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Ischemic m

Jennifer L Philip, Thomas M Murphy, David A Schreier, Sydney Stevens, Diana Marcela Tabima, Marjorie E Albrecht, Andrea L Frump, Timothy A Hacker, Tim Lahm, Naomi Chesler
MOTIVATION: Left heart failure (LHF) is the most common cause of pulmonary hypertension, which confers an increase in morbidity and mortality in this context. Pulmonary vascular resistance has prognostic value in LHF but otherwise the mechanical consequences of LHF for the pulmonary vasculature and right ventricle remain unknown. We sought to investigate mechanical mechanisms of pulmonary vascular and right ventricular dysfunction in a rodent model of LHF to address the knowledge gaps in understanding disease pathophysiology...
February 15, 2019: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Antje Schauer, Volker Adams, David M Poitz, Peggy Barthel, Dirk Joachim, Janet Friedrich, Axel Linke, Antje Augstein
BACKGROUND: The transcription factor Sox9 has been associated with cardiac injury and remodeling. Studies of mammalian hearts confirm Sox9 upregulation in fibroblasts following ischemic insults associated with enhanced fibrosis. The role of cardiomyocyte-specific Sox9 remains unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the role of cardiomyocyte-specific Sox9 in development and progression of left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy and fibrosis. METHODS: In male conditional Sox9 knockout mice (Sox9-KO) or floxed littermates (control group) transverse aortic constriction (TAC) was performed to induce LV hypertrophy...
February 2, 2019: International Journal of Cardiology
Sebastian Schneeweiss, Chandrasekar Gopalakrishnan, Dorothee B Bartels, Jessica M Franklin, Kristina Zint, Martin Kulldorff, Krista F Huybrechts
Background The increasing availability of electronic healthcare data enables ongoing monitoring of the effectiveness and safety of newly marketed medications. We sought to demonstrate a 5-year prospective monitoring system of dabigatran for stroke prevention that may expedite discovery and allow ongoing evidence development. Methods and Results Between 2011 and 2015, we conducted 9 sequential analyses of dabigatran versus warfarin users in a sequential cohort design in 2 US claims databases. Analyses 4 through 9 were prespecified, and analyses 1 through 3 were added subsequently using the same methodology...
February 2019: Circulation. Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes
Chuanxin M Niu, Yong Bao, Cheng Zhuang, Si Li, Tong Wang, Lijun Cui, Qing Xie, Ning Lan
Functional electrical stimulation (FES) is capable of activating muscles that are under-recruited in neurological diseases, such as stroke. Therefore, FES provides a promising technology for assisting upper-limb motor functions in rehabilitation following stroke. However, the full benefits of FES may be limited due to lack of a systematic approach to formulate the pattern of stimulation. Our preliminary work demonstrated that it is feasible to use muscle synergy to guide the generation of FES patterns.In this paper, we present a methodology of formulating FES patterns based on muscle synergies of a normal subject using a programmable multi-channel FES device...
February 2019: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
James E Orfila, Robert M Dietz, Krista M Rodgers, Andra Dingman, Olivia P Patsos, Ivelisse Cruz-Torres, Himmat Grewal, Frank Strnad, Christian Schroeder, Paco S Herson
Ischemic stroke is a leading cause of death worldwide and clinical data suggest that children may recover from stroke better than adults; however, supporting experimental data are lacking. We used our novel mouse model of experimental juvenile ischemic stroke (MCAO) to characterize age-specific cognitive dysfunction following ischemia. Juvenile and adult mice subjected to 45-min MCAO, and extracellular field recordings of CA1 neurons were performed to assess hippocampal synaptic plasticity changes after MCAO, and contextual fear conditioning was performed to evaluate memory and biochemistry used to analyze Nogo-A expression...
February 14, 2019: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
S V Kotov, S V Belomyttsev, R I Guspanov, M K Semenov, M M Iritsyan, A M Ugurchiev
INTRODUCTION: Iatrogenic urethral damage is the leading etiologic factor for urethral stricture in men in developed countries and second after traumatic injury in developing ones. This study aimed to evaluate the frequency of iatrogenic strictures of the urethra and the results of their treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective analysis comprised 133 patients who were treated for iatrogenic urethral stricture from 2011to 2016. Group I included 72 (54%) patients after trans(intra)urethral interventions (transurethral resection of the prostate or urinary bladder), urethral dilation, traumatic catheterization, etc...
