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colon stem cell

Vivek Pandey, Anima Tripathi, Pawan K Dubey
SummaryThe decision by germ cells to differentiate and undergo either oogenesis or spermatogenesis takes place during embryonic development and Nanos plays an important role in this process. The present study was designed to investigate the expression patterns in rat of Nanos2-homologue protein in primordial germ cells (PGCs) over different embryonic developmental days as well as in spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs). Embryos from three different embryonic days (E8.5, E10.5, E11.5) and SSCs were isolated and used to detect Nanos2-homologue protein using immunocytochemistry, western blotting, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and flow cytometry...
March 19, 2019: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
Jeremy Johnson, Piotr Rychahou, Vitaliy M Sviripa, Heidi L Weiss, Chunming Liu, David S Watt, B Mark Evers
PURPOSE: Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is the most lethal and aggressive subtype of breast cancer. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a major energy regulator that suppresses tumor growth, and 1-(3-chloro-4-((trifluoromethyl)thio)phenyl)-3-(4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenyl)urea (FND-4b) is a novel AMPK activator that inhibits growth and induces apoptosis in colon cancer. The purpose of this project was to test the effects of FND-4b on AMPK activation, proliferation, and apoptosis in breast cancer with a particular emphasis on TNBC...
2019: PloS One
Vasiliki Skiada, Antonella Faccio, Nektarios Kavroulakis, Andrea Genre, Paola Bonfante, Kalliope K Papadopoulou
Plant cellular responses to endophytic filamentous fungi are scarcely reported, with the majority of described colonization processes in plant-fungal interactions referring to either pathogens or true symbionts. Fusarium solani strain K (FsK) is a root endophyte of Solanum lycopersicum, which protects against root and foliar pathogens. Here, we investigated the association of FsK with two legumes (Lotus japonicus and Medicago truncatula) and report on colonization patterns and plant responses during the establishment of the interaction...
March 11, 2019: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
Xiaotian Dong, Xudong Feng, Jingqi Liu, Yanping Xu, Qiaoling Pan, Zongxin Ling, Jiong Yu, Jinfeng Yang, Lanjuan Li, Hongcui Cao
Background: The mechanisms of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) transplantation to protect against acute liver injury have been well studied within the liver. However, the associated changes in the intestinal microbiota during this process are poorly understood. Methods: In this study, compact bone-derived MSCs were injected into mice after carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 ) administration. Potential curative effect of MSC was evaluated by survival rate and biochemical and pathological results...
2019: Stem Cells International
Cara M DeAngelis, Dhrubajyoti Nag, Jeffrey H Withey, Jyl S Matson
The phage shock protein (Psp) system is a stress response pathway that senses and responds to inner membrane damage. The genetic components of the Psp system are present in several clinically relevant Gram-negative bacteria, including Vibrio cholerae However, most of the current knowledge about the Psp response stems from in vitro studies in Escherichia coli and Yersinia enterocolitica. In fact, the Psp response in V. cholerae has remained completely uncharacterized. In this study, we demonstrate that V. cholerae does have a functional Psp response system...
March 11, 2019: Journal of Bacteriology
Jeong-Hyeon Ko, Jae-Young Um, Seok-Geun Lee, Woong Mo Yang, Gautam Sethi, Kwang Seok Ahn
Epidemiological evidence suggests that obesity can significantly increase the risk of various cancers, although the mechanisms underlying this link are completely unknown. Here, we analyzed the effect of adipocytes on melanoma and colon cancer cells proliferation, migration, and invasion. The potential effects of conditioned media (CM) obtained from differentiated mouse 3T3-L1 cells and human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hAMSC) on the proliferation, migration, and invasion of B16BL6 melanoma and colon 26-L5 cancer cells were investigated...
March 9, 2019: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Maria Raffaella Ambrosio, Remo Vernillo, Sabrina De Carolis, Antonietta Carducci, Lucia Mundo, Alessandro Ginori, Bruno Jim Rocca, Valerio Nardone, Alessandra Lucenti Fei, Tommaso Carfagno, Stefano Lazzi, Monica Cricca, Piero Tosi
Here we present the case of a patient affected by rectal squamous cell carcinoma in which we demonstrated the presence of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) by a variety of techniques. Collectively, the virus was detected not only in the tumor but also in some regional lymph nodes and in non-neoplastic mucosa of the upper tract of large bowel. By contrast, it was not identifiable in its common sites of entry, namely oral and ano-genital region. We also found HPV DNA in the plasma-derived exosome. Next, by in vitro studies, we confirmed the capability of HPV DNA-positive exosomes, isolated from the supernatant of a HPV DNA positive cell line (CaSki), to transfer its DNA to human colon cancer and normal cell lines...
