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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30763983/gut-microbiota-diversity-associates-with-cardiorespiratory-fitness-in-post-primary-treatment-breast-cancer-survivors
#1
Stephen J Carter, Gary R Hunter, J Walker Blackston, Nianjun Liu, Elliot J Lefkowitz, William J Van Der Pol, Casey D Morrow, Jesseca A Paulsen, Laura Q Rogers
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? Does the link between cardiorespiratory fitness and gut microbiota diversity persist after adjusting for the potential effects of %body fat and activity-related energy expenditure (AEE)? What is the main finding and its importance? This is the first study to examine the link between cardiorespiratory fitness and gut microbiota diversity while accounting for the underlying effects of %body fat and free-living AEE. Results from the present work suggest cardiorespiratory fitness, not physical activity, is a superior correlate of gut microbiota diversity among post-primary treatment, non-metastatic breast cancer survivors...
February 14, 2019: Experimental Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30763912/the-adsorption-regeneration-and-engineering-applications-of-biochar-for-removal-organic-pollutants-a-review
#2
REVIEW
Yingjie Dai, Naixin Zhang, Chuanming Xing, Qingxia Cui, Qiya Sun
In recent years, with the continuous development of industry and agriculture, the content of organic pollutants in the environment has been increasing, which has caused serious pollution to the environment. Adsorption has proven to be an effective and economically viable method of removing organic contaminants. Since biochar has many advantages such as various types of raw materials, low cost, and recyclability, it can achieve the effect of turning waste into treasure when used for environmental treatment. This paper summarizes the source and production of biochar, points out its research status in the removal of organic pollutants, expounds its adsorption mechanism on organic pollutants, introduces the relevant adsorption parameters, summarizes its regeneration methods, studies its application of engineering, and finally analyses of benefits and describes the development prospects...
February 5, 2019: Chemosphere
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30763581/f5-peptide-enhances-the-efficacy-of-the-non-hormonal-male-contraceptive-adjudin
#3
Haiqi Chen, Dolores Mruk, Chris K C Wong, Bruno Silvestrini, C Yan Cheng
OBJECTIVE: The bioavailability of the non-hormonal male contraceptive adjudin is low in rats due to the blood-testis barrier (BTB). This study was designed to examine if F5-peptide, an endogenously produced reversible BTB modifier, could enhance the bioavailability of adjudin to affect spermatogenesis and provide a contraceptive effect in rats while reducing systemic toxicity. STUDY DESIGN: We overexpressed F5-peptide in adult male rats (n=10 rats; with 3 or 4 rats for each of the three different experiments noted in the three regimens) by intratesticular injection of a mammalian expression vector pCI-neo (pCI-neo/F5-peptide) vs...
February 11, 2019: Contraception
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30763340/development-of-a-risk-score-for-predicting-the-benefit-versus-harm-of-extending-dual-antiplatelet-therapy-beyond-6-months-following-percutaneous-coronary-intervention-for-stable-coronary-artery-disease
#4
Guy Witberg, Ygal Plakht, Tamir Bental, Becca S Feldman, Maya Leventer-Roberts, Amos Levi, Hagit Gabay, Ran Balicer, Yariv Gerber, Ran Kornowski
BACKGROUND: Decisions on dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) duration should balance the opposing risks of ischaemia and bleeding. Our aim was to develop a risk score to identify stable coronary artery disease (SCAD) patients undergoing PCI who would benefit or suffer from extending DAPT beyond 6 months. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of a cohort of patients who completed 6 months of DAPT following PCI. Predictors of ischaemic and bleeding events for the 6-12 month period post-PCI were identified and a risk score was developed to estimate the likelihood of benefiting from extending DAPT beyond 6 months...
