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Growth models

Laura Nehrenheim, Silja Raschke, Anja Stefanski, Mareike Barth, Jessica Isabel Selig, Andreas Barbian, Alicia Fernández-Colino, Kai Stühler, Petra Mela, Alexander Albert, Artur Lichtenberg, Payam Akhyari
 Calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) is the most common acquired heart valve disease with complex underlying pathomechanisms that are yet not fully understood. Three-dimensional (3D) cell culture models as opposed to conventional two-dimensional (2D) techniques may reveal new aspects of CAVD and serve as a transitional platform between conventional 2D cell culture and in vivo experiments. 
 Here we report on fabrication and characterization of a novel 3D hydrogel derived from cell-free native aortic valves...
February 15, 2019: Biomedical Materials
Jiahao Zhang, Huachao Li, Qipeng Wu, Yueming Chen, Yanchao Deng, Zhicheng Yang, Luyong Zhang, Bing Liu
M2-type tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) infiltration contributes to cancer malignant progression. However, the mechanisms for controlling recruitment and M2 polarization of macrophages by cancer cells are largely unclear. NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4) is abundantly expressed in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and mediates cancer progression. NOXs are in close relation with cancer-related inflammation, nevertheless, whether tumoral NOXs influence microenvironmental macrophages remains undentified. This study found that there was a close association between NOX4 expression and macrophage chemotaxis in patients with NSCLC analyzed using TCGA RNA-sequencing data...
February 6, 2019: Redox Biology
Seir Antonio Salazar-Mercado, Carlos Andrés Torres-León, Jhan Piero Rojas-Suárez
The objective of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic effect of different sodium hypochlorite concentrations, using apical root cells of P. sativum as a bioindicator. Initially, the seeds of P. sativum were exposed to different concentrations of sodium hypochlorite (0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, 1.6, 2 mg L-1 ) and to a control solution based on distilled water. Next, root growth was measured during 24, 48 and 72 h. Subsequently, the mitotic index (MI) and cellular anomalies (5000 cells per treatment) were determined at 72 h...
February 12, 2019: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Soledad Garrido, Marta Linares, Juan Antonio Campillo, Marina Albentosa
It is highly likely that phytoplanktonic organisms will interact with MPs in the ocean, and consequently with the pollutants sorbed onto their surfaces. Microalgae play an essential role in maintaining the balance of the marine ecosystem due to the fact that they are a primary producer and the base of marine trophic chains. Therefore, their fitness represents an important index in the assessment of water quality. The objectives of this study were i) to assess the toxicity of MPs and the pesticide chlorpyrifos (CPF) to the microalgae, Isochrysis galbana, clone t-ISO and ii) to ascertain whether the presence of MPs affects the toxicity of CPF...
February 12, 2019: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Paige L Williams, Andrea Bellavia, Susan A Korrick, Jane S Burns, Mary M Lee, Oleg Sergeyev, Russ Hauser
BACKGROUND: Higher blood lead levels (BLLs) have been linked to neurologic deficits and impaired growth, but few studies have evaluated their association with timing of sexual maturity or pubertal progression in boys. METHODS: In a longitudinal cohort of Russian boys enrolled at age 8-9 and followed to adulthood, BLLs were measured at study entry, and pubertal staging (genitalia and pubic hair) and testicular volume (TV) measurements were obtained annually. We used interval-censored regression models to estimate differences between boys with higher BLL (≥5 μg/dL) and lower BLL in mean ages at sexual maturity (genitalia stage 5, pubic hair stage 5, or TV ≥ 20 mL) and duration of pubertal progression (onset to maturity), adjusting for potential confounders...
February 12, 2019: Environment International
Namrata Tomar, Shima Sadri, Allen W Cowley, Chun Yang, Nabeel Quryshi, Venkat R Pannala, Said H Audi, Ranjan K Dash
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important role in cell signaling, growth, and immunity. However, when produced in excess, they are toxic to the cell and lead to premature aging and a myriad of pathologies, including cardiovascular and renal diseases. A major source of ROS in many cells is the family of NADPH oxidase (NOX), comprising of membrane and cytosolic components. NOX2 is among the most widely expressed and well-studied NOX isoform. Although details on the NOX2 structure, its assembly and activation, and ROS production are well elucidated experimentally, there is a lack of a quantitative and integrative understanding of the kinetics of NOX2 complex, and the various factors such as pH, inhibitory drugs, and temperature that regulate the activity of this oxidase...
