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Qiaojuan Zhang, Shao-Chung Hsia, Miguel Martin-Caraballo
Herpes simplex virus-type 1 (HSV-1) infection of sensory neurons may lead to a significant reduction in the expression of voltage-activated Na+ and Ca2+ channels, which can disrupt the transmission of pain information. Viral infection also results in the secretion of various pro-inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-6. In this work, we tested whether IL-6 regulates the expression of Na+ and Ca2+ channels post HSV-1 infection in ND7/23 sensory-like neurons. Our results demonstrate that HSV-1 infection causes a significant decrease in the protein expression of the Cav3...
March 19, 2019: Journal of Neurochemistry
Monica C Serra, Joe R Nocera, Jessica L Kelleher, Odessa Addison
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This literature review summarizes the evidence for and against the impact of prebiotics on brain function and behavior in older adults. RECENT FINDINGS: Current evidence generally supports the intake of prebiotics to increase beneficial gut bacteria concentrations. These bacteria appear to impact endocrine, immunologic, and neuronal communication along the gut-brain axis to alter brain function and behavior. Preliminary evidence in human studies consistently support prebiotics doses of ~ 5-10 g/d as safe to improve brain function (i...
March 19, 2019: Current Nutrition Reports
Sergio Claudio Saccà, Carlo Alberto Cutolo, Tommaso Rossi
Many diseases are related to age, among these neurodegeneration is particularly important. Alzheimer's disease Parkinson's and Glaucoma have many common pathogenic events including oxidative damage, Mitochondrial dysfunction, endothelial alterations and changes in the visual field. These are well known in the case of glaucoma, less in the case of neurodegeneration of the brain. Many other molecular aspects are common, such as the role of endoplasmic reticulum autophagy and neuronal apoptosis while others have been neglected due to lack of space such as inflammatory cytokine or miRNA...
2019: Sub-cellular Biochemistry
M Zatkova, A Reichova, Z Bacova, Jan Bakos
Synaptic cell adhesion molecules, including neurexins and neuroligins, mediate the formation and maintenance of connections between neuronal cells. Although neurexins and neuroligins are known to interact with each other in a calcium-dependent manner and several neuropeptides have been shown to act through G protein-coupled receptors to increase intracellular calcium levels, no studies have examined the role of the neuropeptide oxytocin in association with adhesion molecules. Given that oxytocin receptors are located on presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes and that oxytocin exerts direct effects on neuronal excitability, it could be hypothesized that oxytocin affects the expression of cell surface adhesion molecules...
March 19, 2019: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Fan Jia, Xutao Zhu, Pei Lv, Liang Hu, Qing Liu, Sen Jin, Fuqiang Xu
Sparse labeling of neurons contributes to uncovering their morphology, and rapid expression of a fluorescent protein reduces the experiment range. To achieve the goal of rapid and sparse labeling of neurons in vivo, we established a rapid method for depicting the fine structure of neurons at 24 h post-infection based on a mutant virus-like particle of Semliki Forest virus. Approximately 0.014 fluorescent focus-forming units of the mutant virus-like particle transferred enhanced green fluorescent protein into neurons in vivo, and its affinity for neurons in vivo was stronger than for neurons in vitro and BHK21 (baby hamster kidney) cells...
March 19, 2019: Neuroscience Bulletin
Wilasinee Suwanjang, Kay L H Wu, Supaluk Prachayasittikul, Banthit Chetsawang, Komgrid Charngkaew
Dexamethasone is an approved steroid for clinical use to activate or suppress cytokines, chemokines, inflammatory enzymes and adhesion molecules. It enters the brain, by-passing the blood brain barrier, and acts through genomic mechanisms. High levels of dexamethasone are able to induce neuronal cell loss, reduce neurogenesis and cause neuronal dysfunction. The exact mechanisms of steroid, especially the dexamethasone contribute to neuronal damage remain unclear. Therefore, the present study explored the mitochondrial dynamics underlying dexamethasone-induced toxicity of human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells...