2019: PloS One
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30763228/detection-of-circulating-tumour-cells-and-their-potential-use-as-a-biomarker-for-advanced-renal-cell-carcinoma
#5
Tae Heon Kim, Yoon-Tae Kang, Young-Ho Cho, Jeong Hoon Kim, Byong Chang Jeong, Seong Il Seo, Seong Soo Jeon, Hyun Moo Lee
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to detect circulating tumour cells (CTCs) in patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC) using a novel CTC detection platform. Furthermore, we evaluated the clinical outcomes associated with a CTC-positive status. METHODS: A total of 34 patients with advanced RCC (stage III or IV) were prospectively enrolled, and 104 peripheral blood samples were analyzed for the presence of CTCs at various time points. CTCs were isolated using a tapered-slit filter, which captures CTCs based on size and deformability...
January 21, 2019: Canadian Urological Association Journal, Journal de L'Association des Urologues du Canada
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30763204/looking-through-the-lens-of-a-family-planner-to-prioritize-reproductive-health-among-women-with-cancer
#6
Jessica M Madrigal, Mokshasree Atluri, Erika K Radeke, Ashlesha Patel
PURPOSE: Prioritization of cancer treatment initiation in women of reproductive age may underscore potential implications on reproductive health. This study describes a family planning quotient (FPQ) and reproductive life index (RepLI) tool designed to help providers to discuss effectively reproductive health with women with cancer. METHODS: We tailored the FPQ/RepLI tool for patients with cancer after development in the family planning setting and piloted it with 36 oncology patients referred to our family planning clinic...
February 2019: Journal of Oncology Practice
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30763144/engagement-in-hiv-care-and-access-to-cancer-treatment-among-patients-with-hiv-associated-malignancies-in-uganda
#7
Daniel H Low, Warren Phipps, Jackson Orem, Corey Casper, Rachel A Bender Ignacio
PURPOSE: Health system constraints limit access to HIV and cancer treatment programs in sub-Saharan Africa. Limited access and continuity of care affect morbidity and mortality of patients with cancer and HIV. We assessed barriers in the care cascade of comorbid HIV and cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Structured interviews were conducted with 100 adult patients with HIV infection and new diagnoses of cancer at the Uganda Cancer Institute. Participants completed follow-up questionnaires after 1 year to assess ongoing engagement with and barriers to care...
February 2019: Journal of Global Oncology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30762836/evaluation-of-current-trends-in-treatment-of-single-level-cervical-radiculopathy
#8
Jung K Mok, Evan D Sheha, Andre M Samuel, Steven J McAnany, Avani S Vaishnav, Todd J Albert, Catherine Himo Gang, Sheeraz Qureshi
STUDY DESIGN: This was a retrospective cohort study. OBJECTIVES: The main objectives of this study were to identify epidemiological trends, differences, and complications in patients undergoing surgical treatment for single-level cervical radiculopathy (SLCR). SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: SLCR that fails nonoperative management is effectively treated with either anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF), cervical disc replacement (CDR), or posterior cervical foraminotomy (PCF)...
February 12, 2019: Clinical Spine Surgery
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30762731/status-and-factors-related-to-posttraumatic-growth-in-patients-with-lung-cancer-a-strobe-compliant-article
#9
Xingchen Peng, Yonglin Su, Wenxia Huang, Xiaolin Hu
Post-traumatic growth in cancer patients refers to perceived positive changes following cancer diagnosis and treatment. Little is known about the status and factors related to posttraumatic growth among Chinese patients with lung cancer.To investigate the status and factors of posttraumatic growth among Chinese patients with lung cancer.A cross-sectional design was adopted in this study. Patients (N = 173) from the oncology unit at one teaching hospital in Sichuan were recruited. Posttraumatic growth, depression, anxiety, and coping style were self-reported by the patients...
February 2019: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30762728/be-aware-of-the-effects-of-glucocorticoids-on-siadh-a-case-report
#10
Huaqian Li, Lijun Huang, Ge Wu, Xianmei Chen, Qiaoan Zheng, Faming Su, Maoshan Liang, Xiaoming Chen
RATIONALE: Hyponatremia is one of the most common electrolyte disorders in clinic. Due to the complicated etiology and the nonspecific clinical manifestations, the diagnosis of hyponatremia is a complicated process. A variety of clinical disorders can cause inappropriately increased antidiuretic hormone (ADH) secretion, leading to inappropriate water retention and consequent hyponatremia. The most common cause of hyponatremia in hospital inpatients is syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic (SIADH)...
