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Pressurized habitat

Kara M Million, Bruce W Stallsmith
The striated darter (Etheostoma striatulum Page & Braasch) is a rare fish species restricted to the Duck River system in Maury County, Tennessee, USA. In this paper we describe Aethycteron striatuli n. sp., a gill parasite from a genus that has specialised on darters as the parasites' preferred hosts. Aethycteron striatuli morphologically resembles A. malleus (Mueller, 1938), A. robisoni Cloutman & McAllister, 2017, A. chlorosomus (Harrises & Vickery, 1970) and A. micropercae Suriano & Beverley-Burton, 1982...
February 11, 2019: Systematic Parasitology
Arunima Sen, Tobias Himmler, Wei Li Hong, Cheshtaa Chitkara, Raymond W Lee, Benedicte Ferré, Aivo Lepland, Jochen Knies
A newly discovered cold seep from the Lofoten-Vesterålen margin (Norwegian Sea) is dominated by the chemosymbiotrophic siboglinid Oligobrachia haakonmosbiensis like other high latitude seeps, but additionally displays uncharacteristic features. Sulphidic bottom water likely prevents colonization by cnidarians and sponges, resulting in fewer taxa than deeper seeps in the region, representing a deviation from depth-related trends seen among seeps elsewhere. O. haakonmosbiensis was present among carbonate and barite crusts, constituting the first record of frenulates among hard substrates...
February 11, 2019: Scientific Reports
Jiamin Fan, Xueli Zheng, Hongyong Wang, Hong Qi, Benmo Jiang, Meiping Qiao, Jianwen Zhou, Shuhai Bu
Musk deer (Moschidae), whose secretion is an expensive and irreplaceable component of traditional medicine, have become endangered in the wild due to habitat fragmentation and over-exploitation. In recent years, China has had success in the artificial breeding of forest musk deer, thus relieving the pressure on wild populations. However, many farmed populations are experiencing degradation, and little genetic information is available for conservation management. In this study, we selected 274 individuals from three typical captive populations (originated from the Ta-pa Mountains (Tp), the midrange of the Qinling Mountains (Ql) and the Western Sichuan Plateau (WS), respectively) to evaluate the genetic variations...
February 8, 2019: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Anna Cronin-de-Chavez, Shahid Islam, Rosemary R C McEachan
Greenspace is important for physical and mental health. Low-income, multi-ethnic populations in deprived urban areas experience several barriers to using greenspace. This may exacerbate health inequalities. The current study explored structural and individual determinants of greenspace use amongst parents of young children in an urban, deprived, multi-cultural area situated in the North of England, UK. Semi-structured in-depth interviews and focus group discussions were conducted with 30 parents of children aged 0-3 between December 2016 and May 2017 from a range of ethnic groups...
February 5, 2019: Health & Place
Fiona Sach, Ellen S Dierenfeld, Simon C Langley-Evans, Michael J Watts, Lisa Yon
Background: The increasing human population and global intensification of agriculture have had a major impact on the world's natural ecosystems and caused devastating effects on populations of mega-herbivores such as the African savanna elephants, through habitat reduction and fragmentation and increased human-animal conflict. Animals with vast home ranges are forced into increasingly smaller geographical areas, often restricted by fencing or encroaching anthropogenic activities, resulting in huge pressures on these areas to meet the animals' resource needs...
2019: PeerJ
Domenico Fulgione, Maria Buglione, Daniela Rippa, Martina Trapanese, Simona Petrelli, Daria Maria Monti, Massimo Aria, Rita Del Giudice, Valeria Maselli
The Wall Gecko shows heterogeneous colour pattern, which may vary among individuals, depending on the time of day and on the habitat segregation. Nocturnal pale geckos live exclusively on walls. Diurnal dark geckos preferentially live on olive tree trunks, demonstrating an ability to change skin colour that is superior to that of the pale gecko and allows diurnal geckos becoming camouflaged on the diverse substrates occupied during the day. In our study, the nocturnal/pale/wall and diurnal/dark/trunk geckos could be considered the extremes of an ecological cline of morphological variation on which divergent selection may be acting...
February 4, 2019: Scientific Reports
Aaron N Johnston, Jason E Bruggeman, Aidan Beers, Erik A Beever, Roger Christophersen, Jason I Ransom
Although increased frequency of extreme-weather events is one of the most-secure predictions associated with contemporary climate change, effects of such events on distribution and abundance of climate-sensitive species remain poorly understood. Montane ecosystems may be especially sensitive to extreme weather because of complex abiotic and biotic interactions that propagate from climate-driven reductions in snowpack. Snowpack not only protects subnivean biotas from extreme cold, but also influences forage availability through timing of melt-off and water availability...
