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Tao Wang, Li-Ni Zeng, Zhe Zhu, Yu-Hui Wang, Lu Ding, Wei-Bin Luo, Xiao-Min Zhang, Zhi-Wei He, Hong-Fu Wu
Brachial plexus avulsion often results in massive motor neuron death and severe functional deficits of target muscles. However, no satisfactory treatment is currently available. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1α is a critical molecule targeting several genes associated with ischemia-hypoxia damage and angiogenesis. In this study, a rat model of brachial plexus avulsion-reimplantation was established, in which C5-7 ventral nerve roots were avulsed and only the C6 root reimplanted. Different implants were immediately injected using a microsyringe into the avulsion-reimplantation site of the C6 root post-brachial plexus avulsion...
June 2019: Neural Regeneration Research
Jiantao Liu, Xijing He, Zhengchao Gao, Binbin Niu, Dongbo Lv, Yanzheng Gao
OBJECTIVE: To design a novel prosthesis, a movable artificial lumbar complex (MALC), for non-fusion reconstruction after lumbar subtotal corpectomy and to evaluate the stability, range of motion and load-bearing strength in the human cadaveric lumbar spine. METHODS: Biomechanical tests were performed on lumbar spine specimens from 15 healthy cadavers which were divided in three groups: non-fusion, fusion and intact group. The range of motion (ROM), stability and load-bearing strength were measured...
February 12, 2019: Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery
Leniz F Nurullin, Venera F Khuzakhmetova, Eduard F Khaziev, Dmitry V Samigullin, Andrei N Tsentsevitsky, Andrei I Skorinkin, Ellya A Bukharaeva, Olga Vagin
Septins are highly conserved GTP-binding cytoskeletal proteins involved in neuronal signaling in central nervous system but their involvement in signal transmission in peripheral synapses remains unclear. Sept5 and Sept9 proteins were detected in mouse peripheral neuromuscular junctions by immunofluorescence with a greater degree of colocalization with presynaptic than postsynaptic membranes. Preincubation of neuromuscular junction preparations with the inhibitor of septin dynamics, forchlorfenuron (FCF), decreased co-localization of septins with presynaptic membranes...
February 7, 2019: Neuroscience
Marta Kurutz, Peter Varga, Gabor Jakab
Vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty are alternative augmentation techniques of osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures. However, shortly after augmentation, new vertebral compression fractures may occur, mostly in the adjacent vertebrae. To prevent this, prophylactic cement injection can be applied to the neighboring vertebral bodies. Although there are many evidence-based clinical studies on the potential hazards of vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty, there are only few studies comparing the prophylactic potential of the two treatments...
February 4, 2019: Medical Engineering & Physics
Brett D Crist, Ferris M Pfeiffer, Michael S Khazzam, Rebecca A Kueny, Gregory J Della Rocca, William L Carson
Background: Pelvic ring-comminuted transforaminal sacral fracture injuries are rotationally and vertically unstable and have a high rate of failure. Objective: Our study purpose was to use three-dimensional (3D) optical tracking to detect onset location of bone-implant interface failure and measure the distances and angles between screws and line of applied force for correlation to strength of pelvic fracture fixation techniques. Methods: 3D relative motion across sacral-rami fractures and screws relative to bone was measured with an optical tracking system...
January 2019: Journal of Orthopaedic Translation
Junhui Liu, Bao Huang, Lu Hao, Zhi Shan, Xuyang Zhang, Jian Chen, Shunwu Fan, Fengdong Zhao
Purpose: To analyse the presence of endplate sclerosis in patients with various types of Modic changes (MCs) and to confirm the results using a rabbit model. Methods: Participants in the clinical study included 1023 consecutive inpatients with lumbar degenerative disease who attended the Department of Orthopaedics between August 2011 and August 2015. All patients underwent computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbar spine. In those patients with MCs, endplate sclerosis was evaluated from sagittally reconstructed CT images...
January 2019: Journal of Orthopaedic Translation
Jason Wong, Sara L Sampson, Hildegarde Bell-Briones, Ann Ouyang, Ann A Lazar, Jeffrey C Lotz, Aaron J Fields
OBJECTIVE: Intradiscal biologic therapy is a promising strategy for managing intervertebral disc degeneration. However, these therapies require a rich nutrient supply, which may be limited by the transport properties of the cartilage endplate (CEP). This study investigated how fluctuations in CEP transport properties impact nutrient diffusion and disc cell survival and function. DESIGN: Human CEP tissues harvested from six fresh cadaveric lumbar spines (38-66 years old) were placed at the open sides of diffusion chambers...
