control to normalize gene and protein expression. However, β-actin expression can fluctuate upon the treatment with pharmacological agents or under some physiological and pathological conditions. In this study, we found that the expressions of both β-actin mRNA and protein increased significantly with hepatic fibrosis formation after 6 weeks infection with Schistosoma japonicum and kept high level during the progression of hepatic fibrosis, while the levels of β-Tubulin and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) remained stable...
2019: Frontiers in Microbiology
Maria João Gouveia, Paul J Brindley, Gabriel Rinaldi, Fátima Gärtner, José Manuel Correia da Costa, Nuno Vale
Schistosomiasis is a major neglected tropical disease. Treatment for schistosomiasis with praziquantel (PZQ), which is effective against the parasite, by itself is not capable to counteract infection-associated disease lesions including hepatic fibrosis. There is a pressing need for novel therapies. Due to their biological properties, antioxidant biomolecules might be useful in treating and reverting associated pathological sequelae. Here, we investigated a novel therapy approach based on a combination of anthelmintic drugs with antioxidant biomolecules...
February 5, 2019: Biomolecules
Robert Tweyongyere, Beatrice R Nassanga, Allan Muhwezi, Matthew Odongo, Swaib A Lule, Rebecca N Nsubuga, Emily L Webb, Stephen C Cose, Alison M Elliott
BACKGROUND: Schistosoma infection is associated with immune modulation that can influence responses to non-schistosome antigens. Vaccine responses may be impaired in S. mansoni-infected individuals. We investigated effects of S. mansoni infection on responses to childhood measles catch-up immunisation and of praziquantel treatment on this outcome in a randomised trial. METHODOLOGY: The Immune Modulation and Childhood Immunisation (IMoChI) study was based in Entebbe, Uganda...
February 14, 2019: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Parisa Kalantari, Stephen C Bunnell, Miguel J Stadecker
Schistosomiasis is a major helminthic disease in which damage to the affected organs is orchestrated by a pathogenic host CD4 T helper (Th) cell-mediated immune response against parasite eggs. In the case of the species Schistosoma mansoni , the resulting granulomatous inflammation and fibrosis takes place in the liver and intestines. The magnitude of disease varies greatly from individual to individual but in a minority of patients, there is severe disease and death. S. mansoni infection in a murine model similarly results in marked strain variation of immunopathology...
2019: Frontiers in Immunology
Chun-Lian Tang, Jie-Ning Zou, Rong-Hui Zhang, Zhi-Ming Liu, Cun-Lan Mao
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease in which cells of the immune system destroy pancreatic β cells, which secrete insulin. The high prevalence of T1D in developed societies may be explained by environmental changes, including lower exposure to helminths. Indeed, infection by helminths such as Schistosoma, Filaria, and Heligmosomoides polygyrus and their by-products has been reported to ameliorate or prevent the development of T1D in human and animal models. Helminths can trigger distinct immune regulatory pathways, often involving adaptive immune cells that include T helper 2 (Th2) cells and regulatory T cells (Tregs) and innate immune cells that include dendritic cells, macrophages, and invariant natural killer T cells, which may act synergistically to induce Tregs in a Toll-like receptor-dependent manner...
February 13, 2019: Parasitology Research
Lennert Slobbe, Thomas B J Demeyere, Perry J J van Genderen, Cathy C Simon, Willem J Huisman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 11, 2019: Journal of Travel Medicine
Bianca Martins Santos, Felipe Augusto Soares, Stefany Laryssa Rosa, Denise da Conceição Ferreira Gomes, Bruno César Miranda Oliveira, Alan Zanoni Peixinho, Celso Tetsuo Nagase Suzuki, Katia Denise Saraiva Bresciani, Alexandre Xavier Falcão, Jancarlo Ferreira Gomes
OBJECTIVES: Laboratory diagnosis of Schistosoma mansoni eggs is routinely performed by conventional quantitative techniques through the parasitological examination of human feces. However, the diagnostic sensitivity of this type of exam varies from low to moderate. We aimed to develop a new parasitological technique called TF-Test Quantified (TFT-Quant), for the quantitative detection of S. mansoni eggs in human feces. METHODS: Four study stages were performed using 43 mice infected by S...
February 10, 2019: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Virak Khieu, Somphou Sayasone, Sinuon Muth, Masashi Kirinoki, Sakhone Laymanivong, Hiroshi Ohmae, Rekol Huy, Thipphavanh Chanthapaseuth, Aya Yajima, Rattanaxay Phetsouvanh, Robert Bergquist, Peter Odermatt
The areas endemic for schistosomiasis in the Lao People's Democratic Republic and in Cambodia were first reported 50 and 60 years ago, respectively. However, the causative parasite Schistosoma mekongi was not recognized as a separate species until 1978. The infection is distributed along a limited part of the Mekong River, regulated by the focal distribution of the intermediate snail host Neotricula aperta. Although more sensitive diagnostics imply a higher figure, the current use of stool examinations suggests that only about 1500 people are presently infected...