March 19, 2019: Neurochemical Research
Elena Ivanova, Nazia M Alam, Glen T Prusky, Botir T Sagdullaev
Changes in neuronal activity alter blood flow to match energy demand with the supply of oxygen and nutrients. This functional hyperemia is maintained by interactions between neurons, vascular cells, and glia. However, how changing neuronal activity prevalent at the onset of neurodegenerative disease affects neurovascular elements is unclear. Here, in mice with photoreceptor degeneration, a model of neuron-specific dysfunction, we combined assessment of visual function, neurovascular unit structure, and the blood-retina barrier permeability...
March 19, 2019: JCI Insight
P D Loprinzi
This review discusses the potential role that glial cells may play in influencing the relationship between exercise and episodic memory function. A narrative review methodology is employed. Herein, the different types of glial cells, their implications in subserving episodic memory function, and how exercise can modulate glial cell activity, particularly astrocyte functionality, are discussed. Although additional experimental work is needed, astrocytes appear to play an important role in the exercise-memory interaction...
March 19, 2019: Physiology International
Guangyu Wang, Hong Xie, Lun Wang, Wenhan Luo, Yixiang Wang, Jun Jiang, Chun Xiao, Feng Xing, Ji-Song Guan
Fear extinction is generally considered a form of new learning that inhibits previously acquired fear memories. Here, by tracking immediate early gene expression in vivo, we found that contextual fear extinction training evoked distinct neural ensembles in mouse retrosplenial cortex (RSC). The optogenetic reactivation of these extinction-activated neurons in the RSC was sufficient to suppress a fear response, while the reactivation of conditioning-activated neurons in the same area promoted a fear response...
March 19, 2019: Cerebral Cortex
Hadi Rajabi, Vahid Hosseini, Sevda Rahimzadeh, Nayer Seyfizadeh, Somayeh Aslani, Alireza Abhari
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are attracted a great deal of interest in the field of regenerative medicine because of their differentiation ability into mesodermal derivatives and even other germ layers. The main requirement for better differentiation of MSCs into desired cell lineage is relied on pure population of these cells. During the past years, significant progresses have been developed for identification of MSCs by introducing new markers or different combination of markers. Currently, direct in vitro differentiation protocols using standard media supplemented with specific growth factors generating osteoblast, insulin producing and neuron cells from MSCs show some key characteristic in in vivo counterparts...
March 17, 2019: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Feng Hong, Mengxue Zhao, Lei Zhang, Linyin Feng
Epigenetic modifications play an important role in neural development. Trimethylated histone H3 at lysine 27 (H3K27me3) is a repressive epigenetic mark that mediates tissue development. Here, we demonstrated that H3K27me3 and histone methyl-transferase Ezh2 regulated the development of dopaminergic neurons in vitro and in vivo. We found that H3K27me3 increased during ventral midbrain derived neural stem cells (VM-NSCs) differentiation. However, histone demethylase selective inhibitor GSK-J1 increased H3K27me3 level and decreased the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)...
March 19, 2019: Stem Cells and Development
Hui-Xia Lin, Qing-Qing Tao, Qiao Wei, Cong-Xin Chen, Yu-Chao Chen, Hong-Fu Li, Aaron D Gitler, Zhi-Ying Wu
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating neurodegenerative disease characterized by selective involvement of motor neurons in the central nervous system (CNS). The most common causative gene of ALS in the Chinese population is the Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) gene, which accounts for 20-42.9% of familial ALS (FALS) and 1-2% of sporadic ALS (SALS) cases. In this study, we identify three novel SOD1 mutations, Gly17Cys, Pro75Ser, and His121Gln, in four ALS pedigrees. A functional analysis was performed, and the results showed that all three mutations could lead to the formation of misfolded proteins...
