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Hannah Ayrle, Heiko Nathues, Anna Bieber, Manuela Durrer, Nele Quander, Meike Mevissen, Michael Walkenhorst
Postweaning diarrhoea (PWD) due to Escherichia coli is an economically important disease in pig production. In this placebo-controlled study performed in Switzerland, the effects of oral supplementation of Allium sativum L. (garlic, AS) on performance (bodyweight (BW) and daily weight gain (DWG)) and health (body condition and clinical score) were investigated in postweaning piglets. Piglets (n=600) were randomly assigned to the treatment groups (placebo, AS or colistin) and observed from birth until three weeks postweaning...
February 18, 2019: Veterinary Record
Anne Mette Jakobsen, Martin Iain Bahl, Tasja Buschhardt, Tina Beck Hansen, Waleed Abu Al-Soud, Asker D Brejnrod, Søren J Sørensen, Truls Nesbakken, Søren Aabo
Tonsils in the oral cavity are an important source of contamination during pig slaughter, but have not received as much attention as faecal contamination. In the present study, ten pigs were sampled from tonsils, faeces and three different areas on each carcass. The samples were analysed by both culturing of Escherichia coli and Yersinia enterocolitica and by 16S rRNA gene sequencing to characterize the bacterial communities. Comparing culture data from deep tonsil tissue and tonsil surface showed similar numbers of E...
February 4, 2019: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Jiante Li, Zhiliang Wei, Shougen Cao, Xiaojie Tan, Shanglong Liu, Zengwu Yao, Teng Sun, Yi Li, Dongfeng Zhang, Yanbing Zhou
BACKGROUND: Exposure to energy restriction during childhood is associated with a lower risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC). To date, the association between this critical period of growth and prognosis of CRC has rarely been investigated. Changes in microbiota and epigenetic dysregulation may be key underlying mechanisms. METHODOLOGY: Tissues collected from patients born between 1956 and 1964 were grouped based on time-period. The differences in overall survival among patients from the three time-periods were examined via univariate analysis...
February 15, 2019: Cancer Epidemiology
Zhilong Yu, Wei Wang, Fanbin Kong, Mengshi Lin, Azlin Mustapha
Cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are nano-sized fillers widely used for enhancing the active functions of food packaging materials. However, nanomaterials may pose unexpected toxic effects on humans. Thus, the objective of this work was to develop a novel CNF/AgNP composite and investigate its properties and cytotoxicity. The CNF/AgNP composite was prepared via a reduction method using NaBH4 . The AgNPs embedded in the composite showed an average size of 10.72 ± 4.96 nm and a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) absorption peak at 397 nm...
February 15, 2019: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Rui Zhang, Jie Yang, Juan Wu, Lingling Xiao, Leiying Miao, Xiaole Qi, Yuyan Li, Weibin Sun
Periodontal disease is a bacterial infection-associated disease of the periodontal tissues characterized by the destruction of tooth-supporting structures, including alveolar bone. The ideal goal of periodontal therapy is the complete regeneration of alveolar bone in a healthy microenvironment free of infection. In this study, we found that berberine, a benzylisoquinoline plant alkaloid from Coptidis Rhizoma, strongly inhibited the growth of Porphyromonas gingivalis. Gingipain is the most important virulence factor of Porphyromonas gingivalis in the process of periodontal tissue destruction...
February 15, 2019: European Journal of Pharmacology
Cécile Breyton, Waqas Javed, Annelise Vermot, Charles-Adrien Arnaud, Christine Hajjar, Jérôme Dupuy, Isabelle Petit-Hartlein, Aline Le Roy, Anne Martel, Michel Thépaut, Cédric Orelle, Jean-Michel Jault, Franck Fieschi, Lionel Porcar, Christine Ebel
Laurylmaltose neopentylglycol (LMNG) bears two linked hydrophobic chains of equal length and two hydrophilic maltoside groups. It arouses a strong interest in the field of membrane protein biochemistry, since it was shown to efficiently solubilize and stabilize membrane proteins often better than the commonly used dodecylmaltopyranoside (DDM), and to allow structure determination of some challenging membrane proteins. However, LMNG was described to form large micelles, which could be unfavorable for structural purposes...
February 15, 2019: Biochimica et biophysica acta. Biomembranes
Muna A AbuDalo, Ismaeel R Al-Mheidat, Alham W Al-Shurafat, Colleen Grinham, Vinka Oyanedel-Craver
Background: Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have attracted great attention due to their outstanding electrical, optical, magnetic, catalytic, and antimicrobial properties. However, there is a need for alternative production methods that use less toxic precursors and reduce their undesirable by-products. Phyto-extracts from the leaves of olive and rosemary plants can be used as reducing agents and (in conjunction with Tollens' reagent) can even enhance AgNP antimicrobial activity. Methods: Conditions for the proposed hybrid synthesis method were optimized for olive leaf extracts (OLEs) and rosemary leaf extracts (RLEs)...
