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Synthesis of nano review

Chandran Murugan, Varsha Sharma, Rajesh Kumar Murugan, Gnanasekar Malaimegu, Anandhakumar Sundaramurthy
In recent years, novel two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials are of great interest for diverse potential applications such as device fabrication, energy storage, sensing and theranostics because of their superlative physical features namely, large surface area, minimal thickness, tunable composition and easier surface modification methods. Rapid exploration in design and fabrication of 2D nano-structures have opened new avenue for cancer theranostics as it can encapsulate group of cancer cells and inflict major damage with great specificity in a non-invasive manner...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Chun Min Li, Xin Peng Wang, Zi Hao Jiao, Yu Sheng Zhang, Xiang Biao Yin, Xue Min Cui, Yue Zhou Wei
The adsorption and separation of hazard metal ions, radioactive nuclides, or minor actinides from wastewater and high-level radioactive waste liquids using functional silica-based nano/micro-particles modified with various inorganic materials or organic groups, has attracted significant attention since the discovery of ordered mesoporous silica-based substrates. Focusing on inorganic and organic modified materials, the synthesis methods and sorption performances for specific ions in aqueous solutions are summarized in this review...
February 12, 2019: Nanomaterials
Yong Sun, Zhipeng Lin, Shao Hong Peng, Valérie Sage, Zhi Sun
In this paper, we aim to focus on the utilization of carbon dioxide (CO₂) as a feedstock for synthetic applications in chemical and fuel industries, through catalytic carboxylation and reduction reactions. Thermal catalytic conversion as well as non-thermal plasma assisted and photocatalytic conversion CO₂ into fuels such as methane, methanol, and long-chain hydrocarbons using different catalyst especially nano catalyst are also thoroughly compared and reviewed in this paper. Among currently available technical routes, the thermal catalytic conversion of CO₂ via the Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis using nanoscale catalyst offers the most feasible, practical and mature alternative for industrial-scale applications on the short term basis, converting gigantic quantity of CO₂ captured from power plants into hydrocarbons...
June 1, 2019: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Hussain Tinwala, Sarika Wairkar
Diamond nano-particles or nanodiamonds (NDs) are nano-scale carbon allotropes and exhibit characteristic mechanical and optical properties. Unlike other nanocarbon materials NDs are highly bio-compatible and comparatively safe which makes them the material of future interest in the field of medicine. NDs are synthesized by various techniques which includes detonation technique, chemical vapour deposition, high pressure high temperature etc. and followed by post-synthesis processing such as purification, surface modification and functionalization...
April 2019: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Radha D Singh, Ruchita Shandilya, Arpit Bhargava, Rajat Kumar, Rajnarayan Tiwari, Koel Chaudhury, Rupesh K Srivastava, Irina Y Goryacheva, Pradyumna K Mishra
Lung cancer is the most frequently occurring malignancy and the leading cause of cancer-related death for men in our country. The only recommended screening method is clinic based low-dose computed tomography (also called a low-dose CT scan, or LDCT). However, the effect of LDCT on overall mortality observed in lung cancer patients is not statistically significant. Over-diagnosis, excessive cost, risks associated with radiation exposure, false positive results and delay in the commencement of the treatment procedure questions the use of LDCT as a reliable technique for population-based screening...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
Nureddin Ashammakhi, Samad Ahadian, Mohammad Ali Darabi, Mario El Tahchi, Junmin Lee, Kasinan Suthiwanich, Amir Sheikhi, Mehmet R Dokmeci, Rahmi Oklu, Ali Khademhosseini
Advances in biomaterial synthesis and fabrication, stem cell biology, bioimaging, microsurgery procedures, and microscale technologies have made minimally invasive therapeutics a viable tool in regenerative medicine. Therapeutics, herein defined as cells, biomaterials, biomolecules, and their combinations, can be delivered in a minimally invasive way to regenerate different tissues in the body, such as bone, cartilage, pancreas, cardiac, skeletal muscle, liver, skin, and neural tissues. Sophisticated methods of tracking, sensing, and stimulation of therapeutics in vivo using nano-biomaterials and soft bioelectronic devices provide great opportunities to further develop minimally invasive and regenerative therapeutics (MIRET)...