October 2018: Urologii︠a︡
Mayank Goyal, Mohammed Almekhlafi, Diederik W Dippel, Bruce C V Campbell, Keith Muir, Andrew M Demchuk, Serge Bracard, Antoni Davalos, Francis Guillemin, Tudor G Jovin, Bijoy K Menon, Peter J Mitchell, Scott Brown, Philip White, Charles B L M Majoie, Jeffrey L Saver, Michael D Hill
Background and Purpose- We report the relation of onset-to-treatment time and door-to-needle time with functional outcomes and mortality among patients with ischemic stroke with imaging-proven large vessel occlusion treated with intravenous alteplase. Methods- Individual patient-level data from the HERMES (Highly Effective Reperfusion Evaluated in Multiple Endovascular Stroke Trials) collaboration were pooled from 7 trials that randomized patients to mechanical thrombectomy added to best medical therapy versus best medical therapy alone...
February 14, 2019: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
Rohit Srivastava, Anna Jablonska, Chengyan Chu, Lydia Gregg, Jeff Bulte, Raymond C Koehler, Piotr Walczak, Miroslaw Janowski
White matter damage persists in hypoxic-ischemic newborns even when treated with hypothermia. We have previously shown that intra-ventricular delivery of human glial progenitors (GPs) at the neonatal stage is capable of replacing abnormal host glia and rescuing the lifespan of dysmyelinated mice. However, such transplantation in the human brain poses significant challenges as related to high-volume ventricles and long cell migration distances. These challenges can only be studied in large animal model systems...
February 14, 2019: Stem Cells and Development
P Lebert, O Ernst, M Zins
PURPOSE: To present radiological aspects of jejunoileal diverticulosis and its complications. RESULTS: Jejunoileal diverticulosis is a relatively rare and underestimated condition, which mostly affects the elderly. It is frequently asymptomatic but it can lead to significant complications requiring surgical treatment. Jejunoileal diverticulosis is far less common than colonic diverticulosis. Acquired small bowel diverticula are often numerous but the complication rate is low...
February 13, 2019: Abdominal Radiology
Matthew C Hernandez, John R Bergquist, Jennifer L Leiting, Tommy Ivanics, Lin Yang, Rory L Smoot, David M Nagorney, Mark J Truty
BACKGROUND: Patient-derived xenografts (PDX) are clinically relevant human cancer models that can be used to guide individualized medicine. We aimed to generate PDX models from clinically obtained biopsy specimens (surgical or image-guided) hypothesizing that low volume biopsy specimens could provide sufficient viable tissue to successfully engraft PDX models from patients with unresectable or metastatic disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We maintain a prospective high volume gastrointestinal malignancy PDX program...
February 12, 2019: Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery: Official Journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
Frank V Bensch, Elina A Varjonen, Tuomo T Pyhältö, Seppo K Koskinen
PURPOSE: BCVI may lead to ischemic stroke, disability, and death, while being often initially clinically silent. Screening criteria for BCVI based on clinical findings and trauma mechanism have improved detection, with Denver criteria being most common. Up to 30% of patients do not meet BCVI screening criteria. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of augmented Denver criteria on detection, and to determine the relative risk for ischemic stroke. METHODS: Denver screening criteria were augmented by any high-energy trauma of the cervical spine, thorax, abdomen, or pelvis...
February 12, 2019: Emergency Radiology
M Rochoy, V Rivas, E Chazard, E Decarpentry, G Saudemont, P-A Hazard, F Puisieux, S Gautier, R Bordet
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a frequent pathology, with a poor prognosis, for which no curative treatment is available in 2018. AD prevention is an important issue, and is an important research topic. In this manuscript, we have synthesized the literature reviews and meta-analyses relating to modifiable risk factors associated with AD. Smoking, diabetes, high blood pressure, obesity, hypercholesterolemia, physical inactivity, depression, head trauma, heart failure, bleeding and ischemic strokes, sleep apnea syndrome appeared to be associated with an increased risk of AD...
2019: Journal of Prevention of Alzheimer's Disease
R Angelico, S Trapani, M Spada, M Colledan, J de Ville de Goyet, M Salizzoni, L De Carlis, E Andorno, S Gruttadauria, G M Ettorre, M Cescon, G Rossi, A Risaliti, G Tisone, U Tedeschi, M Vivarelli, S Agnes, P De Simone, L G Lupo, F Di Benedetto, W Santaniello, F Zamboni, V Mazzaferro, M Rossi, F Puoti, S Camagni, C Grimaldi, E Gringeri, L Rizzato, A Nanni Costa, U Cillo
To implement split liver transplantation(SLT) a mandatory-split policy has been adopted in Italy since August 2015: donors aged 18-50 years at standard-risk are offered for SLT, resulting in a left-lateral segment(LLS) graft for children and an extended-right graft(ERG) for adults. We aim to analyse the impact of the new mandatory-split policy on liver transplantation(LT)-waiting list and SLT outcomes, compared to old allocation policy. Between August 2015-December 2016 out of 413 potentially "splittable" donors, 252(61%) were proposed for SLT, of whom 53(21%) donors were accepted for SLT while 101(40...
