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Intestinal lipid absorption

Theresa D'Aquila, Alyssa S Zembroski, Kimberly K Buhman
Dietary fat absorption by the small intestine is an efficient, multistep process that regulates the uptake and delivery of essential nutrients and energy. Fatty acids taken up by enterocytes, the absorptive cells of the small intestine, are resynthesized into triacylglycerol (TAG) and either secreted in chylomicrons or temporarily stored in cytoplasmic lipid droplets (CLDs). Proteins that associate with CLDs are thought to regulate the dynamics of TAG storage and mobilization. It is currently unclear what effect diet induced obesity (DIO) has on the balance between dietary fat storage and secretion...
2019: Frontiers in Physiology
S A Chime, A A Attama, G C Onunkwo
CONTEXT: Stavudine is an antiretroviral therapy with so many side effects and has short half life of 1.5 h. It degrades to thymine under hydrolytic, oxidative and photolytic conditions hence, has major formulation challenges. OBJECTIVES: To formulate sustained release lipid based stavudine and to study the properties of the formulations by in vitro and in vivo methods. MATERIALS AND METHOD: Stavudine tablets were formulated by molding using validated tablets moulds...
March 13, 2019: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
Vishwajeet Kumar Singh, Mohd Iqbal Bhat, Deeksha Sharma, Suman Kapila, Rajeev Kapila
With the growing interest in probiotic microorganisms based on their well established immense health benefits, the present investigation was aimed to assess the adhesion potential and safety of probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus MTCC- 5897 (LR) before it can be put into a probiotic formulations. L. rhamnosus showed an adhesion index of 166.7 ± 11, which was further confirmed by scanning electron microscopy and relative expression of mucus binding protein (Mub) and mucus adhesion promoting protein (Map-A) genes...
March 9, 2019: Microbial Pathogenesis
Ellen Vercalsteren, Christine Vranckx, Liesbeth Frederix, Marleen Lox, H Roger Lijnen, Ilse Scroyen, Bianca Hemmeryckx
Obesity has become a global health-threat for every age group, including the elderly. It is well known that young mice (10-12 weeks of age) fed a western-type diet (WD, high in fat and sugar) become obese and develop higher cholesterol levels and liver steatosis whereas insulin sensitivity is reduced. Less is known, however, about the effect of a WD on advanced-age mice. Therefore, 10 week-old (young) and 22 month-old (advanced-age), male C57BL/6JRj mice were kept on either a WD or a control diet (SFD) for 15 weeks, followed by analysis of body composition and metabolism...
March 12, 2019: Adipocyte
A J Fleming, K A Estes, H Choi, B A Barton, C A Zimmerman, M D Hanigan
Met and Lys are essential AA that can limit lactational performance in dairy cattle fed protein-sufficient diets. Thus, there is industry demand for ruminally protected (RP) sources of Met and Lys. One method of providing ruminal protection for Met and Lys is lipid encapsulation. The objective of this work was to assess 3 lipid-encapsulated Met prototypes (P1, P2, and P3) and 1 Lys prototype (P4) to determine ruminal protection, small intestine absorption (experiment 1), and animal production responses (experiment 2)...
March 6, 2019: Journal of Dairy Science
Janet Tan Sui Ling, Clive J Roberts, Nashiru Billa
Surface-modified nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) represent a promising mode of drug delivery used to enhance retention of drugs at absorption site. Formulated chitosan-coated amphotericin-B-loaded NLC (ChiAmp NLC) had a size of 394.4 ± 6.4 nm, encapsulation and loading efficiencies of 86.0 ± 3% and 11.0 ± 0.1% respectively. Amphotericin-B release from NLCs was biphasic with no changes in physical properties upon exposure to simulated gastrointestinal conditions. Antifungal properties of Amphotericin-B and ChiAmpB NLC were comparable but ChiAmpB NLC was twice less toxic to red blood cells and ten times safer on HT-29 cell lines...
March 5, 2019: AAPS PharmSciTech
Scott M Gordon, Edward B Neufeld, Zhihong Yang, Milton Pryor, Lita A Freeman, Xiao Fan, Iftikhar J Kullo, Leslie G Biesecker, Alan T Remaley
Regulation of lipid absorption by enterocytes can influence metabolic status in humans and contribute to obesity and related complications. The intracellular steps of chylomicron biogenesis and transport from the Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) to the Golgi complex have been described, but the mechanisms for post-Golgi transport and secretion of chylomicrons have not been identified. Using a newly generated Dennd5b-/- mouse, we demonstrate an essential role for this gene in Golgi to plasma membrane transport of chylomicron secretory vesicles...
March 5, 2019: Scientific Reports
Changting Xiao, Priska Stahel, Gary F Lewis
Rapid and efficient digestion and absorption of dietary triglycerides and other lipids by the intestine, the packaging of those lipids into lipoprotein chylomicron (CM) particles, and their secretion via the lymphatic duct into the blood circulation are essential in maintaining whole-body lipid and energy homeostasis. Biosynthesis and assembly of CMs in enterocytes is a complex multistep process that is subject to regulation by intracellular signaling pathways as well as by hormones, nutrients, and neural factors extrinsic to the enterocyte...
