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Changbao Huang, Mingsheng Mao, Haixin Wu, Jiaren Ma
Recently developed chalcogenides nonlinear optical crystals have potential application in mid- to far-infrared laser fields. However, high-quality single crystals are hard to be prepared because of high vapor pressure of sulfur component and decomposition of chalcogenides during the polycrystalline synthesis and single-crystal growth. A pressure-assisted technique was performed to prepare stoichiometric AgGaS2 and AgGaGeS4 polycrystalline materials. On the basis of the synthesized polycrystalline materials, high-quality AgGaS2 and AgGaGeS4 single crystals were successfully obtained using the seed directional Bridgman method with a well-designed crucible-capsule technique...
November 9, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
Hetal Acharya, Atul Gaur, Girish Kunigiri
Accidental awareness under general anesthesia (AAGA) is a well-known phenomenon. However, little literature exists in its relation to the psychiatric field, particularly within the electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) setting. This report explores the case of a 52-year-old woman that describes her own experience of AAGA during ECT. Relevant anesthetic details are also provided along with its possible implications in AAGA. The aim of this case report is to increase awareness among clinicians in regard to AAGA and its occurrence during ECT...
April 2018: Saudi Journal of Anaesthesia
Benjamin Michael Davis, Jonathan Brenton, Sterenn Davis, Ehtesham Shamsher, Claudia Sisa, Ljuban Grgic, M Francesca Cordeiro
There is great individual variation in response to general anesthetics (GAs) leading to difficulties in optimal dosing and sometimes even accidental awareness during general anesthesia (AAGA). AAGA is a rare, but potentially devastating, complication affecting between 0.1% and 2% of patients undergoing surgery. The development of novel personalized screening techniques to accurately predict a patient's response to GAs and the risk of AAGA remains an unmet clinical need. In the present study, we demonstrate the principle of using a fluorescent reporter of the membrane dipole potential, di-8-ANEPPs, as a novel method to monitor anesthetic activity using a well-described inducer/noninducer pair...
October 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
Yu J Choi, Krzysztof S Gibala, Tewoderos Ayele, Katherine V Deventer, Marino J E Resendiz
A better understanding of the effects that oxidative lesions have on RNA is of importance to understand their role in the development/progression of disease. 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine was incorporated into RNA to understand its structural and functional impact on RNA:RNA and RNA:DNA duplexes, hairpins and pseudoknots. One to three modifications were incorporated into dodecamers of RNA [AAGA GGG AUGAC] resulting in thermal destabilization (Δ T m - 10°C per lesion). Hairpins with tetraloops c-UUCG*-g* ( ), a-ACCG-g* ( ), c-UUG*G*-g* ( ) and c-ACG*G*-g* ( ) were modified and used to determine thermal stabilities, concluding that: (i) modifying the stem leads to destabilization unless adenosine is the opposing basepair of 8-oxoGua; (ii) modification at the loop is position- and sequence-dependent and varies from slight stabilization to large destabilization, in some cases leading to formation of other secondary structures (hairpin→duplex)...
February 28, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
E M K Walker, M Bell, T M Cook, M P W Grocott, S R Moonesinghe
BACKGROUND: Understanding the patient perspective on healthcare is central to the evaluation of quality. This study measured selected patient-reported outcomes after anaesthesia in order to identify targets for research and quality improvement. METHODS: This cross-sectional observational study in UK National Health Service hospitals, recruited adults undergoing non-obstetric surgery requiring anaesthesia care over a 48 h period. Within 24 h of surgery, patients completed the Bauer questionnaire (measuring postoperative discomfort and satisfaction with anaesthesia care), and a modified Brice questionnaire to elicit symptoms suggestive of accidental awareness during general anaesthesia (AAGA)...
June 12, 2016: British Journal of Anaesthesia
Juliet Hounsome, Amanda Nicholson, Janette Greenhalgh, Tim M Cook, Andrew F Smith, Sharon R Lewis
BACKGROUND: Accidental awareness during general anaesthesia (AAGA) is when a patient unintentionally becomes conscious during a procedure performed with general anaesthesia and subsequently has explicit recall of this event. Incidence estimates for AAGA vary, with the most common estimate being one to two cases per 1000 general anaesthetics. Evidence linking nitrous oxide use and an increased risk of AAGA has come from observational studies data but the literature is contradictory, with some studies finding a protective effect of nitrous oxide...