February 12, 2019: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Chunlai Feng, Haisheng Zhang, Jiaming Chen, Siqi Wang, Yuanrong Xin, Yang Qu, Qi Zhang, Wei Ji, Fumiyoshi Yamashita, Mengjie Rui, Ximing Xu
Combination therapy is a promising treatment for certain advanced drug-resistant cancers. Although effective inhibition of various tumor cells was reported in vitro, combination treatment requires improvement in vivo due to uncontrolled ratiometric delivery. In this study, a tumor-targeting lipodisk nanoparticle formulation was developed for ratiometric loading and the transportation of two hydrophobic model drugs, doxorubicin (DOX) and paclitaxel (PTX), in one single platform. Furthermore, a slightly acidic pH-sensitive peptide (SAPSP) incorporated into lipodisks effectively enhanced the tumor-targeting and cell internalization...
February 12, 2019: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Bing Han, Yang Yang, Jiang Chen, Xingxing He, Nonghua Lv, Runwei Yan
PRSS23 is a newly discovered serine protease that has been associated with tumor progression in various types of cancers. Our previous study showed PRSS23 is down-regulated obviously in Hedgehog pathway blocked gastric cancer cells. However, the correlation between PRSS23 and tumor progression of gastric cancer remains unclear. Here, the role and mechanism of PRSS23 in tumor progression of gastric cancer were determined. PRSS23 protein levels were significantly increased in gastric cancer tissues compared with the paired adjacent normal gastric mucosa tissues...
February 12, 2019: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Waqar Hussain, Yaser Daanial Khan, Nouman Rasool, Sher Afzal Khan, Kuo-Chen Chou
The protein prenylation (or S-prenylation) is one of the most essential modifications, required for the association of membrane of a plethora of signalling proteins with the key biological process such as protein trafficking, cell growth, proliferation and differentiation. Due to the ubiquitous nature of S-prenylation and its role in cellular functions, any defect in the biosynthesis or regulation of the isoprenoid leads to the occurrence of a variety of diseases including neurodegenerative disorders, metabolic issues, cardiovascular diseases and one of the most fatal diseases, cancer...
February 12, 2019: Journal of Theoretical Biology
Katsuya Nagaoka, Xuewei Bai, Kosuke Ogawa, Xiaoqun Dong, Songhua Zhang, Yanmei Zhou, Rolf I Carlson, Zhi-Gang Jiang, Steve Fuller, Michael S Lebowitz, Hossein Ghanbari, Jack R Wands
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is an extremely aggressive malignancy with very limited treatment options. Antibody drug conjugates (ADCs) are promising cytotoxic agents capable of highly selective delivery. Aspartate-β-hydroxylase (ASPH) is a type II transmembrane protein highly expressed in PDACs (97.1%) but not normal pancreas. We investigated anti-tumor effects of an ADC guided by a human monoclonal antibody (SNS-622) against ASPH in human PDAC cell lines and derived subcutaneous (s.c.) xenograft as well as a patient-derived xenograft (PDX) murine model with spontaneous pulmonary metastasis...
February 12, 2019: Cancer Letters
Jarel K Gandhi, Travis Knudsen, Matthew Hill, Bhaskar Roy, Lori Bachman, Cynthia Pfannkoch-Andrews, Karina N Schmidt, Muriel M Metko, Michael J Ackerman, Zachary Resch, Jose S Pulido, Alan D Marmorstein
Human fibrin hydrogels are a popular choice for use as a biomaterial within tissue engineered constructs because they are biocompatible, nonxenogenic, autologous use compatible, and biodegradable. We have recently demonstrated the ability to culture induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived retinal pigment epithelium on fibrin hydrogels. However, iPSCs themselves have relatively few substrate options (e.g., laminin) for expansion in adherent cell culture for use in cell therapy. To address this, we investigated the potential of culturing iPSCs on fibrin hydrogels for three-dimensional applications and further examined the use of fibrinogen, the soluble precursor protein, as a coating substrate for traditional adherent cell culture...
February 15, 2019: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
Thomas L A Volatier, Francisco C Figueiredo, Che J Connon
Keratoconus is the most common ectatic disease of the cornea. The disease is usually detected between ages 15 and 25. Incidence is estimated at 1 out of every 2000 individuals, with some specific ethnic groups being more at risk. Keratoconus manifests itself as a progressive stromal thinning and deformation of the corneal tissue into a conical shape. The etiology of keratoconus is uncertain, although several studies have associated the disease to environmental factors, behavioral conditions and certain genetic disorders...