February 2, 2019: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
Feng Wang, Cong Zhang, Arjun Sinkemani, Rui Shi, Zhi-Yang Xie, Lu Chen, Lu Mao, Xiao-Tao Wu
PURPOSE: To elucidate the natural history of intervertebral disk (IVD) and characterize its embryonic beginnings and age-related degeneration. METHODS: Coronal sections of embryonic (E13.5-neonatal) and postnatal (4-60-week-old) Sprague-Dawley rat IVD were stained by a series of histological stainings (hematoxylin and eosin, Alcian blue, Picrosirius red, Masson, Periodic acid-Schiff). Growth kinetics within embryonic IVD were evaluated by immunohistochemical staining of Ki67 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen...
February 4, 2019: European Spine Journal
Wei Fan, Li-Xin Guo
Previous studies have compared the effects of different interbody fusion approaches on biomechanical responses of the lumbar spine to static loadings. However, very few have dealt with the whole body vibration (WBV) condition that is typically present in vehicles. This study was designed to determine the biomechanical differences among anterior, posterior and transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF, PLIF and TLIF) under vertical WBV. A previously developed and validated finite element (FE) model of the intact L1-sacrum human lumbar spine was modified to simulate ALIF, PLIF and TLIF with bilateral pedicle screw fixation at L4-L5...
February 4, 2019: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
Murat Korkmaz, Turgut Akgul, Kerim Sariyilmaz, Okan Ozkunt, Fatih Dikici, Onder Yazicioglu
INTRODUCTION: Proximal junctional kyphosis - PJK has been defined by a 10 or greater increase in kyphosis at the proximal junction as measured by the Cobb angle from the caudal endplate of the uppermost instrumented vertebrae (UIV) to the cephalad endplate of the vertebrae 1 segments cranial to the UIV. In this biomechanical study, it is aimed to evaluate effects of interspinosus ligament complex distruption and facet joint degeneration on PJK development. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Posterior instrumentation applied between T2 - T7 vertebrae using pedicle screws to randomly selected 21 sheeps, divided into 3 groups...
January 30, 2019: Acta Orthopaedica et Traumatologica Turcica
Yan-Jun Che, Jiang-Bo Guo, Ting Liang, Xi Chen, Wen Zhang, Hui-Lin Yang, Zong-Ping Luo
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Pfirrmann grading can be used to assess intervertebral disc degeneration (IVDD) . There is growing evidence that IVDD is not simply a structural disorder but also involves changes to the substructural characteristics of the disc. Whether Pfirrmann grade can accurately represent these micro-nano environmental changes remains unclear. PURPOSE: We aimed to assess the micro-nano structural characteristics of the degenerative disc to provide more specific biomechanical information than the Pfirrmann score...
January 30, 2019: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
Hong-Ming Xu, Fei Hu, Xiang-Yang Wang, Song-Lin Tong
OBJECTIVE: To explore the relationship between intervertebral disc degeneration and endplate microvasculature, and determine the role of apoptosis in the pathophysiology underlying endplate microvasculature. METHODS: Twelve 6-month-old rabbits were randomly divided into Groups A (The Control Group, animals were accepted a sham operation, in which the loading device was implanted but without loading) and B (The Degeneration Group, a calibrated spring within the loading device would immediately create static shear force of 50 N to the disc of L4/5)...
January 28, 2019: World Neurosurgery
Grigor Grigoryan, Serkan Inceoglu, Olumide A Danisa, Wayne Cheng
BACKGROUND: Cortical bone trajectory is a relatively new alternative for instrumentation of the lumbar spine. When performing lumbosacral instrumentation, a novel S1 endplate penetrating screw (EPS) has been recently shown to have higher insertional torque than the traditional trajectory screw, but the biomechanical properties of this new trajectory are yet to be verified with the cadaveric studies. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate 2 screw trajectories in sacra using cyclic loading and pullout tests, and to determine whether bone quality had different effects on the 2 trajectories...