February 2019: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30762674/characterizing-sociostructural-associations-with-new-hiv-diagnoses-among-female-sex-workers-in-cameroon
#11
Anna L Bowring, Sosthenes Ketende, Serge C Billong, Iliassou Mfochive Njindam, Amrita Rao, Michele R Decker, Carrie Lyons, Gnilane Turpin, Guy Fako, Oluwasolape Olawore, Flavien Ndonko, Daniel Levitt, Ghislaine Fouda, Ubald Tamoufe, Oudou Njoya, Anne-Cecile Zoung-Kanyi Bissek, Stefan Baral
BACKGROUND: Female sex workers (FSW) are disproportionately affected by HIV in Cameroon, with an estimated 23.6% HIV prevalence. Given the unavailability of HIV incidence data, to better understand associations with acquiring HIV we assessed the prevalence and associations with new HIV diagnoses among FSW in Cameroon. METHODS: In 2016, FSW were recruited through respondent-driven sampling from 5 cities for a biobehavioral survey. Participants self-reporting living with HIV or with an indeterminate test status were excluded from analysis...
March 1, 2019: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30762668/current-status-of-graft-versus-host-disease-after-intestinal-transplantation
#12
Armando Ganoza, George V Mazariegos, Ajai Khanna
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Over the past decades, visceral transplantation has become the standard of care for patients with irreversible intestinal failure who suffer complications of total parenteral nutrition (TPN). Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after solid organ transplantation is a rare but often fatal complication with high mortality. GVHD after intestinal transplantation, given the large lymphoid content of the graft, is more frequent compared with other solid organs. It is a complex condition that may have varied clinical presentations...
February 11, 2019: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30762667/current-status-of-lipid-emulsions-in-the-prevention-of-intestinal-failure-associated-liver-disease
#13
Joel Lim, Alexandra Oschman, Kayla Curiel
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The current review provides a summary of available lipid products and discusses current literature and the limitations to the use of various lipid products for treatment and prevention of intestinal failure-associated liver disease (IFALD) in pediatric patients dependent on parenteral nutrition. RECENT FINDINGS: Improvements in markers of cholestasis and liver function have been seen with minimizing soybean lipid, fish oil lipid, and mixed fish oil-containing lipid emulsions...
February 11, 2019: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30762318/a-comparison-of-the-effects-of-mirror-therapy-and-phantom-exercises-on-phantom-limb-pain
#14
Bahar Anaforoğlu Külünkoğlu, Fatih Erbahçeci, Afra Alkan
Background/aim: Although mirror therapy (MT) and phantom exercises (PE) have been shown to reduce pain, the efficacy of these methods in terms of pain, quality of life (QoL), and psychological status (PS) has not been investigated and compared to date. The aim of this study was to determine whether there is any difference between MT and PE in the treatment of phantom limb pain (PLP). Materials and methods: Forty unilateral transtibial amputees (aged 18–45 years) participated in this study...
February 11, 2019: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30762312/malignant-pleural-effusion-as-a-predictor-of-the-efficacy-of-anti-pd-1-antibody-in-patients-with-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#15
Ryota Shibaki, Shuji Murakami, Yuki Shinno, Yuji Matsumoto, Yasushi Goto, Shintaro Kanda, Hidehito Horinouchi, Yutaka Fujiwara, Noriko Motoi, Noboru Yamamoto, Yuichiro Ohe
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of the presence of malignant pleural effusion (MPE) as a negative predictor of anti-PD-1 antibody efficacy. METHODS: A retrospective review of patients with advanced or recurrent non-small cell lung cancer treated with an anti-PD-1 antibody between December 2015 and March 2018 at the National Cancer Center Hospital, Japan, was conducted. Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were compared between patients with and without MPE...
