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Emergency system

Yuanbo Li, Cary T Chiou, Hui Li, Jerald L Schnoor
There has been an on-going pursuit for relations between the levels of chemicals in plants/crops and the source levels in soil or water in order to address impacts of toxic substances on human health and ecological quality. In this research, we applied the quasi-equilibrium partition model to analyze the relations for nonionic organic contaminants between plant/crop roots and external soil/water media. The model relates the in-situ root concentration factors of chemicals from external water into plant/crop roots (RCF(water) ) with the system physicochemical parameters and the chemical quasi-equilibrium states with plant/crop roots (αpt, ≤1)...
February 15, 2019: Environment International
Ewa Jaszczak, Krystyna Kozioł, Bogumiła Kiełbratowska, Żaneta Polkowska
Cyanide (CN) is the biomarker of exposure to the components of tobacco smoke, although its presence in biological samples is also due to the consumption of products containing cyanogenic glycosides. In this work, we determine the concentration of the free cyanide in urine, saliva and breast milk matrices, using ion chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (IC-PAD). IC-PAD is an emerging method, with only few documented applications in urine and saliva, and the presented determination in breast milk is its first published report for any method...
February 8, 2019: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Talal Almahayni, Nicholas A Beresford, Neil M J Crout, Lieve Sweeck
Numerous radioecological models have been developed to predict radionuclides transfer from contaminated soils to the food chain, which is an essential step in preparing and responding to nuclear emergencies. However, the lessons learned from applying these models to predict radiocaesium (RCs) soil-to-plant transfer following the Fukushima accident in 2011 renewed interest in RCs transfer modelling. To help guide and prioritise further research in relation to modelling RCs transfer in terrestrial environments, we reviewed existing models focussing on transfer to food crops and animal fodders...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Andrej Korenić, Slobodan Perović, Milan M Ćirković, Paul-Antoine Miquel
Symmetry-based explanations using symmetry breaking (SB) as the key explanatory tool have complemented and replaced traditional causal explanations in various domains of physics. The process of spontaneous SB is now a mainstay of contemporary explanatory accounts of large chunks of condensed-matter physics, quantum field theory, nonlinear dynamics, cosmology, and other disciplines. A wide range of empirical research into various phenomena related to symmetries and SB across biological scales has accumulated as well...
February 15, 2019: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
Claire E Olingy, Huy Q Dinh, Catherine C Hedrick
Monocytes are innate immune cells of the mononuclear phagocyte system that have emerged as important regulators of cancer development and progression. Our understanding of monocytes has advanced from viewing these cells as a homogenous population to a heterogeneous system of cells that display diverse responses to different stimuli. During cancer, different monocyte subsets perform functions that contribute to both pro- and antitumoral immunity, including phagocytosis, secretion of tumoricidal mediators, promotion of angiogenesis, remodeling of the extracellular matrix, recruitment of lymphocytes, and differentiation into tumor-associated macrophages and dendritic cells...
February 18, 2019: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Yuan-Yuan Qi, Xu-Jie Zhou, Hong Zhang
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a complex autoimmune disease, in which immune defects can occur at multiple points of the cascading auto-aggressive immune reactions, resulting in a striking heterogeneity of clinical presentations. The clinical manifestations of such autoimmune response can be severe:-common manifestations symptoms include rash and renal inflammation progressing to kidney failure. Autophagy, the cellular "self-digestion" process, is a key factor in the interplay between innate and adaptive immunity...
February 18, 2019: European Journal of Immunology
Wei Meng, Hongfang Ye, Shuai Liu, Feng Xu, Weijian Xu
Two chiral coordination clusters {CuII48Na12}, which can only be revealed by synchrotron single-crystal X-ray diffraction, were assembled unexpectedly from a system resembling the long-studied Fehling's solution. As the intricate structures themselves indicate, the ingenuity of using multiple ligands should inspire new strategies to fabricate new compounds.
