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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30698723/gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry-method-for-the-quantitative-identification-of-23-new-psychoactive-substances-in-blood-and-urine
#1
Lorna A Nisbet, Fiona M Wylie, Barry K Logan, Karen S Scott
New psychoactive substances (NPSs) have become an integral part of the recreational drug market with "new" compounds being reported by the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction weekly. Due to the changing nature of NPSs, it is impractical to carry out single analyte or even simple class quantitation. Although several gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) methods have been developed these are typically class specific. We present a validated GC-MS method for the quantitation of 2-DPMP, 3-MeO-PCE, 3-MeO-PCP, 5-APB, 6-APB, benzedrone, butylone, ethylone, flephedrone, methiopropamine, MDPV, mephedrone, methoxetamine, methylone, naphyrone, 25B-NBOME, 25C-NBOME, 25D-NBOMe, 25E-NBOME, 25H-NBOME, 25I-NBOME, Mescaline-NBOME and 25P-NBOME in blood and urine samples...
January 30, 2019: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30636413/elucidating-the-distribution-of-plant-metabolites-from-native-tissues-with-ld-ltp-msi
#2
Abigail Moreno-Pedraza, Ignacio Rosas-Román, Nancy Shyrley García-Rojas, Héctor Guillén-Alonso, Cesaré Ovando-Vázquez, David Díaz-Ramírez, Jessica Cuevas-Contreras, Fredd Vergara, Nayelli Marsch-Martínez, Jorge Molina-Torres, Robert Winkler
Secondary metabolites of plants have important biological functions, which often depend on their localization in tissues. Ideally, a fresh untreated material should be directly analyzed to obtain a realistic view of the true sample chemistry. Therefore, there is a large interest for ambient mass-spectrometry-based imaging (MSI) methods. Our aim was to simplify this technology and to find an optimal combination of desorption/ionization principles for a fast ambient MSI of macroscopic plant samples. We coupled a 405-nm continuous-wave (CW) ultraviolet (UV) diode laser to a three-dimensionally (3D) printed low-temperature-plasma (LTP) probe...
January 14, 2019: Analytical Chemistry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30628811/effects-of-acute-and-repeated-treatment-with-serotonin-5-ht2a-receptor-agonist-hallucinogens-on-intracranial-self-stimulation-in-rats
#3
Farhana Sakloth, Elizabeth Leggett, Megan J Moerke, E Andrew Townsend, Matthew L Banks, S Stevens Negus
The prototype 5-HT2A receptor agonist hallucinogens LSD, mescaline, and psilocybin are classified as Schedule 1 drugs of abuse by the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration. Accumulating clinical evidence has also suggested that acute or repeated "microdosing" with these drugs may have utility for treatment of some mental health disorders, including drug abuse and depression. The goal of the present study was to evaluate LSD, mescaline, and psilocybin effects on intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS), a procedure that has been used to evaluate abuse-related effects of other classes of abused drugs...
January 10, 2019: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30521880/classic-psychedelics-an-integrative-review-of-epidemiology-mystical-experience-brain-network-function-and-therapeutics
#4
REVIEW
Matthew W Johnson, Peter S Hendricks, Frederick S Barrett, Roland R Griffiths
The purpose of this paper is to provide an integrative review and offer novel insights regarding human research with classic psychedelics (classic hallucinogens), which are 5HT2AR agonists such as lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), mescaline, and psilocybin. Classic psychedelics have been administered as sacraments since ancient times. They were of prominent interest within psychiatry and neuroscience in the 1950s to 1960s, and during this time contributed to the emergence of the field of molecular neuroscience...
December 3, 2018: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30318013/pharmacokinetic-and-pharmacodynamic-aspects-of-peyote-and-mescaline-clinical-and-forensic-repercussions
#5
Ricardo Jorge Dinis-Oliveira, Carolina Lanca Pereira, Diana Dias da Silva
BACKGROUND: Mescaline (3,4,5-trimethoxyphenethylamine), mainly found in the Peyote cactus (Lophophora williamsii), is one of the oldest known hallucinogenic agents that influence human and animal behavior, but its psychoactive mechanisms remain poorly understood. OBJECTIVES: This article aims to fully review pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of mescaline, focusing on the in vivo and in vitro metabolic profile of the drug and its implications for the variability of response...
October 10, 2018: Current Molecular Pharmacology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30138029/psychedelics-and-psychotherapy-in-canada-humphry-osmond-and-aldous-huxley
#6
Erika Dyck, Patrick Farrell
The decade of the 1950s is well known among historians of psychiatry for the unprecedented shift toward psychopharmacological solutions to mental health problems. More psychiatric medications were introduced than ever before or since (Healy, 2002). While psychiatric researchers later credited these drugs, in part, for controlling psychotic, depressive, and anxious symptoms-and subsequently for emptying decaying psychiatric institutions throughout the Western world-psychiatrists also produced a number of other theories that relied on a more delicate and nuanced blending of psychotherapy and psychopharmacology...