February 1, 2019: Ecology
Cheng Fu, Yu-Liang Cui, Jia-Jia Xu, Ya Wang, Shi-Jian Fu
The crucian carp (Carassius auratus) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) are close relatives and coexist in most of their natural habitats but with different levels of abundance. The crucian carp is usually more abundant than the common carp in high predation-pressure habitats. To verify whether the crucian carp exhibits a significantly higher survival capacity combined with additional antipredator strategies than the common carp, we measured the morphology, behavioral traits, fast-start escape swimming performance and survival time under predation in both fish species...
January 28, 2019: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
Michael J Roast, Anne E Aulsebrook, Marie Fan, Nataly Hidalgo Aranzamendi, Niki Teunissen, Anne Peters
Investment in immune function can be costly, and life-history theory predicts trade-offs between immune function and other physiological demands. Environmental heterogeneity may constrain or change the optimal strategy and thereby alter baseline immune function (possibly mediated by stress responses). We tested several hypotheses relating variation in climatic, ecological, and social environments to chronic stress and levels of baseline innate immunity in a wild, cooperatively breeding bird, the purple-crowned fairy-wren (Malurus coronatus coronatus)...
March 2019: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
Richard J Payne, Claire Campbell, Andrea J Britton, Ruth J Mitchell, Robin J Pakeman, Laurence Jones, Louise C Ross, Carly J Stevens, Christopher Field, Simon J M Caporn, Jacky Carroll, Jill L Edmondson, Edward J Carnell, Sam Tomlinson, Anthony J Dore, Nancy Dise, Ulrike Dragosits
Nitrogen (N) deposition poses a severe risk to global terrestrial ecosystems, and managing this threat is an important focus for air pollution science and policy. To understand and manage the impacts of N deposition, we need metrics which accurately reflect N deposition pressure on the environment, and are responsive to changes in both N deposition and its impacts over time. In the UK, the metric typically used is a measure of total N deposition over 1-3 years, despite evidence that N accumulates in many ecosystems and impacts from low-level exposure can take considerable time to develop...
January 18, 2019: Environmental Pollution
Gabriel C Conroy, Yoko Shimizu-Kimura, Robert W Lamont, Steven M Ogbourne
Assisted migration can aid in the conservation of narrowly endemic species affected by habitat loss, fragmentation and climate change. Here, we employ a multidisciplinary approach by examining the population genetic structure of a threatened, dioecious rainforest tree of the subtropical notophyll vine forests of eastern Australia, Fontainea rostrata, and its potential requirements for population enhancement and translocation to withstand the effects of anthropogenic fragmentation and climate change. We used microsatellite markers to gain an understanding of the way genetic diversity is partitioned within and among the nine extant populations of F...
2019: PloS One
Megan A Cimino, Mark Anderson, Travis Schramek, Sophia Merrifield, Eric J Terrill
Fisheries management faces numerous monitoring and enforcement challenges that are becoming more complex as fish stocks are depleted; and illegal, unregulated, and unreported fishing becomes more sophisticated. For remote island nations, the challenges are compounded by a loosely understood association of pelagic stocks to the ocean environment, and the tyranny of distance in monitoring and surveilling large exclusive economic zones (EEZ). An approach to ocean conservation is establishing protected areas, with the Pacific island nation of Palau as a leader with the recently established National Marine Sanctuary, which closes 80% of their EEZ to commercial fishing in 2020...
January 24, 2019: Scientific Reports
M J Costa, J F Fuentes-Pérez, I Boavida, J A Tuhtan, A N Pinheiro
Hydropeaking is the rapid change in the water flow downstream of a hydropower plant, driven by changes in daily electricity demand. These fluctuations may produce negative effects in freshwater fish. To minimize these impacts, previous studies have proposed habitat enhancement structures as potential mitigation measures for salmonids. However, the recommendation of these mitigation measures for cyprinids remains scarce and their effects unknown. In this study, the effects of potential habitat mitigation structures under simulated hydropeaking and base-flow conditions are examined for Iberian barbel (Luciobarbus bocagei) in an indoor flume...