February 18, 2019: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Yashaar Chaichian, Daniel J Wallace, Michael H Weisman
Despite advances in understanding systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) pathogenesis, most clinical trials of new targeted therapies have been met with disappointment. The type I IFN pathway is believed to play an important role in SLE, and the proposed involvement of this pathway helps explain the frustration behind the failure at targeting either IFN-α or the type 1 IFN receptor itself. In this issue of the JCI, Furie et al. report on an intriguing phase 1b study that demonstrates an approach for inhibiting this pathway in the skin using an mAB (BIIB059) that targets the blood DC antigen 2 (BDCA-2) receptor on plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs)...
February 18, 2019: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Suzanne M de la Monte, Ming Tong, Lori A Daiello, Brian R Ott
BACKGROUND: Brain insulin resistance is a well-recognized abnormality in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and the likely mediator of impaired glucose utilization that emerges early and progresses with disease severity. Moreover, the rates of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or AD are significantly greater in people with diabetes mellitus or obesity. OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to determine whether systemic and central nervous system (CNS) insulin resistant disease states emerge together and thus may be integrally related...
February 11, 2019: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Carly A Loner, Peter W Crane
We report a case of acute necrotizing eosinophilic myocarditis (ANEM) secondary to drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) related to administration of minocycline. Myocarditis is a rare complication of DRESS and can manifest as either a self-limited hypersensitivity myocarditis or as the frequently fatal ANEM. Due to the high morbidity and mortality caused by this disease, emergency physicians should be aware of the potential of ANEM in patients with history of DRESS and new-onset cardiac dysfunction...
February 2019: Clinical practice and cases in emergency medicine
Ryuichi Ono, Yukuto Yasuhiko, Ken-Ichi Aisaki, Satoshi Kitajima, Jun Kanno, Yoko Hirabayashi
The CRISPR-Cas9 system has been successfully applied in many organisms as a powerful genome-editing tool. Undoubtedly, it will soon be applied to human genome editing, including gene therapy. We have previously reported that unintentional DNA sequences derived from retrotransposons, genomic DNA, mRNA and vectors are captured at double-strand breaks (DSBs) sites when DSBs are introduced by the CRISPR-Cas9 system. Therefore, it is possible that unintentional insertions associated with DSB repair represent a potential risk for human genome editing gene therapies...
2019: Communications biology
Neringa Jucevičiūtė, Birutė Žilaitienė, Rosita Aniulienė, Virginija Vanagienė
Depression and bipolar disorder are two major psychiatric illnesses whose pathophysiology remains elusive. Newly emerging data support the hypothesis that the dysfunction of the immune system might be a potential factor contributing to the development of these mental disorders. The most common organ affected by autoimmunity is the thyroid; therefore, the link between autoimmune thyroid disorders and mental illnesses has been studied since the 1930s. The aim of this review is to discuss the associations between thyroid autoimmunity, depression and bipolar disorder...
2019: Open Medicine (Warsaw, Poland)
Gary T Ferguson, Robert Tosiello, Shahin Sanjar, Thomas Goodin
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of pre-existing cardiovascular (CV) risk factors on the efficacy and safety of nebulized glycopyrrolate (GLY) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods: A total of 2379 patients from 3 phase III studies (12-week, placebo-controlled Glycopyrrolate for Obstructive Lung Disease via Electronic Nebulizer [GOLDEN] -3 and -4, and 48-week, active-controlled GOLDEN-5) stratified by high (n=1526) or low (n=853) CV risk were randomized to placebo, GLY 25 mcg or 50 mcg twice daily, or tiotropium (TIO; 18 mcg once daily)...
December 13, 2018: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases: Journal of the COPD Foundation
Hiroki Sakuta, Tadashi Fujimoto, Yusuke Yamana, Yusuke Hoda, Kanta Tsumoto, Kenichi Yoshikawa
To artificially construct a three-dimensional cell assembly, we investigated the availability of long-duration microdroplets that emerged near a critical point in an aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) with the hydrophilic binary polymers, polyethylene glycol (PEG), and dextran (DEX), as host containers. We found that erythrocytes (horse red blood cells; RBCs) and NAMRU mouse mammary gland epithelial cells (NMuMG cells) were completely and spontaneously entrapped inside DEX-rich microdroplets. RBCs and NMuMG cells were located in the interior and at the periphery of the droplets at PEG/DEX = 5%:5%...