February 12, 2019: American Journal of Transplantation
Ilan Vonderwalde, Ashkan Azimi, Gabrielle Rolvink, Jan-Eric Ahlfors, Molly S Shoichet, Cindi M Morshead
Stroke is one of the leading causes of long-term disability. Cell transplantation is a promising strategy to treat stroke. We explored the efficacy of directly reprogrammed human neural precursor cell (drNPC) transplants to promote functional recovery in a model of focal ischemic stroke in the mouse sensorimotor cortex. We show that drNPCs express neural precursor cell markers and are neurally committed at the time of transplantation. Mice that received drNPC transplants recovered motor function, irrespective of transplant vehicle or recipient sex, and with no correlation to lesion volume or glial scarring...
February 12, 2019: Translational Stroke Research
Travis M Dumont, Robert W Bina
Background: Thrombectomy has become established as a successful treatment strategy for ischemic stroke, and consequently, more patients are undergoing this procedure. Due to comorbid conditions, chronic disease states, and advanced age, many patients have anatomy which complicates revascularization, specifically difficult aortic arch anatomy, or tortuous common and internal artery anatomy, or both. Methods: In the present study, these unfavorable anatomic parameters were analyzed for 53 patients undergoing acute thrombectomy for ischemic stroke...
November 2018: Journal of Vascular and Interventional Neurology
Ji-Yong Li, Shan-Shan Pan, Jia-Yin Wang, Jiao Lu
The role of autophagy in the cardioprotection conferred by ischemic preconditioning (IPC) has been well described. This study aimed to investigate the changes in autophagy levels during the cardioprotective effects initiated by exercise preconditioning (EP).Rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: group C (control), group EP, group EE (exhaustive exercise), and group EP + EE (EP pretreatment at 0.5 hours before EE). The EP protocol included 4 periods of 10 minutes of treadmill running each at 30 m/minute with intervening 10 minute periods of rest...
February 8, 2019: International Heart Journal
M A Baturova, A Lindgren, Y V Shubik, J Carlson, P G Platonov
BACKGROUND: Interatrial block (IAB) is an ECG indicator of atrial fibrosis related to atrial remodeling and thrombus formation thus leading to embolic stroke and increasing mortality. We aimed to assess weather IAB predicted all-cause mortality during 10 years after ischemic stroke. METHODS: The study sample comprised 235 patients (median age 74 (interquartile range 25-75% 65-81) years, 95 female) included in the Lund Stroke Register in 2001-2002, who had sinus rhythm ECGs at stroke admission...
February 11, 2019: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
V Mandese, E Bigi, P Bruzzi, G Palazzi, B Predieri, L Lucaccioni, M Cellini, L Iughetti
BACKGROUND: Children with Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) show endocrine complications and metabolic alterations. The physiopathology of these conditions is not completely understood: iron overload due to chronic transfusions, ischemic damage, and inflammatory state related to vaso-occlusive crises may be involved. Aims of this study were to evaluate the growth pattern, endocrine complications, and metabolic alterations and to detect the relationship between these conditions and the SCD severity in affected children and adolescents...
February 11, 2019: BMC Pediatrics
Alexander E Merkler, Monica L Chen, Neal S Parikh, Santosh B Murthy, Shadi Yaghi, Parag Goyal, Peter M Okin, Maria G Karas, Babak B Navi, Costantino Iadecola, Hooman Kamel
Background and Purpose- It is uncertain whether heart transplantation decreases the risk of stroke. The objective of our study was to determine whether heart transplantation is associated with a decreased risk of subsequent stroke among patients with heart failure awaiting transplantation. Methods- We performed a retrospective cohort study using administrative data from New York, California, and Florida between 2005 and 2015. Individuals with heart failure awaiting heart transplantation were identified using previously validated International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification diagnosis codes for heart failure in combination with code V49...
February 12, 2019: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
Xi-Ming Yang, Sushee Gadde, Jonathon P Audia, Diego F Alvarez, James M Downey, Michael V Cohen
P2Y12 receptor-blocking drugs given at reperfusion offer protection against myocardial infarction in animal models of transient coronary occlusion. Two recent reports concluded that ticagrelor was more cardioprotective than clopidogrel and attributed this to ticagrelor's unique ability to raise tissue adenosine by blocking the equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1. Indeed, an adenosine receptor blocker attenuated ticagrelor's protection. The related P2Y12 inhibitor cangrelor, which does not block the transporter, protects hearts only when platelets are in the perfusate, while adenosine is known to protect equally in situ blood-perfused and crystalloid-perfused isolated hearts...
February 11, 2019: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
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