August 2018: History of Psychology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30001118/dark-classics-in-chemical-neuroscience-3-4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine
#7
Lee E Dunlap, Anne M Andrews, David E Olson
Better known as "ecstasy", 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is a small molecule that has played a prominent role in defining the ethos of today's teenagers and young adults, much like lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) did in the 1960s. Though MDMA possesses structural similarities to compounds like amphetamine and mescaline, it produces subjective effects that are unlike any of the classical psychostimulants or hallucinogens and is one of the few compounds capable of reliably producing prosocial behavioral states...
October 17, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29847089/dark-classics-in-chemical-neuroscience-mescaline
#8
Bruce K Cassels, Patricio Sáez-Briones
Archeological studies in the United States, Mexico, and Peru suggest that mescaline, as a cactus constituent, has been used for more than 6000 years. Although it is a widespread cactus alkaloid, it is present in high concentrations in few species, notably the North American peyote ( Lophophora williamsii) and the South American wachuma ( Trichocereus pachanoi, T. peruvianus, and T. bridgesii). Spanish 16th century chroniclers considered these cacti "diabolic", leading to their prohibition, but their use persisted to our days and has been spreading for the last 150 years...
October 17, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29593537/acute-pharmacological-effects-of-2c-b-in-humans-an-observational-study
#9
Esther Papaseit, Magí Farré, Clara Pérez-Mañá, Marta Torrens, Mireia Ventura, Mitona Pujadas, Rafael de la Torre, Débora González
2,5-dimethoxy-4-bromophenethylamine (2C-B) is a psychedelic phenylethylamine derivative, structurally similar to mescaline. It is a serotonin 5-hydroxytryptamine-2A (5-HT2A ), 5-hydroxytryptamine-2B (5-HT2B ), and 5-hydroxytryptamine-2C (5-HT2C ) receptor partial agonist used recreationally as a new psychoactive substance. It has been reported that 2C-B induces mild psychedelic effects, although its acute pharmacological effects and pharmacokinetics have not yet been fully studied in humans. An observational study was conducted to assess the acute subjective and physiological effects, as well as pharmacokinetics of 2C-B...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29303006/key-interindividual-determinants-in-mdma-pharmacodynamics
#10
REVIEW
E Papaseit, M Torrens, C Pérez-Mañá, R Muga, M Farré
MDMA, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, is a synthetic phenethylamine derivative with structural and pharmacological similarities to both amphetamines and mescaline. MDMA produces characteristic amphetamine-like actions (euphoria, well-being), increases empathy, and induces pro-social effects that seem to motivate its recreational consumption and provide a basis for its potential therapeutic use. Areas covered: The aim of this review is to present the main interindividual determinants in MDMA pharmacodynamics...
February 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29284138/psychiatry-the-psychedelic-drugs-past-present-future
#11
REVIEW
James J H Rucker, Jonathan Iliff, David J Nutt
The classical psychedelic drugs, including psilocybin, lysergic acid diethylamide and mescaline, were used extensively in psychiatry before they were placed in Schedule I of the UN Convention on Drugs in 1967. Experimentation and clinical trials undertaken prior to legal sanction suggest that they are not helpful for those with established psychotic disorders and should be avoided in those liable to develop them. However, those with so-called 'psychoneurotic' disorders sometimes benefited considerably from their tendency to 'loosen' otherwise fixed, maladaptive patterns of cognition and behaviour, particularly when given in a supportive, therapeutic setting...
December 25, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29209235/the-endless-trip-among-the-nps-users-psychopathology-and-psychopharmacology-in-the-hallucinogen-persisting-perception-disorder-a-systematic-review
#12
REVIEW
Laura Orsolini, Gabriele Duccio Papanti, Domenico De Berardis, Amira Guirguis, John Martin Corkery, Fabrizio Schifano
Hallucinogen-persisting perception disorder (HPPD) is a syndrome characterized by prolonged or reoccurring perceptual symptoms, reminiscent of acute hallucinogen effects. HPPD was associated with a broader range of LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide)-like substances, cannabis, methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), psilocybin, mescaline, and psychostimulants. The recent emergence of novel psychoactive substances (NPS) posed a critical concern regarding the new onset of psychiatric symptoms/syndromes, including cases of HPPD...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/28987938/tcb-2-7r-3-bromo-2-5-dimethoxy-bicyclo-4-2-0-octa-1-3-5-trien-7-yl-methanamine-a-hallucinogenic-drug-a-selective-5-ht-2a-receptor-pharmacological-tool-or-none-of-the-above
#13
REVIEW
Giuseppe Di Giovanni, Philippe De Deurwaerdère
The development of 5-HT2A receptor agonists has been considerably marginalized since the demonstration that the tryptaminergic drugs, LSD and psilocybin, or the phenylakylamine drugs, mescaline and DOI, exert their hallucinogenic properties via the stimulation of 5-HT2A receptors. Nonetheless, the ability of drugs to stimulate 5-HT2A receptors is not necessarily associated with psychedelic experience and the hallucinogenic properties are still not understood. Several studies have increased interest in stimulating 5-HT2A receptors in various CNS diseases...
