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Marco Arese, Federico Bussolino, Margherita Pergolizzi, Laura Bizzozero, Davide Pascal
One of the challenges of cancer is its heterogeneity and rapid capacity to adapt. Notwithstanding significant progress in the last decades in genomics and precision medicine, new molecular targets and therapies appear highly necessary. One way to approach this complex problem is to consider cancer in the context of its cellular and molecular microenvironment, which includes nerves. The peripheral nerves, the topic of this review, modulate the biological behavior of the cancer cells and influence tumor progression, including the events related to the metastatic spread of the disease...
March 2018: Annals of Translational Medicine
Vladimir I Arkhipov, Ekaterina V Pershina, Sergey G Levin
Cytokines, in addition to their participation in immune and inflammatory processes, play an important role in synaptic plasticity, neoneurogenesis, and cognitive functions. In our work, we aimed to clarify the role of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), which is recognized as a multifunctional cytokine, in memory processes. Behavioral experiments were carried out in rats using step-through passive avoidance test. The results obtained showed that the learning of animals after treatment with SB431542, a selective inhibitor of TGF-β receptors, was impaired, which indicated a significant memory deterioration...
March 21, 2018: Neuroreport
Glenn Rademakers, Nathalie Vaes, Simone Schonkeren, Alexander Koch, Keith A Sharkey, Veerle Melotte
The enteric nervous system (ENS) is the intrinsic neural network of the gastrointestinal tract, which is essential for regulating gut functions and intestinal homeostasis. The importance of the ENS is underscored by the existence of severe gastrointestinal diseases, such as Hirschsprung's disease and intestinal pseudo-obstruction, which arise when the ENS fails to develop normally or becomes dysregulated. Moreover, it is known that enteric neurons are involved in intestinal inflammation. However, the role of the ENS in colorectal cancer (CRC) carcinogenesis remains poorly understood, even though processes like perineural invasion and neoneurogenesis are important factors in CRC...
December 2017: Biochimica et biophysica acta. Reviews on cancer
Georgios Lolas, Arianna Bianchi, Konstantinos N Syrigos
It is well-known that tumours induce the formation of a lymphatic and a blood vasculature around themselves. A similar but far less studied process occurs in relation to the nervous system and is referred to as neoneurogenesis. The relationship between tumour progression and the nervous system is still poorly understood and is likely to involve a multitude of factors. It is therefore relevant to study tumour-nerve interactions through mathematical modelling: this may reveal the most significant factors of the plethora of interacting elements regulating neoneurogenesis...
February 10, 2016: Scientific Reports
Morten Gersel Stokholm, Søren Høyer, Michael Borre, Dirk Bender, Steen Jakobsen, Jørgen Frøkiær, Per Borghammer
PURPOSE: High-grade prostate cancer (PC) displays parasympathetic neoneurogenesis. We investigated the binding of two PET tracers that visualize cholinergic nerves in PC tissue using autoradiography. METHODS: Prostatectomy tissue was subjected to autoradiography with (11)C-donepezil and (18)F-FEOBV and correlated with Gleason scores (GS). Regions of interest on the autoradiograms were defined and quantified. Tracer binding in cancer tissue regions was compared with that in normal tissue...
May 2016: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Sarah Payton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2013: Nature Reviews. Urology
Mario Mancino, Elisabet Ametller, Pedro Gascón, Vanessa Almendro
Nerve fibers accompany blood and lymphatic vessels all over the body. An extensive amount of knowledge has been obtained with regard to tumor angiogenesis and tumor lymphangiogenesis, yet little is known about the potential biological effects of "neoneurogenesis". Cancer cells can exploit the advantage of the factors released by the nerve fibers to generate a positive microenvironment for cell survival and proliferation. At the same time, they can stimulate the formation of neurites by secreting neurotrophic factors and axon guidance molecules...
December 2011: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
O A Solov'eva, Z I Storozheva, A T Proshin, V V Sherstnev
Effect of administration of selective N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist Ro 25-6981 on learning and memory in a dose which is known to stimulate neoneurogenesis was assessed in adult rats with different abilities to formation of spatial skills in different time periods after the antagonist injection. Wistar male rats were trained to find hidden platform in the Morris water maze for 5 consecutive days. Rats' learning ability for spatial skill formation was evaluated depending on platform speed achievements...
February 2011: Rossiĭskii Fiziologicheskiĭ Zhurnal Imeni I.M. Sechenova
M J Voss, B Niggemann, K S Zänker, F Entschladen
Fast growing solid tumors generally lack an inner organisation, which causes the problem of a sufficient nutrient of each part of the tumor that then happens only by diffusion. The low oxygen supply leads to the activation of hypoxia-inducible factors, which regulate a plethora of genes. The reaction of tumor cells to hypoxia can be divided into two parts: On the one hand, there are signal substances, predominantly growth factors and cytokines, which provoke the vascularisation (angiogenesis), lymph vessel development (lymphangiogenesis), and the innervation (neoneurogenesis) of tumors and thus connect the tumor to structures of the environment...
June 2010: Current Molecular Medicine
Frank van Bel, Floris Groenendaal
Perinatal hypoxia-ischemia or birth asphyxia is a serious complication with a high mortality and morbidity. For decades, neuroprotective options have been explored to reduce reperfusion and reoxygenation injury to the brain, which accounts for a substantial part of birth asphyxia-related brain damage. In this review, we focus on neuroprotective strategies with a long-term follow-up, reported in both experimental and clinical studies. Strategies related to modification of excitatory neurotransmitter production and action, reduction in free radical production and inflammation and neoneurogenesis will be briefly summarized...