February 14, 2019: Thoracic Cancer
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30762311/the-impact-of-smoking-on-response-to-tnf-inhibitors-in-axial-spondyloarthritis-methodological-considerations-for-longitudinal-observational-studies
#16
Sizheng Zhao, Kazuki Yoshida, Gareth T Jones, David M Hughes, Sara K Tedeschi, Houchen Lyu, Robert J Moots, Daniel H Solomon, Nicola J Goodson
OBJECTIVE: Observational data facilitate examination of treatment-effect heterogeneity, but the risk of bias is substantial. We highlight methodological considerations through an analysis of whether smoking affects response to TNF inhibitors (TNFi) in axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA). METHODS: We used longitudinal data from the British Society for Rheumatology Biologics Register for Ankylosing Spondylitis. Participants fulfilling the ASAS criteria for axSpA, who started their first TNFi were eligible for analysis...
February 14, 2019: Arthritis Care & Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30762205/therapies-directed-against-b-cells-and-downstream-effectors-in-generalized-autoimmune-myasthenia-gravis-current-status
#17
Grayson Beecher, Brendan Nicholas Putko, Amanda Nicole Wagner, Zaeem Azfer Siddiqi
Myasthenia gravis is a rare, heterogeneous, classical autoimmune disease characterized by fatigable skeletal muscle weakness, which is directly mediated by autoantibodies targeting various components of the neuromuscular junction, including the acetylcholine receptor, muscle specific tyrosine kinase, and lipoprotein-related protein 4. Subgrouping of myasthenia gravis is dependent on the age of onset, pattern of clinical weakness, autoantibody detected, type of thymic pathology, and response to immunotherapy...
February 14, 2019: Drugs
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30762130/use-of-immune-checkpoint-inhibitors-in-mesothelioma
#18
REVIEW
Patrick M Forde, Arnaud Scherpereel, Anne S Tsao
Recent advances in immunology have extended into the mesothelioma field. To date, only Japan has given regulatory approval to salvage nivolumab in chemo-refractory mesothelioma patients. The USA has included in the NCCN guidelines that pembrolizumab (in programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) immunohistochemistry (IHC)-positive patients) and nivolumab with or without ipilimumab (whatever the PD-L1 status is) are accepted salvage therapies. Based on the growing body of literature, it is anticipated that checkpoint inhibitors will receive regulatory approval in the USA and Europe soon for salvage therapy...
February 14, 2019: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30761956/management-strategies-for-anaerobic-digestate-of-organic-fraction-of-municipal-solid-waste-current-status-and-future-prospects
#19
Mohanakrishnan Logan, Chettiyappan Visvanathan
Anaerobic digestion has emerged as the preferred treatment for organic fraction of municipal solid waste. Digestate management strategies are devised not only for safe disposal but also to increase the value and marketability. Regulations and standards for digestate management are framed to address the pollution concerns, conserve vulnerable zones, prevent communicable diseases, and to educate on digestate storage and applications. Regulations and the desired end uses are the main drivers for the enhancement of digestate through pretreatment, in vessel cleaning, and post-digestion treatment technologies for solid and liquid fractions of digestate...
January 2019: Waste Management & Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30761878/evaluation-of-the-efficacy-of-epiduroscopic-adhesiolysis-in-failed-back-surgery-syndrome
#20
Ayşegül Ceylan, İbrahim Aşık, Güngör Enver Özgencil, Burak Erken
Background/aim: We aimed to compare the results of the treatment of the patients with failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS) by mechanical lysis and steroid hylase injection via epiduroscopy due to their stabilization status and to detect the effect of pathological diagnostic markers on prognosis and ongoing treatment protocol. Materials and methods: Eighty-two patients with FBSS symptoms were included. Two groups were composed as group I (stabilized) and group II (nonstabilized)...
February 11, 2019: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
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