October 4, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/28947075/psychedelic-drugs-in-biomedicine
#14
REVIEW
Evan J Kyzar, Charles D Nichols, Raul R Gainetdinov, David E Nichols, Allan V Kalueff
Psychedelic drugs, such as lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), mescaline, and psilocybin, exert profound effects on brain and behavior. After decades of difficulties in studying these compounds, psychedelics are again being tested as potential treatments for intractable biomedical disorders. Preclinical research of psychedelics complements human neuroimaging studies and pilot clinical trials, suggesting these compounds as promising treatments for addiction, depression, anxiety, and other conditions. However, many questions regarding the mechanisms of action, safety, and efficacy of psychedelics remain...
November 2017: Trends in Pharmacological Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/28851034/mda-mdma-and-other-mescaline-like-substances-in-the-us-military-s-search-for-a-truth-drug-1940s-to-1960s
#15
REVIEW
Torsten Passie, Udo Benzenhöfer
This article describes the context in which 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and other mescaline-like compounds were explored as hallucinogens for military and intelligence purposes from the 1940s to the 1960s. Germans first tested mescaline as a "truth drug" in a military context. In the 1940s, the United States military started testing hallucinogenic substances as truth drugs for interrogation and behavior manipulation. After tests carried out using mescaline and other drugs in 1950, some derivatives of mescaline were synthesized by the Army for the exploration of possible "speech-inducing" effects...
January 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://read.qxmd.com/read/28677096/hallucinogens-and-serotonin-5-ht-2a-receptor-mediated-signaling-pathways
#16
REVIEW
Juan F López-Giménez, Javier González-Maeso
The neuropsychological effects of naturally occurring psychoactive chemicals have been recognized for millennia. Hallucinogens, which include naturally occurring chemicals such as mescaline and psilocybin, as well as synthetic compounds, such as lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), induce profound alterations of human consciousness, emotion, and cognition. The discovery of the hallucinogenic effects of LSD and the observations that LSD and the endogenous ligand serotonin share chemical and pharmacological profiles led to the suggestion that biogenic amines like serotonin were involved in the psychosis of mental disorders such as schizophrenia...
2018: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/28631526/lifetime-experience-with-classic-psychedelics-predicts-pro-environmental-behavior-through-an-increase-in-nature-relatedness
#17
Matthias Forstmann, Christina Sagioglou
In a large-scale ( N = 1487) general population online study, we investigated the relationship between past experience with classic psychedelic substances (e.g. LSD, psilocybin, mescaline), nature relatedness, and ecological behavior (e.g. saving water, recycling). Using structural equation modeling we found that experience with classic psychedelics uniquely predicted self-reported engagement in pro-environmental behaviors, and that this relationship was statistically explained by people's degree of self-identification with nature...
August 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/28329723/analysis-of-synthetic-phenethylamine-street-drugs-using-direct-sample-analysis-coupled-to-accurate-mass-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry
#18
Maura K McGonigal, Joshua A Wilhide, Philip B Smith, Noelle M Elliott, Frank L Dorman
Serious health complications and fatal overdoses have brought phenethylamine, otherwise known as 2C, drug abuse to the public's attention. These compounds are 2C-X series analogs of mescaline. The name "2C" results from the two carbons in the ethyl chain. The substituents on these emerging drugs are constantly changed in order to avoid listing as controlled substances. These synthetic drugs are marketed as having affects similar to LSD and MDMA and are typically consumed sublingually via blotter paper...
June 2017: Forensic Science International
https://read.qxmd.com/read/28057187/challenges-in-laboratory-detection-of-unusual-substance-abuse-issues-with-magic-mushroom-peyote-cactus-khat-and-solvent-abuse
#19
REVIEW
A Dasgupta
Drug abuse is a worldwide problem. Although commonly abused drugs can be identified during routine urine drug testing, less commonly abused drugs may escape detection. These less commonly abused drugs not only include some designer drugs such as synthetic cannabinoid but also include abuse of psychedelic magic mushroom (active ingredients: psilocybin and psilocin), peyote cactus (active ingredient: mescaline), and khat plants (active ingredient: cathinone). Moreover, solvent and glue abuse is gaining popularity among teenagers and young adults which may even cause fatality...
2017: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/27992004/charcot-mitchell-and-lees-neurology-free-thinkers-and-their-experiences-of-psychoactive-drugs
#20
Hélio A G Teive, Francisco M B Germiniani, Pedro A Kowacs, Renato P Munhoz
Three world-famous neurologists, Charcot and Mitchell, in the 19th century, and Lees, in this century, all of whom had great scientific curiosity, experimented with the psychoactive drugs hashish, mescal and yagé, respectively, in an attempt to increase their knowledge of neurological diseases and how the brain works.
December 2016: Arquivos de Neuro-psiquiatria
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