2019: PloS One
Johan Espunyes, Jordi Bartolomé, Mathieu Garel, Arturo Gálvez-Cerón, Xavier Fernández Aguilar, Andreu Colom-Cadena, Juan Antonio Calleja, Diana Gassó, Laia Jarque, Santiago Lavín, Ignasi Marco, Emmanuel Serrano
In alpine habitats, the seasonally marked climatic conditions generate seasonal and spatial differences in forage availability for herbivores. Vegetation availability and quality during the growing season are known to drive life history traits of mountain ungulates. However, little effort has been made to understand the association between plant phenology and changes in the foraging strategies of these mountain dwellers. Furthermore, this link can be affected by the seasonal presence of livestock in the same meadows...
2019: PloS One
Marie-Joe Karam, Dima Souleman, M Sol Schvartzman, Sophie Gallina, Julien Spielmann, Charles Poncet, Olivier Bouchez, Maxime Pauwels, Marc Hanikenne, Hélène Frérot
Anthropogenic activities are among the main drivers of global change and result in drastic habitat modifications, which represent strong evolutionary challenges for biological species that can either migrate, adapt, or disappear. In this context, understanding the genetics of adaptive traits is a prerequisite to enable long-term maintenance of populations under strong environmental constraints. To examine these processes, a QTL approach was developed here using the pseudometallophyte Arabidopsis halleri, which displays among-population adaptive divergence for tolerance to metallic pollution in soils...
January 22, 2019: Heredity
Giles E Duffield, Dominic J Acri, Gary F George, Aaron D Sheppard, Nigel W Beebe, Scott A Ritchie, Thomas R Burkot
BACKGROUND: Species in the Anopheles farauti complex are major malaria vectors in the Asia Pacific region. Anopheline mosquitoes exhibit circadian and diel rhythms in sugar- and blood-feeding (biting), flight activity, oviposition, and in some species, a short-lived dusk/early night associated swarming behaviour during which mating occurs. A behavioural study of wild-caught mosquitoes from Queensland, Australia was conducted to investigate the differences in diel rhythmic flight activity between two cryptic species in several reproductive states...
January 22, 2019: Parasites & Vectors
Moritz D Lürig, Rebecca J Best, Marek Svitok, Jukka Jokela, Blake Matthews
1.Cryptic pigmentation of prey is often thought to evolve in response to predator-mediated selection, but pigmentation traits can also be plastic, and change with respect to both abiotic and biotic environmental conditions. In such cases, identifying the presence of, and drivers of, trait plasticity is useful for understanding the evolution of crypsis. 2.Previous work suggests that cryptic pigmentation of freshwater isopods (Asellus aquaticus) has evolved in response to predation pressure by fish in habitats with varying macrophyte cover and coloration...
January 21, 2019: Journal of Animal Ecology
Daniel E Schindler
In Focus: Freshwater, C., Trudel, M., Beacham, T. D., Gauthier, S., Johnson, S. C., Neville, C. & Juanes, F. (2016) Individual variation, population-specific migration behaviours and stochastic processes shape marine migration phenologies. Journal of Animal Ecology, 88, 67-78. Pacific salmon undertake arduous and risky migrations from their freshwater nursery grounds to the coastal ocean, northwards to their feeding grounds, and then back to their freshwater natal habitats to spawn...
January 2019: Journal of Animal Ecology
L Thierry de Ville d'Avray, D Ami, A Chenuil, R David, J-P Féral
The understanding of ecosystem services is essential to support sustainable use and preservation of ecosystems. Coralligenous habitats, main contributors of the Mediterranean marine biodiversity, are yet understudied in term of services provided. This study presents an original small-scale approach to investigate the services provided by coralligenous habitats of a French study area consisting of two marine sites (Marseille and Port-Cros sites) in order to cover two contrasted anthropogenic pressure despite the small-scale...
January 2019: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Deepa Jaiswal, Jitendra Pandey
Dissolved oxygen (DO) plays a major role in sustaining aquatic communities; its concentration and regulatory determinants are considered a key node predicting eutrophy, ecosystem health, and biogeochemical feedbacks. Here we report the status of dissolved oxygen deficit (DOD; hypoxia), and its mechanistic links with sediment oxygen demand (SOD) in the Ganga River. We conducted two independent but interlinked studies during summer low flows of three consecutive years (2016-2018) considering: 1) a 518 km middle segment of the Ganga River between Kanpur upstream and Varanasi downstream; and 2) trajectory analyses downstream two point sources, one flushing industrial effluents (Wazidpur drain) and the other with urban sewage (Assi drain)...
January 15, 2019: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
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