February 15, 2019: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Silje Baardstu, Robert J Coplan, Evalill B Karevold, Odilia M Laceulle, Tilmann von Soest
Temperamental shyness in childhood is theorized to be an important contributor for adolescent personality. However, empirical evidence for such pathways is scarce. Using longitudinal data (N = 939 children, 51% boys) across 17 years, the aim of this study was to examine how shyness development throughout childhood predicted personality traits in adolescence, and the role of peers in these associations. Results from piecewise latent growth curve modeling showed early shyness levels to predict lower emotional stability and openness in adolescence, whereas early shyness levels and growth across childhood predicted lower extraversion...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Research on Adolescence: the Official Journal of the Society for Research on Adolescence
S M Naqvi, J Gansau, D Gibbons, C T Buckley
Priming towards a discogenic phenotype and subsequent cryopreservation of microencapsulated bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) may offer an attractive therapeutic approach for disc repair. It potentially obviates the need for in vivo administration of exogenous growth factors, otherwise required to promote matrix synthesis, in addition to providing 'off-the-shelf' availability. Cryopreserved and primed BMSC microcapsules were evaluated in an in vitro surrogate co-culture model system with nucleus pulposus (NP) cells under intervertebral disc (IVD)-like culture conditions and in an ex vivo bovine organ culture disc model...
February 15, 2019: European Cells & Materials
Nimesh A Jayasuriya, Alice E Hughes, Ulla Sovio, Emma Cook, D Stephen Charnock-Jones, Gordon C S Smith
CONTEXT: Previous studies have shown reduced placental levels of 11-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-type 2 (11βHSD2) in preeclampsia. However, it is not known if the maternal cortisol to cortisone ratio is predictive of placental complications of pregnancy. OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship between the maternal serum cortisol to cortisone ratio at different stages of pregnancy and the risk of preeclampsia or fetal growth restriction (FGR). DESIGN: Women from the Pregnancy Outcome Prediction (POP) study experiencing preeclampsia (n=194) or FGR (n=185) plus a random sample of healthy controls (n=279) were studied...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Kelli Scott, Cara C Lewis, C Nathan Marti
OBJECTIVE: Depression is the most prominent mental health disorder among youth with profound impacts with respect to morbidity and mortality if not addressed. The Treatment for Adolescent Depression Study (TADS) is one of the largest randomized controlled trials that compared the effectiveness of four treatments: Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT), fluoxetine (FLX), combined Cognitive Behavioral and fluoxetine treatment (COMB), and placebo (PBO). However, meaningful heterogeneous treatment courses are masked by these group mean comparisons of treatment impact...
January 8, 2019: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Matthew P Constantinou, Ian M Goodyer, Ivan Eisler, Stephen Butler, Abdullah Kraam, Stephen Scott, Stephen Pilling, Elizabeth Simes, Rachel Ellison, Elizabeth Allison, Peter Fonagy
OBJECTIVE: Recent research suggests that comorbidity among child and adolescent psychiatric symptoms can be explained by a single general psychopathology ('p') factor, as well as more specific factors summarizing clusters of symptoms. We investigated within- and between-person changes in the general and specific psychopathology factors over a psychosocial intervention. METHOD: We ran a secondary analysis of the Systemic Therapy for At-Risk Teens study, a pragmatic randomized controlled trial that compared the effects of multisystemic therapy to management-as-usual for reducing antisocial behavior in 684 adolescents (82% male; 11-18 at baseline) over an 18-month period...
January 14, 2019: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Eirini Flouri, Zahra Sarmadi, Marta Francesconi
OBJECTIVE: To explore if paternal psychological distress is related to the longitudinal course of child Problem behaviour after accounting for maternal psychological distress. METHOD: We used data from the Millennium Cohort Study (MCS), a large general-population birth cohort in the UK. Maternal and paternal psychological distress was measured with the Kessler 6-item psychological distress scale (K-6) at child ages 3, 5, 7, 11 and 14 years. Problem behaviour was measured with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire at these ages...
February 1, 2019: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Abbas Ali Saberi, Hor Dashti-Naserabadi, Joachim Krug
We report on the universality of height fluctuations at the crossing point of two interacting (1+1)-dimensional Kardar-Parisi-Zhang interfaces with curved and flat initial conditions. We introduce a control parameter p as the probability for the initially flat geometry to be chosen and compute the phase diagram as a function of p. We find that the distribution of the fluctuations converges to the Gaussian orthogonal ensemble Tracy-Widom distribution for p<0.5, and to the Gaussian unitary ensemble Tracy-Widom distribution for p>0...
February 1, 2019: Physical Review Letters
Arsalan Marghoub, Joseph Libby, Christian Babbs, Yiannis Ventikos, Michael J Fagan, Mehran Moazen
The newborn mammalian cranial vault consists of five flat bones that are joined together along their edges by soft fibrous tissues called sutures. Early fusion of these sutures leads to a medical condition known as craniosynostosis. The mechanobiology of normal and craniosynostotic skull growth is not well understood. In a series of previous studies, we characterized and modeled radial expansion of normal and craniosynostotic (Crouzon) mice. Here, we describe a new modeling algorithm to simulate bone formation at the sutures in normal and craniosynostotic mice...
February 1, 2019: Physical Review Letters
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