August 10, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Michael R J Sury
This educational review explores the current understanding of accidental awareness during general anesthesia (AAGA) in children. Estimates of incidence in children vary between 1 in 135 (determined by direct questioning) and 1 in 51,500 (determined from spontaneous reporting). The lessons from the 5th National Audit Project of the Royal College of Anaesthetists and the Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland show that the characteristics of spontaneous reports of AAGA are extremely variable and relate to the type of procedure and anesthetic technique rather than age group: approximately 50% of experiences were distressing; most lasted less than 5 min; neuromuscular blockade (NMB) combined with pain caused the most distress; most cases (approximately 70%) occur at induction or emergence...
May 2016: Paediatric Anaesthesia
A G Bradbury, R E Clutton
The literature (2012-4) describing experimental pig surgery was reviewed to estimate the extent to which neuromuscular block (NMB) is used, to examine methods for ensuring unconsciousness, and to identify the rationale for use of NMB and establish the anaesthetist's training. In the first stage of a two-stage review, NMB use was estimated using Web of Knowledge to identify articles describing NMB during pig surgeries. In the second stage, PubMed and Google Scholar were used to increase the number of articles for determining measures taken to prevent accidental awareness during general anaesthesia (AAGA)...
April 2016: British Journal of Anaesthesia
P Bischoff, I Rundshagen, G Schneider
Patient awareness during general anesthesia and the later recall of what happened during surgery can be experienced by patients as horrifying events that leave lasting mental trauma in the form of posttraumatic stress syndrome (PTSS). Awareness is related to a temporary insufficient depth of anesthesia. This phenomenon has been discussed for more than 20 years. According to randomized controlled studies, in the absence of risk factors awareness phenomena occur in 1-2 per 1000 operations involving general anesthesia (0...
October 2015: Der Anaesthesist
Suneetha Ramani Moonesinghe, Eleanor Mary Kate Walker, Madeline Bell
BACKGROUND: Patient satisfaction is an important metric of health-care quality. Accidental awareness under general anaesthesia (AAGA) is a serious complication of anaesthesia care which may go unrecognised in the immediate perioperative period but leads to long-term psychological harm for affected patients. The SNAP-1 study aimed to measure patient satisfaction with anaesthesia care and the incidence of AAGA, reported on direct questioning within 24 h of surgery, in a large multicentre cohort...
2015: Perioperative Medicine
J J Pandit, J Andrade, D G Bogod, J M Hitchman, W R Jonker, N Lucas, J H Mackay, A F Nimmo, K O'Connor, E P O'Sullivan, R G Paul, J H M G Palmer, F Plaat, J J Radcliffe, M R J Sury, H E Torevell, M Wang, J Hainsworth, T M Cook
We present the main findings of the 5th National Audit Project (NAP5) on accidental awareness during general anaesthesia (AAGA). Incidences were estimated using reports of accidental awareness as the numerator, and a parallel national anaesthetic activity survey to provide denominator data. The incidence of certain/probable and possible accidental awareness cases was ~1:19,600 anaesthetics (95% confidence interval 1:16,700-23,450). However, there was considerable variation across subtypes of techniques or subspecialities...
October 2014: British Journal of Anaesthesia
T M Cook, J Andrade, D G Bogod, J M Hitchman, W R Jonker, N Lucas, J H Mackay, A F Nimmo, K O'Connor, E P O'Sullivan, R G Paul, J H M G Palmer, F Plaat, J J Radcliffe, M R J Sury, H E Torevell, M Wang, J Hainsworth, J J Pandit
The 5th National Audit Project (NAP5) of the Royal College of Anaesthetists and the Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland into accidental awareness during general anaesthesia (AAGA) yielded data related to psychological aspects from the patient, and the anaesthetist, perspectives; patients' experiences ranged from isolated auditory or tactile sensations to complete awareness. A striking finding was that 75% of experiences were for <5 min, yet 51% of patients [95% confidence interval (CI) 43-60%] experienced distress and 41% (95% CI 33-50%) suffered longer term adverse effect...
October 2014: British Journal of Anaesthesia
J J Pandit, J Andrade, D G Bogod, J M Hitchman, W R Jonker, N Lucas, J H Mackay, A F Nimmo, K O'Connor, E P O'Sullivan, R G Paul, J H MacG Palmer, F Plaat, J J Radcliffe, M R J Sury, H E Torevell, M Wang, T M Cook
BACKGROUND: Accidental awareness during general anaesthesia (AAGA) with recall is a potentially distressing complication of general anaesthesia that can lead to psychological harm. The 5th National Audit Project (NAP5) was designed to investigate the reported incidence, predisposing factors, causality, and impact of accidental awareness. METHODS: A nationwide network of local co-ordinators across all the UK and Irish public hospitals reported all new patient reports of accidental awareness to a central database, using a system of monthly anonymized reporting over a calendar year...