2019: Frontiers in Chemistry
Nicola Personeni, Tiziana Pressiani, Lorenza Rimassa
During the last 10 years, the multikinase inhibitor sorafenib has emerged as the only systemic treatment for unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). More recently, data from the Phase III REFLECT trial showed that another multikinase inhibitor, namely, lenvatinib, was non-inferior to sorafenib in terms of overall survival (OS). In contrast, with respect to OS, previous randomized Phase III trials have been negative, and several agents tested have failed to prove non-inferiority (or superiority) when compared with sorafenib in a first-line setting...
2019: Journal of Hepatocellular Carcinoma
Oliver Nagel, Manuel Frey, Matthias Gerhardt, Carsten Beta
Cell-driven microtransport is one of the most prominent applications in the emerging field of biohybrid systems. While bacterial cells have been successfully employed to drive the swimming motion of micrometer-sized cargo particles, the transport capacities of motile adherent cells remain largely unexplored. Here, it is demonstrated that motile amoeboid cells can act as efficient and versatile trucks to transport microcargo. When incubated together with microparticles, cells of the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum readily pick up and move the cargo particles...
February 6, 2019: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
Haoyu Li, Changliang Guo, Deborah Kim-Holzapfel, Weiyi Li, Yelena Altshuller, Bryce Schroeder, Wenhao Liu, Yizhi Meng, Jarrod B French, Ken-Ichi Takamaru, Michael A Frohman, Shu Jia
Visualizing diverse anatomical and functional traits that span many spatial scales with high spatio-temporal resolution provides insights into the fundamentals of living organisms. Light-field microscopy (LFM) has recently emerged as a scanning-free, scalable method that allows for high-speed, volumetric functional brain imaging. Given those promising applications at the tissue level, at its other extreme, this highly-scalable approach holds great potential for observing structures and dynamics in single-cell specimens...
January 1, 2019: Biomedical Optics Express
Sylvie Lantuejoul, Diane Damotte, Véronique Hofman, Julien Adam
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide with low response rates to conventional chemotherapy. New promising therapies have emerged based on programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) immunity checkpoint inhibitors (ICI), including anti-PD-1, such as nivolumab and pembrolizumab, or programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) inhibitors, such as atezolizumab, durvalumab, and avelumab. The prescription of pembrolizumab has been approved by FDA and EMA for advanced stages non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), restricted for first-line setting to patients whose tumor presents ≥50% of PD-L1 positive tumor cells (TC), and ≥1% for second-line and beyond, leading to consider PD-L1 assay as a companion diagnostic tool for pembrolizumab...
January 2019: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Man Lu, Jack U Flanagan, Ries J Langley, Michael P Hay, Jo K Perry
Human growth hormone (GH) is a classical pituitary endocrine hormone that is essential for normal postnatal growth and has pleiotropic effects across multiple physiological systems. GH is also expressed in extrapituitary tissues and has localized autocrine/paracrine effects at these sites. In adults, hypersecretion of GH causes acromegaly, and strategies that block the release of GH or that inhibit GH receptor (GHR) activation are the primary forms of medical therapy for this disease. Overproduction of GH has also been linked to cancer and the microvascular complications that are associated with diabetes...
2019: Signal Transduction and Targeted Therapy
Helen Alexander, Thomas Patton, Zarif K Jabbar-Lopez, Andrea Manca, Carsten Flohr
Patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) who do not adequately respond to topical therapy and phototherapy often need systemic immunomodulatory treatment to control their symptoms. Conventional systemic agents, such as ciclosporin, azathioprine, and methotrexate, have been used for decades, but there are concerns about their safety profile. There are now many novel systemic agents emerging through clinical trials, which may have great potential in the treatment of AD. Despite this, there are very few data comparing the performance of these drugs against each other...
2019: F1000Research
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