January 28, 2019: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
Hiroruki Ishiguro, Takashi Kaito, Seido Yarimitsu, Kunihiko Hashimoto, Rintaro Okada, Junichi Kushioka, Ryota Chijimatsu, Shota Takenaka, Takahiro Makino, Yusuke Sakai, Yu Moriguchi, Satoru Otsuru, David A Hart, Hiromichi Fujie, Norimasa Nakamura, Hideki Yoshikawa
Low back pain results in more global disabilities than any other condition, and intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration is commonly involved in the etiology. Supplementation of IVDs with reparative cells is a rational strategy to address such clinical problems. We have previously developed a scaffold-free tissue-engineered construct (TEC) as a novel cell therapy system for repair of articular cartilage and meniscus. We now show the regenerative potential of adipose mesenchymal stem cells derived TEC (ADSC-TEC) for IVD degeneration using a rat tail model of total nucleotomy...
January 25, 2019: Acta Biomaterialia
Hong-Ming Xu, Fei Hu, Xiang-Yang Wang, Song-Lin Tong
OBJECTIVE: To identify morphological features of the relationship between the manubrium and vertebrae of the cervicothoracic junction for use in guidelines for the selection of the appropriate surgical approach. METHODS: A review of 222 midsagittal section MR scans was conducted. The surgeons' view line was parallel to the inferior caudal vertebral endplate. Morphometric measurement of the manubrium and the cervicothoracic junction's vertebral body included the distance from the highest point of the manubrium to the surgeons' view line and the angle between that line to the horizontal...
January 23, 2019: World Neurosurgery
James Sutherland-Smith, Dana Hutchinson, Lisa M Freeman
OBJECTIVE To determine whether the degree of CT attenuation of muscle would differ between healthy old and young dogs. ANIMALS 10 healthy old (> 8 years old) and 9 healthy young (1 to 5 years old) Labrador Retrievers with a body condition score of 5 or 6 on a 9-point scale. PROCEDURES CT was performed with the dogs mildly sedated. A freehand closed polygon tool was used to define the outer margin of the left epaxial muscles on each transverse image obtained from the cranial to caudal endplates of T13. The CT attenuation values from every voxel from within these regions of interest were exported from DICOM software as a single dataset in an extensible markup language file...
February 2019: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Yixin Zheng, Xuejie Fu, Qingbai Liu, Shengqi Guan, Cunchang Liu, Chunmei Xiu, Tingting Gong, Hongting Jin, Saijilafu, Zunyi Zhang, Di Chen, Jianquan Chen
Cre/loxP technology is an important tool for studying cell type-specific gene functions. Cre recombinase mouse lines, including Agc1-CreERT2 , Col2a1-Cre; Col2a1-CreERT2 , Shh-Cre, Shh-CreERT2 , and Osx-Cre, have been proven to be valuable tools to elucidate the biology of long bones, yet the information for their activity in postnatal intervertebral disc (IVD) tissues was very limited. In this study, we used R26-mTmG fluorescent reporter to systematically analyze cell specificity and targeting efficiency of these six mouse lines in IVD tissues at postnatal growing and adult stages...
January 23, 2019: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Y X J Wáng, N Che-Nordin, M Deng, J C S Leung, A W L Kwok, L C He, J F Griffith, T C Y Kwok, P C Leung
Compared with vertebrae without deformity, vertebrae with mild/moderate deformity have a higher risk of endplate or/and cortex fracture (ecf). Compared with subjects without ecf, subjects with ecf are at a higher risk of short-term (4-year period) deformity progression and new incident deformity. INTRODUCTION: The progression and incidence of osteoporotic vertebral deformity/fracture (VD/VF) in elderly Chinese females remain not well documented. METHODS: Spine radiographs of 1533 Chinese females with baseline and year-4 follow-up (mean age 75...
January 22, 2019: Osteoporosis International
Bashar Alkhatib, Cunren Liu, Rosa Serra
Background: Members of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) family are secreted proteins that regulate skeletal development. TGF-β signaling is critical in embryonic development of the annulus fibrosus (AF) of the intervertebral disc (IVD). To address the question of the role of TGF-β signaling in postnatal development and maintenance of the skeleton, we generated mice in which T gfbr2 was deleted at 2-weeks of age in Aggrecan (Acan)-expressing cells using inducible Cre/LoxP recombination...
June 2018: JOR spine
Uwe H W Schütz
BACKGROUND: Radiological imaging is important in the preoperative diagnosis of many forms of spinal pathology and plays a fundamental role in the assessment of p.o. effects, which can be verified on the spinal column as well as on the surrounding soft tissues, depending on the imaging method used. AIM: The article provides an overview of the current status and possibilities of radiological diagnostic methods for the verification of possibly recommended spine surgery in the context of degenerative, inflammatory-infectious, post-traumatic or p...
January 17, 2019: Der Orthopäde
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