February 7, 2019: Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease
Claudia S Mickael, Brian B Graham
Approximately 5% of individuals chronically infected with Schistosoma mansoni develop pulmonary hypertension (PH). The disease is progressive and often fatal, and treatment options are palliative, not curative. Recent studies have unraveled major players of the Th2 inflammation axis in the Schistosoma -induced PH pathology using murine models and studying human samples. TGF-β signaling is a link between the Type 2 inflammation and vascular remodeling, and specifically Thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) is upregulated by the inflammation and activates TGF-β...
2019: Frontiers in Immunology
Lívia das Graças Amaral Avelar, Sandra Grossi Gava, Renata Heisler Neves, Mercedes Carolina Soares Silva, Neusa Araújo, Naiara Clemente Tavares, Assmaa El Khal, Ana Carolina Alves Mattos, José Roberto Machado-Silva, Guilherme Oliveira, Marina de Moraes Mourão
Eukaryotic protein kinases (ePKs) are good medical targets for drug development in different biological systems. ePKs participate in many cellular processes, including the p38 MAPK regulation of homeostasis upon oxidative stress. We propose to assess the role of Smp38 MAPK signaling pathway in Schistosoma mansoni development and protection against oxidative stress, parasite survival, and also to elucidate which target genes have their expression regulated by Smp38 MAPK. After a significant reduction of up to 84% in the transcription level by Smp38 MAPK gene knockdown, no visible phenotypic changes were reported in schistosomula in culture...
2019: Frontiers in Immunology
Evaristus C Mbanefo, Loc Le, Rebecca Zee, Nirad Banskota, Kenji Ishida, Luke F Pennington, Justin I Odegaard, Theodore S Jardetzky, Abdulaziz Alouffi, Franco H Falcone, Michael H Hsieh
Ifosfamide and other oxazaphosphorines can result in hemorrhagic cystitis, a constellation of complications caused by acrolein metabolites. We previously showed that a single dose of IPSE (Interleukin-4-inducing principle from Schistosoma eggs), a schistosome-derived host modulatory protein, can ameliorate ifosfamide-related cystitis; however, the mechanisms underlying this urotoxicity and its prevention are not fully understood. To provide insights into IPSE's protective mechanism, we undertook transcriptional profiling of bladders from ifosfamide-treated mice, with or without pretreatment with IPSE or IPSE-NLS (a mutant of IPSE lacking nuclear localization sequence)...
February 7, 2019: Scientific Reports
Kathrin Arndts, Tayseer Elamin Mohamed Elfaki, Nils Jelden, Manuel Ritter, Anna Wiszniewsky, Gnatoulma Katawa, Ibtisam A Goreish, Misk El Yemen A Atti El Mekki, Michael J Doenhoff, Achim Hoerauf, Laura E Layland
Infections with Schistosoma mansoni remain a major health problem in the Sudan where endemic communities, such as those in Kassala and Khartoum states, continue to face severe social-economic difficulties. Our previous immunoepidemiological findings revealed different immune (cytokine and S. mansoni egg (SEA) antibody) profiles in individuals with active infections (eggs in stool n=110), individuals positive for S. mansoni via PCR using sera (SmPCR+ n=63) and those uninfected (Sm uninf). Since antibody responses to eggs and worms are known to change during infection we have expanded the profiling further by determining levels of adult worm (SWA) antibodies and nine chemokines in the serum of each individual in the three different cohorts...
February 6, 2019: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
W Evan Secor
Toward Mass Drug Administration Stopping Criteria for Schistosoma mansoni Control Programs.
February 4, 2019: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Alison M Elliott, Meta Roestenberg, Anne Wajja, Christopher Opio, Francis Angumya, Moses Adriko, Moses Egesa, Serah Gitome, Joseph Mfutso-Bengo, Philip Bejon, Melissa Kapulu, Zoe Seager, Tom Lutalo, Winfred Badanga Nazziwa, Asuman Muwumuza, Maria Yazdanbakhsh, Pontiano Kaleebu, Narcis Kabatereine, Edridah Tukahebwa
Controlled human infection (CHI) models are gaining recognition as an approach to accelerating vaccine development, for use in both non-endemic and endemic populations: they can facilitate identification of the most promising candidate vaccines for further trials and advance understanding of protective immunity. Helminths present a continuing health burden in sub-Saharan Africa. Vaccine development for these complex organisms is particularly challenging, partly because protective responses are akin to mechanisms of allergy...