2019: Frontiers in Oncology
Marzena Zychowicz, Krystyna Pietrucha, Martyna Podobinska, Malgorzata Kowalska-Wlodarczyk, Jacek Lenart, Justyna Augustyniak, Leonora Buzanska
The human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC) are one of the promising candidates as patient specific cell source for autologous transplantation or modeling of diseases. The collagen (Col) scaffolds have been shown suitable to create in vitro biomimetic microenvironment for human neural stem cells, but their ability to accommodate stem cells at different stages of neural differentiation has not been verified yet. In this paper we compare lineage related hiPSC during neural differentiation for their ability to colonize Col scaffold...
March 1, 2019: Frontiers in Bioscience (Scholar Edition)
Alissar Monzer, Nayri Jabotian, Farah Ballout, Jie S Zhu, Mark J Kurth, Makhluf J Haddadin, Hala Gali-Muhtasib
Chemotherapy has been shown to be effective in reducing the progression and development of cancer in metastatic patients. However, drug selectivity is still a major issue for most chemotherapeutics. In this study, we synthesized four novel heterocyclic compounds having similarity in structure with quinone systems whereby nitrogen atoms replace the oxygen atoms. The anticancer activity of these compounds ( DIQ3-6 ) was tested against HCT116 human colon cancer cells. We showed that all four heterocycles caused significant reduction in colon cancer cell viability at doses as low as 4 μM, a concentration that was not cytotoxic to normal human FHs74Int intestinal cell lines...
February 28, 2019: ACS Omega
Priya Rangan, Inyoung Choi, Min Wei, Gerardo Navarrete, Esra Guen, Sebastian Brandhorst, Nobel Enyati, Gab Pasia, Daral Maesincee, Vanessa Ocon, Maya Abdulridha, Valter D Longo
Dietary interventions are potentially effective therapies for inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). We tested the effect of 4-day fasting-mimicking diet (FMD) cycles on a chronic dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced murine model resulting in symptoms and pathology associated with IBD. These FMD cycles reduced intestinal inflammation, increased stem cell number, stimulated protective gut microbiota, and reversed intestinal pathology caused by DSS, whereas water-only fasting increased regenerative and reduced inflammatory markers without reversing pathology...
March 5, 2019: Cell Reports
Selin S Suner, Sahin Demirci, Berkant Yetiskin, Rawil Fakhrullin, Ekaterina Naumenko, Oguz Okay, Ramesh S Ayyala, Nurettin Sahiner
We present here preparation of mechanically strong and biocompatible cryogel composites based on hyaluronic acid (HA) and halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) of various compositions, and their applications as scaffold for different cell growing media. Uniaxial compression tests reveal that the incorporation of HNTs into HA cryogels leads to a ~2.5-fold increase in their Young moduli, e.g., from 38 ± 1 to 99 ± 4 kPa at a HA:HNTs weight ratio of 1:2. Although HA:HNTs based cryogels were found to be blood compatible with 1...
March 3, 2019: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Hossein Azizi, Hatef Ghasemi Hamidabadi, Thomas Skutella
Objective: Spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) provide the cellular basis for sperm production transforming the male's genetic information to the next generation. We aimed to examine the effect of different feeder layer on proliferation of SSCs. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, we compared the in vitro effects of the co-culture of mouse SSCs with mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), sandos inbred mice (SIM) embryo-derived thioguanine- and ouabainresistant (STO) feeders, and neonate and adult testicular stroma cell (TSC) feeders on the efficiency of mouse SSC proliferation and colony formation...
July 2019: Cell Journal
Tâmara P Morais, Paulo A Zaini, Sandeep Chakraborty, Hossein Gouran, Camila P Carvalho, Hebréia O Almeida-Souza, Jessica B Souza, Paula S Santos, Luiz R Goulart, José M Q Luz, Rafael Nascimento, Abhaya M Dandekar
Cecropin-B (CecB) is a peptide with well-established antimicrobial properties against different phytopathogenic bacteria. Despite modest action against Ralstonia solanacearum, its animal source limits the acceptance in transgenic applications. To overcome this, we selected eight alpha-helical (AH) cationic peptides derived from plant protein sequences and investigated their antimicrobial properties against R. solanacearum. Remarkably, PPC20 (a linear AH-peptide present in phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase) has a three-fold lower lethal dose on R...