2008: Neonatology
Frank Entschladen, Daniel Palm, Bernd Niggemann, Kurt S Zaenker
The nervous system is a superordinate organ in the body that controls the function of virtually all other organs and tissues. In the past, the role of the nervous system in cancer development and progression has largely been ascribed to an immunosuppressive function, which saps the immune system's ability to respond to a tumor. However, it is now clear that direct interactions of tumor cells with nerve cells occur, too. We herein provide arguments for the hypothesis that tumors initiate their own innervation by the release of neurotrophic factors including the nerve growth factor, the brain-derived growth factor, and the vascular endothelial growth factor...
June 2008: Seminars in Cancer Biology
Frank Entschladen, Daniel Palm, Theodore L Drell, Kerstin Lang, Kurt S Zaenker
Tumor cells are not only susceptible to signals from the environment, but they likewise release signal substances. It is well known that tumor cells secrete angiogenic factors--most prominently the vascular endothelial growth factor--which initiate the vascularization of the tumor for its nourishment. This process has been termed neoangiogenesis. Besides this, two further processes have recently been discovered that facilitate the interaction of the tumor with the lymphatic system and the nervous system, named lymphangiogenesis and neoneurogenesis...
2007: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Daniel Palm, Frank Entschladen
A tumor is not an isolated entity within an organism, but tissue that strongly interacts with its environment. This interaction is however not restricted to direct cell-to-cell interactions, but generally comprises the susceptibility of tumor cells for chemokines and cytokines, as well as neurotransmitters and hormones by the expression of the according receptors. These signal substances have influences on tumor cell functions such as proliferation and migration. The other way round, tumor cells themselves release a broad range of these signal substances, which influence the cells of the environment...
2007: Progress in Experimental Tumor Research
I Comte, S Battu, M Mathonnet, B Bessette, F Lalloué, P Cardot, C Ayer-Le Lièvre
The aim of the present study was to isolate neural stem cells from a complex tissue: the avian olfactory epithelium; by using sedimentation field flow fractionation (SdFFF). By using "Hyperlayer" elution mode, fraction collection and cell characterization methods, results shows that SdFFF could be a useful cell sorter to isolate an enriched, viable and sterile immature neural cell fraction from which the reconstitution of a complete epithelium was possible. In culture, SdFFF eluted cells first led to a "pseudoplacodal" epithelioid cell type from which derived "floating cells"...
November 7, 2006: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Frank Entschladen, Daniel Palm, Kerstin Lang, Theodore L Drell, Kurt S Zaenker
Malignant tumors frequently release angiogenic factors, which lead to the vascularization of the tumor, a process called neoangiogenesis. This neoangiogenesis provides sufficient nourishment of the tumor when it exceeds a certain size. Recently, a similar mechanism has been postulated for the development of new lymph vessels in tumors, termed lymphangiogenesis. Thus, tumors get access to the circulation and lymph drainage like any other growing or regenerating tissue. Furthermore, it has been hypothesized that neoangiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis support metastasis development...
2006: Medical Hypotheses
L Velísek, S L Moshé
The origins of human mesial temporal lobe epilepsy and hippocampal sclerosis are still not well understood. Hippocampal sclerosis and temporal lobe epileptogenesis involve a series of pathologies including hippocampal neuronal loss and gliosis, axonal reorganization, and maybe hippocampal neoneurogenesis. However, the causality of these events is unclear as well as their relation to the factors that may precipitate epileptogenesis. Significant differences between temporal lobe epileptogenesis in the adult and immature brain may require differential approaches...
2003: Epilepsia
M Mathonnet, P Cubertafond, A Gainant, C Ayer-Le Lièvre
UNLABELLED: A reliable model, usable in vitro and in vivo, is necessary for analysis of processes engaged during cell death, regeneration and differentiation. The peripheral olfactory system is an attractive model for studying these processes through its dynamic neurogenesis that occurs continually throughout the lifetime. STUDY AIM: The aim of this study was the analysis of these processes on an animal model. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We performed axotomy of the nerve olfactory on young animals and chicken embryos E17...
November 2001: Annales de Chirurgie
E N Sokolov, N I Nezlina, V B Polianskiĭ, D V Evtikhin
The concept of orienting reflex based on the principle of vector coding of cognitive and executive processes is proposed. The orienting reflex to non-signal and signal stimuli is a set of orienting reactions: motor, autonomic, neuronal, and subjective emphasizing new and significant stimuli. Two basic mechanisms can be identified within the orienting reflex: a "targeting reaction" and a "searchlight of attention". In the visual system the first one consists in a foveation of a target stimulus. The foveation is performed with participation of premotor neurons excited by saccadic command neurons of the superior colliculi...
July 2001: Zhurnal Vyssheĭ Nervnoĭ Deiatelnosti Imeni I P Pavlova
R Masson, C H Régnier, M P Chenard, C Wendling, M G Mattei, C Tomasetto, M C Rio
This is the first in situ hybridization analysis of expression of a tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor associated factor (TRAF) during development. TRAF4 is observed throughout mouse embryogenesis, most notably during ontogenesis of the central (CNS) and peripheral (PNS) nervous system, and of nervous tissues of sensory organs. TRAF4 is preferentially expressed by post-mitotic undifferentiated neurons. Interestingly, TRAF4 remains expressed in the adult hippocampus and olfactory bulb, known to contain multipotential cells responsible for neoneurogenesis...
February 1998: Mechanisms of Development
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