April 18, 2018: AAS open research
Yumin Zhao, Zhisheng Dang, Shigui Chong
According to conservative estimates, >230 million people are infected with schistosomiasis,which becomes one of the most common parasitic diseases. This study focuses on investigating in vivo and in vitro effects of mmu-miR-92a-2-5p in Schistosoma japonicum-induced liver fibrosis by targeting TLR2. Through bioinformatic analysis, the overexpression of TLR2 and the down-regulation of mmu-miR-92a-2-5p were revealed in the progression of S. japonicum-induced liver fibrosis. BALB/C mice were taken advantage to construct normal control and schistosomiasis liver fibrosis (SLF) model...
January 29, 2019: International Immunopharmacology
B E W El-Aswad, N M Harba, I M Moharm, S F Mahmoud
The tegument of schistosomes is a source of many potential anti-Schistosoma vaccine molecules. This work aimed to assess the protective effects of the adult Schistosoma mansoni tegument treated (TT) with sub-curative praziquantel (PZQ), whether in vivo (in vivo TT) or in vitro (in vitro TT), in murine schistosomiasis. In vitro TT and in vivo TT showed great similarity, and they differed from untreated tegument antigen (Teg) in terms of quantity and quality of protein bands on SDS-PAGE. Two immunization trials were performed, each with 50 mice, divided randomly into five groups of 10 mice each: (1) uninfected control mice (UC), (2) infected mice given phosphate buffer saline + adjuvant (PBS + adjuvant), (3) infected, Teg vaccinated, (4) infected, in vivo TT vaccinated, and (5) infected, in vitro TT vaccinated...
January 31, 2019: Journal of Helminthology
Olumide Ajibola, Aislinn D Rowan, Clement O Ogedengbe, Mari B Mshelia, Damien J Cabral, Anthonius A Eze, Stephen Obaro, Peter Belenky
Urogenital schistosomiasis is a neglected tropical disease caused by the parasite Schistosoma haematobium, which resides in the vasculature surrounding the urogenital system. Previous work has suggested that helminthic infections can affect the intestinal microbiome, and we hypothesized that S. haematobium infection could result in an alteration of immune system-microbiota homeostasis and impact the composition of the gut microbiota. To address this question, we compared the fecal microbiomes of infected and uninfected schoolchildren from the Argungu Local Government Area of Kebbi State, Nigeria, detecting significant differences in community composition between the two groups...
January 29, 2019: Scientific Reports
Johnny Vlaminck, Ole Lagatie, Ann Verheyen, Daniel Dana, Bieke Van Dorst, Zeleke Mekonnen, Bruno Levecke, Lieven J Stuyver
BACKGROUND: Ov16 serology is considered a reference method for Onchocerca volvulus epidemiological mapping. Given the suboptimal sensitivity of this test and the fact that seroconversion takes more than a year after infection, additional serological tests might be needed to guide onchocerciasis elimination programmes. Recently, two linear epitopes encoded in OvMP-1 and OvMP-23 peptides were introduced as serological markers, but the observed antibody cross-reactivity in samples originating from Onchocerca volvulus non-endemic areas required further investigation...
January 28, 2019: Parasites & Vectors
Zhuo Chen, Weisi Wang, Junmin Yao, Shizhu Li, Xia Zhang, Hehua Hu, Xiong Liu, Binrong Luo, Yuhua Liu, Huiyong Xu, Liping Duan
Schistosomiasis japonica caused by Schistosoma japonicum infection is recognized as a considerable economic and public health concern in Asia. Oncomelania hupensis is the sole intermediate host of S. japonicum. The only molluscicide recommended by World Health Organization (WHO) since 1960s is relative toxic to other aquatic species. In this article, we evaluated the novel molluscicide PPU07 in field trials on their efficiency against O. hupensis and toxicity for local fish. 25% PPU07 sulfate WP exhibited similar molluscicidal effect at 2...
January 21, 2019: Chemosphere
Sören Frahm, Anisuzzaman Anisuzzaman, Fabien Prodjinotho, Nermina Vejzagić, Admar Verschoor, Clarissa Prazeres da Costa
BACKGROUND: The arsenal in anthelminthic treatment against schistosomiasis is limited and relies almost exclusively on a single drug, praziquantel (PZQ). Thus, resistance to PZQ could constitute a major threat. Even though PZQ is potent in killing adult worms, its activity against earlier stages is limited. Current in vitro drug screening strategies depend on newly transformed schistosomula (NTS) for initial hit identification, thereby limiting sensitivity to new compounds predominantly active in later developmental stages...
January 28, 2019: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
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