October 2014: British Journal of Anaesthesia
Zeng Zhang, Jin-Wei He, Wen-Zhen Fu, Chang-Qing Zhang, Zhen-Lin Zhang
Vitamin D deficiency has been recognized as a major public health issue worldwide. Recent studies have indicated that genetic factors might play an important role in determining serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels in Caucasians and African Americans. However, the genes that contribute to the variation in serum 25(OH)D levels in Chinese are unknown. In this study, we screened 15 key genes within the vitamin D metabolic pathway using 96 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers in a group of 2897 unrelated healthy Chinese subjects...
August 2013: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
Fabiana Paladini, Francesca Belfiore, Elisa Cocco, Carlo Carcassi, Alberto Cauli, Alessandra Vacca, Maria Teresa Fiorillo, Alessandro Mathieu, Isabella Cascino, Rosa Sorrentino
INTRODUCTION: Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a severe, chronic inflammatory disease strongly associated with HLA-B27. The presence of additional HLA risk factors has been suggested by several studies. The aim of the current study is to assess the occurrence of an additional HLA susceptibility locus in the region between HLA-E and HLA-C in the Sardinian population. METHODS: 200 random controls, 120 patients with AS and 175 HLA-B27 positive controls were genotyped for six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) spanning the HLA region between HLA-E and HLA-C loci previously shown to harbour an additional susceptibility locus for AS...
2009: Arthritis Research & Therapy
J-Y Choi, C S Shin, Y-C Hong, D Kang
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) play critical roles in osteoblast differentiation. To investigate the association between common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of BMPs and bone mineral density (BMD), a cross-sectional study was conducted in healthy Korean men (n = 237) and women (n = 276) aged 20-39 years. Calcaneus and distal radius BMD were measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. SNPs of BMP2 (-1103C > A, c.584G > A, IVS1-2744A > G, c.893T > A), BMP4 (c.712T > C, IVS1-160C > T), and BMP6 (c...
April 2006: Calcified Tissue International
Elisabeth Presterl, Ralph H Zwick, Sonja Reichmann, Alexander Aichelburg, Stefan Winkler, Peter G Kremsner, Wolfgang Graninger
To investigate the presence of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli in Lambaréné, Gabon, 150 children with diarrhea were screened for enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC), enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), and enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC) using polymerase chain reaction and an HEp-2 cell culture techniques. Isolates of EAEC were detected in 57 children, two thirds of them between six months and two years of age, and isolates of ETEC were detected in seven patients...
October 2003: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Declan C Schroeder, Mohamed A Jaffer, Vernon E Coyne
Gracilaria species are an important source of agar. The South African Gracilaria industry has experienced a number of setbacks over the last decade in the form of complete or partial die-offs of the agarophyte growing in Saldanha Bay, which may be attributed to bacterial infection. Since a positive correlation was observed between the presence of agarolytic epiphytes and bacterial pathogenicity, we investigated the role of an agarase in the virulence mechanism employed by a bacterium that elicits disease in Gracilaria gracilis...
October 2003: Microbiology
Rekha Datta, Papiya Choudhury, Arnab Ghosh, Bansidhar Datta
Eukaryotic initiation factor 2- (eIF2-) associated glycoprotein p67 blocks eIF2alpha phosphorylation by kinases, and its N-terminal 1-97 amino acid segment can induce efficient translation. To investigate whether glycosylation at the serine/threonine clusters at this region is important in protein synthesis, we selected (27)TSST(30) and (60)SGTS(63) clusters for further analysis. By site-directed mutagenesis, (27)TSST(30) and (60)SGTS(63) clusters were substituted with (27)AAGA(30) and (60)AGAA(63) amino acid residues in full-length p67, and their EGFP fusions were constitutively expressed in rat tumor hepatoma cells (KRC-7)...
May 13, 2003: Biochemistry
Michael J Calcutt, Hsin-Yeh Hsieh, Linda F Chapman, Daniel S Smith
The Clostridium perfringens gene encoding the previously characterized alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase (alphaNAG) was identified by protein microsequencing and database searching. The alphaNAG protein, designated AagA, was found to be encoded by a hypothetical gene of unknown function in the recently completed genome sequence of C. perfringens strain 13. The deduced translation product of 629 amino acid residues possessed a region of limited homology to several hypothetical open reading frames, an enterotoxin of unknown function and several known or predicted alpha-galactosidases, but did not exhibit homology to any of the multiple sequenced eukaryotic alphaNAG proteins...
August 27, 2002: FEMS Microbiology Letters
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