November 22, 2018: Advanced Materials
Mai Hamed Hanafy
Nanotechnology is no longer a concept or a theory of the new world, it has turned into a new enabling technology over the years, with tremendous potential to revolutionize agriculture and livestock sector all over the globe. Moreover, nanotechnology provides new tools for molecular and cellular biology, biotechnology, veterinary physiology and reproduction, giving more promising solutions in both pathogen detection and therapy, engineering of agriculture, incredible results in animal and food systems and many more...
December 2018: International Journal of Veterinary Science and Medicine
Naveet Pannu, Archana Bhatnagar
Resveratrol, a phytoalexin with a wide range of pharmacological properties is synthesised by plants in response to stress, injury, infection or UV radiations. As it is a secondary metabolite with many health promoting properties, various methods employing microorganisms and genetic manipulation of different synthetic enzymes, have been comprehensively studied to increase its production. Its rapid metabolism and low bioavailability have been addressed by the use of bio enhancers and nano-formulations. This flavonoid is extensively researched due to its pharmacological properties such as anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and immuno-modulating effects...
January 2019: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Payal Gupta, Meenakshi Sharma, Neha Arora, Vikas Pruthi, Krishna Mohan Poluri
BACKGROUND: Farnesol is an acyclic sesquiterpene alcohol, endogenously synthesized via the ergosterol pathway. It is a quorum sensing molecule (QSM) that was first discovered in C. albicans, and is involved in the inhibition of hyphae formation. METHODS: This review focuses on the comprehensive details of occurrence, chemical/biological synthesis of farnesol and its derivatives, and the factors involved in regulation of its production. Further, the review also presents their cellular functions and diversified biomedical applications...
December 10, 2018: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
Muhammad Tayyab Noman, Muhammad Azeem Ashraf, Azam Ali
TiO2 -based nanomaterials have attracted prodigious attention as a photocatalysts in numerous fields of applications. In this thematic issue, the mechanism behind the photocatalytic activity of nano-TiO2 as well as the critical properties have been reviewed in details. The synthesis routes and the variables that affect the size and crystallinity of nano-TiO2 have also been discussed in detail. Moreover, a newly emerged class of color TiO2 , TiO2 in aerogel form, nanotubes form, doped and undoped form, and other forms of TiO2 have been discussed in details...
December 6, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
François Huaux
Fibrosis, cancer, and autoimmunity developing upon particle exposure have been exclusively linked with uncontrolled inflammatory processes. The critical role of inflammation is now challenged by several contradictory observations indicating that the emergence of these chronic disorders may result from non-inflammatory events. A growing number of studies reveals that micro- and nano-particles can cause exaggerated and persistent immunosuppression characterized by the release of potent anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-10 and TGF-β), and the recruitment of major regulatory immune cells (M2 macrophages, T and B regs, and MDSC)...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Tanu Kaushal, Gaurava Srivastava, Ashok Sharma, Arvind Singh Negi
Quinoxalines are benzopyrazines containing benzene and pyrazine rings fused together. In the recent past, quinoxalines have attracted Medicinal Chemists considerably for their syntheses and chemistry due to their distinct pharmacological activities. Diverse synthetic protocols have been developed via multicomponent reactions, single pot synthesis and combinatorial approach using efficient catalysts, reagents, and nano-composites etc. Further, the versatility of the quinoxaline core and its reasonable chemical simplicity devise it extremely promising source of bioactive compounds...
November 15, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
Williams Kweku Darkwah, Yanhui Ao
Graphite carbon nitride (g-C3 N4 ) is well known as one of the most promising materials for photocatalytic activities, such as CO2 reduction and water splitting, and environmental remediation through the removal of organic pollutants. On the other hand, carbon nitride also pose outstanding properties and extensive application forecasts in the aspect of field emission properties. In this mini review, the novel structure, synthesis and preparation techniques of full-bodied g-C3 N4 -based composite and films were revealed...
November 29, 2018: Nanoscale Research Letters
Gabriela Kratošová, Veronika Holišová, Zuzana Konvičková, Avinash P Ingle, Swapnil Gaikwad, Kateřina Škrlová, Aleš Prokop, Mahendra Rai, Daniela Plachá
Chemical, physical and mechanical methods of nanomaterial preparation are still regarded as mainstream methods, and the scientific community continues to search for new ways of nanomaterial preparation. The major objective of this review is to highlight the advantages of using green chemistry and bionanotechnology in the preparation of functional low-cost catalysts. Bionanotechnology employs biological principles and processes connected with bio-phase participation in both design and development of nano-structures and nano-materials, and the biosynthesis of metallic nanoparticles is becoming even more popular due to; (i) economic and ecologic effectiveness, (ii) simple one-step nanoparticle formation, stabilisation and biomass support and (iii) the possibility of bio-waste valorisation...