November 2, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Sushama Talegaonkar, Arundhati Bhattacharyya
Lipid-based drug delivery systems has become a popular choice for oral delivery of lipophilic drugs with dissolution rate limited oral absorption. Lipids are known to enhance oral bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs in multiple ways like facilitating dissolution as micellar solution, enhancing the lymphatic uptake and acting as inhibitors of efflux transporters. Lipid nanoparticles are matrix type lipid-based carrier systems which can effectively encapsulate both lipophilic and hydrophilic drugs. Lipid nanoparticles namely solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) and nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) are versatile drug delivery system and can be used for multiple routes of delivery like parenteral, topical, ocular, transdermal, and oral...
February 25, 2019: AAPS PharmSciTech
Bente Kirkhus, Nils Kristian Afseth, Grethe Iren A Borge, Sveinung Grimsby, Christina Steppeler, Annika Krona, Maud Langton
Carotenoids are lipophilic compounds that are digested and absorbed along with lipids. Emulsions based on a mixture of plum tomato and red sweet pepper, with 5% or 10% rapeseed oil, were obtained by high pressure homogenization, and the concentration of carotenoids in the emulsion oil droplets was quantified. The fraction of lycopene and beta-carotene released from the plant matrix into the oil droplets was highest in the 10% emulsion, which had larger oil droplets than the 5% emulsion. Xanthophylls were easily released into oil droplets in both 5% and 10% emulsions...
July 1, 2019: Food Chemistry
Massimiliano Ruscica, Chiara Pavanello, Sara Gandini, Chiara Macchi, Margherita Botta, Daria Dall'Orto, Marina Del Puppo, Marco Bertolotti, Raffaella Bosisio, Giuliana Mombelli, Cesare R Sirtori, Laura Calabresi, Paolo Magni
BACKGROUND: Probiotics incorporated into dairy products have been shown to reduce total (TC) and LDL cholesterolemia (LDL-C) in subjects with moderate hypercholesterolemia. More specifically, probiotics with high biliary salt hydrolase activity, e.g. Bifidobacterium longum BB536, may decrease TC and LDL-C by lowering intestinal cholesterol reabsorption and, combined with other nutraceuticals, may be useful to manage hypercholesterolemia in subjects with low cardiovascular (CV) risk. This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a nutraceutical combination containing Bifidobacterium longum BB536, red yeast rice (RYR) extract (10 mg/day monacolin K), niacin, coenzyme Q10 (Lactoflorene Colesterolo®)...
February 22, 2019: Nutrition Journal
Jingying Liu, Ulrich Werner, Mario Funke, Melissa Besenius, Lasse Saaby, Mathias Fanø, Huiling Mu, Anette Müllertz
To face the challenges of oral delivery of peptide and protein drugs (P/P drugs), self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDSs) containing monoacyl phosphatidylcholine (MAPC), Labrasol (LAB) and medium-chain (MC) monoglycerides as permeation enhancers (PEs) were evaluated for their effect on intestinal absorption of insulin. In this study, insulin was complexed with phosphatidylcholine (SPC) to form an insulin-SPC complex (ins-SPC) with increased lipophilicity. The following three SEDDS: MCT(MAPC) (MC glycerides with MAPC and LAB), MCT(RH40) (MC glycerides with Kolliphor® RH40) and LCT(MAPC) (long-chain glycerides with MAPC and LAB) were loading with ins-SPC (4% or 8% w/w SPC)...
February 18, 2019: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Sarwar Beg, Ravinder Kaur, Rajneet Kaur Khurana, Vikas Rana, Teenu Sharma, Bhupinder Singh
The present studies describe quality-by-design-based design and characterization of cationic self-nanoemulsifying formulations of paclitaxel for improving its biopharmaceutical attributes. Solubility and phase titration experiments were designed to select the lipidic and emulsifying excipients. Two different types of lipidic nanoformulations were developed using medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs) and long-chain triglycerides (LCTs). The nanoformulations were optimized by mixture designs and subjected to evaluation for globule size, zeta potential, drug release, and intestinal permeability...
February 21, 2019: AAPS PharmSciTech
Zhan Ye, Chen Cao, Ruizhi Li, Peirang Cao, Qiu Li, Yuanfa Liu
The objective of the present study was to investigate the connections between lipid compositions and the digestion and absorption differences of different lipids. Five typical edible oils (palm oil, PO; leaf lard oil, LO; rapeseed oil, RO; sunflower oil, SO; linseed oil, LINO) were selected to conduct in vitro digestion experiments considering the lipid digestion extent and hydrolysis rate before analyzing the fatty acid composition and TAG profiles using GC and UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS. Meanwhile, the postprandial lipid absorption status after gavage administration was examined in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats with respect to serum lipid profiles...