2019: PeerJ
Hannah M Britt, Clara A García-Herrero, Paul W Denny, Jackie A Mosely, John M Sanderson
Propranolol is shown to undergo lipidation reactions in three types of lipid membrane: (1) synthetic single-component glycerophospholipid liposomes; (2) liposomes formed from complex lipid mixtures extracted from E. coli or liver cells; and (3) in cellulo in Hep G2 cells. Fourteen different lipidated propranolol homologues were identified in extracts from Hep G2 cells cultured in a medium supplemented with propranolol. This isolation of lipidated drug molecules from liver cells demonstrates a new drug reactivity in living systems...
January 21, 2019: Chemical Science
Isaac Ginsburg, Maya Korem, Erez Koren, James Varani
We postulate that the extensive cell and tissue damage inflicted by many infectious, inflammatory and post-inflammatory episodes is an enled result of a synergism among the invading microbial agents, host neutrophils and dead and dying cells in the nidus. Microbial toxins and other metabolites along with the plethora of pro-inflammatory agents released from activated neutrophils massively recruited to the infectious sites and high levels of cationic histones, other cationic peptides, proteinases and Th1 cytokines released from activated polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) and from necrotized tissues may act in concert (synergism) to bring about cell killing and tissue destruction...
2019: Journal of Inflammation Research
Shahin Mahmud, K H M Nazmul Hussain Nazir, Md Tanvir Rahman
Aim: The present study was carried out to determine the prevalence and molecular detection of fluoroquinolone-resistant Escherichia coli carrying qnrA and qnrS genes in healthy broiler chickens in Mymensingh, Bangladesh, and also to identify the genes responsible for such resistance. Materials and Methods: A total of 65 cloacal swabs were collected from apparently healthy chickens of 0-14 days (n=23) and 15-35 days (n=42) old. The samples were cultured onto Eosin Methylene Blue Agar, and the isolation and identification of the E...
December 2018: Veterinary World
Yasunori Watanabe, Seiya Watanabe, Yoshika Itoh, Yasuo Watanabe
The hypothetical OCC_00372 protein from Thermococcus litoralis is a member of the ProR superfamily from hyperthermophilic archaea and exhibits unique bifunctional proline racemase/hydroxyproline 2-epimerase activity. However, the molecular mechanism of the broad substrate specificity and extreme thermostability of this enzyme (TlProR) remains unclear. Here we determined the crystal structure of TlProR at 2.7 Å resolution. Of note, a substrate proline molecule, derived from expression host Escherichia coli cells, was tightly bound in the active site of TlProR...
February 14, 2019: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Latania K Logan, Rachel L Medernach, T Nicholas Domitrovic, Jared R Rispens, Andrea M Hujer, Nadia K Qureshi, Steven H Marshall, David C Nguyen, Susan D Rudin, Xiaotian Zheng, Sreenivas Konda, Robert A Weinstein, Robert A Bonomo
INTRODUCTION: The pandemic of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-(ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae (Ent) is strongly linked to the dissemination of CTX-M-type-ESBL-Ent. We sought to define the epidemiology of infections in children due to an emerging resistance type, CTX-M-9-group-producing-Ent (CTX-M-9-grp-Ent). METHODS: A retrospective matched case-control analysis of children with CTX-M-9-grp-Ent infections who received medical care at three Chicago area hospitals was performed...
February 16, 2019: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
Shuai Zhi, Jonas Szelewicki, Kim Ziebell, Brendon Parsons, Linda Chui
Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) is a gastrointestinal pathogen and has been recognized as one of the serious problems in public health. Shiga toxin genes (stx) can be grouped into different types according to their differences in sequence and biological activities. The two main groups of stx are stx1 and stx2 with each group containing several subtypes. It is essential to develop rapid stx1 /stx2 subtyping assays and accurate stx2 general detection assays to provide a quicker turn-around time to predict disease outcome and also to provide data for surveillance purposes...