November 24, 2018: Biotechnology Advances
Xin Jin, Tianqi Fang, Jinyao Wang, Mengyuan Liu, Siyuan Pan, Bala Subramaniam, Jian Shen, Chaohe Yang, Raghunath V Chaudhari
Conversion of biomass to chemicals provides essential products to human society from renewable resources. In this context, achieving atom-economical and energy-efficient conversion with high selectivity towards target products remains a key challenge. Recent developments in nanostructured catalysts address this challenge reporting remarkable performances in shape and morphology dependent catalysis by metals on nano scale in energy and environmental applications. In this review, most recent advances in synthesis of heterogeneous nanomaterials, surface characterization and catalytic performances for hydrogenation and oxidation for biorenewables with plausible mechanism have been discussed...
November 26, 2018: Chemical Record: An Official Publication of the Chemical Society of Japan ... [et Al.]
Richa Sood, Dimple Sethi Chopra
BACKGROUND: Since ancient times, potential of plants in research and medicine have found pronounced applications, due to better therapeutic value. To meet the mounting demands for commercial nanoparticles, novel eco-friendly methods of synthesis has led to a remarkable progress via unfolding a green synthesis protocol towards metallic nanoparticles synthesis. HYPOTHESIS/PURPOSE: This review highlights the biological synthesis of various metallic nanoparticles as safe, cost effective process, where the phytochemicals present in extract such as flavonoid, phenols, terpenoids act as capping, reducing and stabilizing agents...
November 15, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Lucas Freitas de Freitas, Gustavo Henrique Costa Varca, Jorge Gabriel Dos Santos Batista, Ademar Benévolo Lugão
At a nano-level, optical properties of gold are unique and gave birth to an emerging platform of nanogold-based systems for diverse applications, because gold nanoparticle properties are tunable as a function of size and shape. Within the available techniques for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles, the radiolytic synthesis allows proper control of the nucleation process without the need for reducing agents, in a single step, combined or not with simultaneous sterilization. This review details and summarizes the use of radiation technologies for the synthesis and preparation of gold nanoparticles concerning fundamental aspects, mechanism, current pathways for synthesis and radiation sources, as well as briefly outlines final applications and some toxicity aspects related to nanogold-based systems...
November 15, 2018: Nanomaterials
Nianjun Yang, Siyu Yu, Julie V Macpherson, Yasuaki Einaga, Hongying Zhao, Guohua Zhao, Greg M Swain, Xin Jiang
Conductive diamond possesses unique features as compared to other solid electrodes, such as a wide electrochemical potential window, a low and stable background current, relatively rapid rates of electron-transfer for soluble redox systems without conventional pretreatment, long-term responses, stability, biocompatibility, and a rich surface chemistry. Conductive diamond microcrystalline and nanocrystalline films, structures and particles have been prepared using a variety of approaches. Given these highly desirable attributes, conductive diamond has found extensive use as an enabling electrode across a variety of fields encompassing chemical and biochemical sensing, environmental degradation, electrosynthesis, electrocatalysis, and energy storage and conversion...
November 16, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
Lu Yang, Houliang Tang, Hao Sun
Stimuli-responsive polymeric materials have attracted significant attention in a variety of high-value-added and industrial applications during the past decade. Among various stimuli, light is of particular interest as a stimulus because of its unique advantages, such as precisely spatiotemporal control, mild conditions, ease of use, and tunability. In recent years, a lot of effort towards the synthesis of a biocompatible and biodegradable polypeptide has resulted in many examples of photo-responsive nanoparticles...
June 13, 2018: Micromachines
Pavan Kumar Gautam, Anirudh Singh, Krishna Misra, Amaresh Kumar Sahoo, Sintu Kumar Samanta
The continuous increase in water pollution by various organic & inorganic contaminants has become a major issue of concern worldwide. Furthermore, the anthropogenic activities for the manufacturing of various products have boosted this problem manifold. To overcome this serious issue, nanotechnology has initiated to explore various proficient strategies to treat waste water in a more precise and accurate way with the support of various nanomaterials. In recent times, nanosized materials have proved their applicability to provide clean and affordable water treatment technologies...
November 5, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
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