February 20, 2019: Food & Function
Sang Heon Suh, Kibaek Choe, Seon Pyo Hong, Seung-Hwan Jeong, Taija Mäkinen, Kwang Soon Kim, Kari Alitalo, Charles D Surh, Gou Young Koh, Joo-Hye Song
A lacteal is a blunt-ended, long, tube-like lymphatic vessel located in the center of each intestinal villus that provides a unique route for drainage of absorbed lipids from the small intestine. However, key regulators for maintaining lacteal integrity are poorly understood. Here, we explore whether and how the gut microbiota regulates lacteal integrity. Germ depletion by antibiotic treatment triggers lacteal regression during adulthood and delays lacteal maturation during the postnatal period. In accordance with compromised lipid absorption, the button-like junction between lymphatic endothelial cells, which is ultrastructurally open to permit free entry of dietary lipids into lacteals, is significantly reduced in lacteals of germ-depleted mice...
February 19, 2019: EMBO Reports
Lorenz Mittermeier, Lusine Demirkhanyan, Benjamin Stadlbauer, Andreas Breit, Camilla Recordati, Anne Hilgendorff, Masayuki Matsushita, Attila Braun, David G Simmons, Eleonora Zakharian, Thomas Gudermann, Vladimir Chubanov
Zn2+ , Mg2+ , and Ca2+ are essential minerals required for a plethora of metabolic processes and signaling pathways. Different categories of cation-selective channels and transporters are therefore required to tightly control the cellular levels of individual metals in a cell-specific manner. However, the mechanisms responsible for the organismal balance of these essential minerals are poorly understood. Herein, we identify a central and indispensable role of the channel-kinase TRPM7 for organismal mineral homeostasis...
February 15, 2019: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Lisa Katharina Maresch, Pia Benedikt, Ursula Feiler, Sandra Eder, Kathrin A Zierler, Ulrike Taschler, Stephanie Kolleritsch, Thomas O Eichmann, Gabriele Schoiswohl, Christina Leopold, Beatrix I Wieser, Caroline Lackner, Thomas Rülicke, Jan van Klinken, Dagmar Kratky, Tarek Moustafa, Gerald Hoefler, Guenter Haemmerle
Murine hepatic carboxylesterase 2c ( Ces2c ) and the presumed human ortholog carboxylesterase 2 ( CES2 ) have been implicated in the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in mice and obese humans. These studies demonstrated that Ces2c hydrolyzes triglycerides (TGs) in hepatocytes. Interestingly, Ces2c / CES2 is most abundantly expressed in the intestine, indicating a role of Ces2c / CES2 in intestinal TG metabolism. Here we show that Ces2c is an important enzyme in intestinal lipid metabolism in mice...
February 2019: Hepatology Communications
Andrea Fratter, Vera Mason, Marzia Pellizzato, Stefano Valier, Arrigo Francesco Giuseppe Cicero, Erik Tedesco, Elisa Meneghetti, Federico Benetti
The class of lipophilic compounds coming from vegetal source represents a perspective in the adjuvant treatment of several human diseases, despite their poor bioavailability in humans. These compounds are generally soluble in fats and poorly soluble in water. The major reason for the poor bioavailability of lipophilic natural compounds after oral uptake in humans is related to their reduced solubility in enteric water-based fluids, leading to an ineffective contact with absorbing epithelium. The main goal to ensure efficacy of such compounds is then creating technological conditions to deliver them into the first enteric tract as hydro-dispersible forms to maximize epithelial absorption...
February 4, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Ana D Mandić, Anni Woting, Tina Jaenicke, Anika Sander, Wiebke Sabrowski, Ulrike Rolle-Kampcyk, Martin von Bergen, Michael Blaut
Peripheral serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine: 5-HT) synthesized in the intestine by enterochromaffin cells (ECs), plays an important role in the regulation of peristaltic of the gut, epithelial secretion and promotes the development and maintenance of the enteric neurons. Recent studies showed that the indigenous gut microbiota modulates 5-HT signalling and that ECs use sensory receptors to detect dietary and microbiota-derived signals from the lumen to subsequently transduce the information to the nervous system...
February 4, 2019: Scientific Reports
Xiaoyu Wang, Mingzhen Zhang, Shireen R L Flores, Regina R Woloshun, Chunhua Yang, Liangjie Yin, Ping Xiang, Xiaodong Xu, Michael D Garrick, Sadasivan Vidyasagar, Didier Merlin, James F Collins
Nanoparticles (NPs) have been utilized to deliver drugs to the intestinal epithelium in vivo. Moreover, NPs derived from edible plants are less toxic than synthetic NPs. Here, we utilized ginger NP-derived lipid vectors (GDLVs) in a proof-of-concept investigation to test the hypothesis that inhibiting expression of divalent metal-ion transporter 1 (Dmt1) would attenuate iron loading in a mouse model of hereditary hemochromatosis (HH). Initial experiments using duodenal epithelial organ cultures from intestine-specific Dmt1 knockout (KO) (Dmt1int/int ) mice in the Ussing chamber established that Dmt1 is the only active iron importer during iron-deficiency anemia...
January 12, 2019: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
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