February 14, 2019: Journal of Microbiological Methods
Chang-Muk Lee, Su-Yeon Kim, Sang-Hong Yoon, Jung-Bong Kim, Yoon-Soo Yeo, Joon-Soo Sim, Bum-Soo Hahn, Dong-Gwan Kim
In an effort to isolate novel natural antibiotics, we searched for antibacterial long-chain N-acyl amino acid synthase (NAS) genes from 70,000 soil metagenome clones by Bacillus subtilis-overlaying screening. In an antibacterial cosmid clone, YS92B, a single gene nasYPL was responsible for the production of the Nas. nasYPL was 903 bp long, and the deduced amino acid sequence showed the highest 71% identity with a hypothetical protein from Massilia niastensis. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that NasYPL belongs to Group 1 Nas...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Biotechnology
Joanna Kozłowska, Ewa Grela, Dagmara Baczyńska, Agnieszka Grabowiecka, Mirosław Anioł
In our investigation, we concentrated on naringenin ( NG )-a widely studied flavanone that occurs in citrus fruits. As a result of a reaction with a range of alkyl iodides, 7 novel O -alkyl derivatives of naringenin ( 7a ⁻ 11a , 13a , 17a ) were obtained. Another chemical modification led to 9 oximes of O -alkyl naringenin derivatives ( 7b ⁻ 13b , 16b ⁻ 17b ) that were never described before. The obtained compounds were evaluated for their potential antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli , Staphylococcus aureus , and Bacillus subtilis ...
February 14, 2019: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Sergio García-Fernández, María García-Castillo, German Bou, Jorge Calvo, Emilia Cercenado, Mercedes Delgado, Cristina Pitart, Xavier Mulet, Nuria Tormo, Diego López Mendoza, Jazmín Díaz-Regañón, Rafael Cantón
Patients in intensive care units (ICUs) present a high risk of developing an infection caused by multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacteria. Consequently, new antimicrobials and combinations are needed. We evaluated the activity of ceftolozane-tazobactam against Enterobacterales (n=400) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n=80) isolates collected from patients in Spanish intensive care units (ICUs) with complicated urinary tract infections (cUTI) and complicated intra-abdominal infections (cIAI). Overall susceptibility of ceftolozane-tazobactam in P...
February 12, 2019: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Josh M Colston, Ruthly Francois, Nora Pisanic, Pablo Peñataro Yori, Benjamin J J McCormick, Maribel Paredes Olortegui, Md Amran Gazi, Erling Svensen, Mondar Maruf Moin Ahmed, Esto Mduma, Jie Liu, Eric R Houpt, Robert Klapheke, Julia W Schwarz, Robert L Atmar, Robert E Black, Margaret N Kosek
BACKGROUND: Histo blood group antigens (HBGAs) such as fucosyltransferase FUT2 and 3 may act as innate host factors that differentially influence susceptibility of individuals and their offspring to pediatric enteric infections. METHODS: In three community-based birth cohorts, FUT2 and FUT3 statuses were ascertained for mother-child dyads. qPCR panels tested 3,663 diarrheal and 18,148 asymptomatic stool samples for 29 enteropathogens. Cumulative diarrhea and infection incidence were compared by child (n=520) and mothers' (n=519) HBGA status and hazard ratios (HRs) derived for all-cause diarrhea and specific enteropathogens...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Erick Sierra-Díaz, Cesar J Hernández-Ríos, Alejandro Bravo-Cuellar
Objective: The objective of this study was to describe the prevalence, microbiological profile, bacterial resistance, and the sensitivity to antibiotics of microorganisms causing urinary tract infection (UTI) at a single-site tertiary referral hospital in the western region of Mexico. Methods: A total of 5895 culture samples processed at the microbiology laboratory from August 1, 2014, to July 31, 2015, were analyzed. Results: A total of 5895 samples for urine cultures (UC) were collected, of which 3363 were taken in women (57...
2019: Cirugia y Cirujanos
Sirtaj B Singh, Juliette Madan, Modupe Coker, Anne Hoen, Emily R Baker, Margaret R Karagas, Noel T Mueller
BACKGROUND: Mother-to-newborn transmission of obesity-associated microbiota may be modified by birth mode (vaginal vs. Cesarean delivery). Prospective data to test this hypothesis are still sparse. OBJECTIVE: To examine prospective associations of maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain with the infant gut microbiome by birth-mode strata. SUBJECTS/METHODS: In 335 mother-infant pairs in the New Hampshire Birth Cohort, we ascertained data from questionnaires and medical records, and generated microbiome data from 6-week-old infants' stool using Illumina 16s rRNA gene sequencing (V4-V5 region)...
February 14, 2019: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Wonil Chae, Paul Kim, Beom Jeung Hwang, Baik Lin Seong
Seasonal and pandemic influenza infections remain a serious public health concern. Many health authorities recommend annual vaccination as the most effective way to control influenza infection. Accordingly, regulatory guidelines ask vaccine manufacturers to determine vaccine potency at the time of release and throughout shelf-life to ensure vaccine quality. The potency of inactivated influenza vaccine is related to the quantity of hemagglutinin (HA). Since 1970s, single radial immunodiffusion (SRID) assay has been standardly used for the quantitation of HA in influenza vaccine...
February 11, 2019: Vaccine
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