March 2019: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
John N Mariani, Lisa Zou, Steven A Goldman
Human glial progenitor cells (hGPCs) can engraft, expand, and differentiate into functional oligodendrocytes and astrocytes when transplanted neonatally into murine hosts, in which they outcompete the host glial pool to ultimately colonize and dominate the recipient brains. When congenitally hypomyelinated mutants are used as hosts, the donor hGPCs generate myelinogenic oligodendrocytes as well as astrocytes, so that the recipient mice develop a largely humanized white matter, with entirely human-derived myelin...
2019: Methods in Molecular Biology
Yi Wang, Yuxi Jiang, Yifei Zhang, Shizhu Wen, Yuguang Wang, Hongyu Zhang
In clinic infection is the paramount cause for failure of guided bone regeneration (GBR) membranes. Therefore, it is crucial to develop anti-infective GBR membranes for clinical bone repair application. In this research, we successfully prepared electrospun core-shell nanofibers loaded with metronidazole (MNA) and nano-hydroxyapatites (nHA), which could be employed for anti-infective GBR membranes due to the achievement of dual functions with enhanced osteogenesis and slow MNA release. The nanofiber shell was composed of polycaprolactone and nHA, whilst the nanofiber core was gelatin and MNA...
May 2019: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Pedro Antas, Laura Novellasdemunt, Anna Kucharska, Isobel Massie, Joana Carvalho, Dahmane Oukrif, Emma Nye, Marco Novelli, Vivian S W Li
Wnt signals at the base of mammalian crypts play a pivotal role in intestinal stem cell (ISC) homeostasis, whereas aberrant Wnt activation causes colon cancer. Precise control of Wnt signal strength is governed by a number of negative inhibitory mechanisms acting at distinct levels of the cascade. Here, we identify the Wnt negative regulatory role of Sh3bp4 in the intestinal crypt. We show that the loss of Sh3bp4 increases ISC and Paneth cell numbers in murine intestine and accelerates adenoma development in Apcmin mice...
February 26, 2019: Cell Reports
Masaru Terasaki, Saki Masaka, Chinami Fukada, Mayu Houzaki, Tetsuya Endo, Takuji Tanaka, Hayato Maeda, Kazuo Miyashita, Michihiro Mutoh
Background/ Aim: A high polar xanthophyll of Fucoxanthin (Fx) is abundantly contained in edible brown algae, and it has chemopreventive effects in mouse cancer models, however, the underlying mechanisms of these effects are not well understood. Thus, we aimed to investigate the effects of Fx on the tumor microenvironment in cancer model mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We investigated the effect of Fx (30 mg/kg body weight) in a variety of cell types within the tumor microenvironment of α mouse preclinical colorectal cancer model and analyzed the mouse saliva in search of predictors for cancer chemopreventive effects...
March 2019: In Vivo
Afraa Mamoori, Riajul Wahab, Jelena Vider, Vinod Gopalan, Alfred King-Yin Lam
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate the impact of miR-451 on the biological behaviours of colon cancer cells along with its targets interactions. METHOD: The levels of miR-451 were tested in colon cancer cell lines (SW480 and SW48). Multiple functional and immunological assays were performed to analyse miR-451 induced growth changes in-vitro and downstream effects on target proteins. RESULTS: Overexpression of miR-451 in colon cancer cells led to reduced cell proliferation, increased apoptosis and decrease accumulation of the cells at the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle...
February 22, 2019: Gene
Vera Buchele, Maike Büttner-Herold, Tina Vogler, Markus F Neurath, Kai Hildner
Acute graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) represents the most severe complication that patients previously undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HCT) face and is frequently associated with a poor clinical outcome. While, for instance, GvHD manifestations of the skin are usually responsive to established immune-suppressive therapies and are, hence, not taking a fatal course, the presence and the intensity of intestinal GvHD, especially of the mid-to-lower parts of the gut, strongly influence the outcome and overall survival of patients with acute GvHD...
February 11, 2019: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Sha Wang, Katherine D Walton, Deborah L Gumucio
The adult gastrointestinal tract (GI) is a series of connected organs (esophagus, stomach, small intestine, colon) that develop via progressive regional specification of a continuous tubular embryonic organ anlage. This chapter focuses on organogenesis of the small intestine. The intestine arises by folding of a flat sheet of endodermal cells into a tube of highly proliferative pseudostratified cells. Dramatic elongation of this tube is driven by rapid epithelial proliferation. Then, epithelial-mesenchymal crosstalk and physical forces drive a stepwise cascade that results in convolution of the tubular surface into finger-like projections called villi...
2019: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
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