March 19, 2019: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Degeneration
Keitaro Sou, Duc Long Le, Hirotaka Sato
Nanocapsules present a promising platform for delivering chemicals and biomolecules to a site of action in a living organism. Because the biological action of the encapsulated molecules is blocked until they are released from the nanocapsules, the encapsulation structure enables triggering of the topical and timely action of the molecules at the target site. A similar mechanism seems promising for the spatiotemporal control of signal transduction triggered by the release of signal molecules in neuronal, metabolic, and immune systems...
March 19, 2019: Small
Tatiane Vilhena-Franco, André Souza Mecawi, Gislaine Almeida-Pereira, Fabiana Lucio Oliveira, Lucila Leico Kagohara Elias, José Antunes-Rodrigues
Vasopressinergic neurones of the supraoptic (SON) and paraventricular (PVN) nuclei express oestrogen receptor β (ERβ) and receive afferent projections from osmosensitive neurones that express oestrogen receptor α (ERα). However, which subtype of these receptors mediates the oestradiol effects on vasopressin (AVP) secretion induced by hydromineral challenge has not yet been demonstrated in vivo. Moreover, AVP secretion induced by hyperosmolality is well known to involve activation of TRPV1 (transient receptor potential vaniloid, member 1) in magnocellular neurones, but whether oestradiol modulates expression of this receptor is unknown...
March 18, 2019: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Jie Na, Izumi Sugihara, Yoshikazu Shinoda
The mammalian cerebellar cortex is compartmentalized, both anatomically and histochemically, into multiple parasagittal bands. To characterize the multiple zonal patterns of pontocerebellar mossy fiber projection, single neurons in the basilar pontine nucleus (BPN) were labeled by injecting biotinylated dextran amine into the BPN, and the entire axonal trajectory of single labeled neurons (n=25) was reconstructed in relation to aldolase C compartments of Purkinje cells in rats. Single pontocerebellar axons, after passing through the contralateral middle cerebellar peduncle, ran transversely in the deep cerebellar white matter toward and often across the midline, and on their ways, gave rise to 2-10 primary collaterals at almost right angles in specific lobules only contralaterally or bilaterally with contralateral predominance...
March 18, 2019: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Komal Bharti, Antonio Suppa, Sara Pietracupa, Neeraj Upadhyay, Costanza Giannì, Giorgio Leodori, Francesca Di Biasio, Nicola Modugno, Nikolaos Petsas, Giovanni Grillea, Alessandro Zampogna, Alfredo Berardelli, Patrizia Pantano
Freezing of gait (FOG) is a disabling motor symptom that affects patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). MRI-based evidence suggest that multiple brain structures are involved in the occurrence of FOG. We investigated the integrity of the neuronal networks in PD patients with FOG (PD-FOG), considering both within-network resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) and between-network rsFC. Thirty-one PD patients (15 PD-FOG and 16 PD-nFOG) and 16 healthy subjects (HS) underwent a rsfMRI study. The data was analysed by using FSL Melodic and FSLNets software to study within- and between-network rsFC...
March 19, 2019: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Jennie M E Cederholm, Youngsoo Kim, Georg von Jonquieres, Gary D Housley
Canonical transient receptor potential (TRPC) non-selective cation channels are broadly expressed by neurons, glia and the microvasculature of the brain. In neurons and astrocytes, these ion channels are coupled to group I metabotropic glutamate receptors via Gαq-phospholipase C signal transduction. In the mouse cerebellar Purkinje neurons, TRPC channels assembled as tetramers of TRPC3 subunits exclusively mediate this glutamatergic signalling mechanism and regulation of alternative splicing results in dominance of a high Ca2+ conducting TRPC3c isoform...
March 18, 2019: Cerebellum
Veronica Dusi, Ching Zhu, Olujimi A Ajijola
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to describe the latest advances in autonomic neuromodulation approaches to treating cardiac arrhythmias, with a focus on ventricular arrhythmias. RECENT FINDINGS: The increasing understanding of neuronal remodeling in cardiac diseases has led to the development and improvement of novel neuromodulation therapies targeting multiple levels of the autonomic nervous system. Thoracic epidural anesthesia, spinal cord stimulation, stellate ganglion modulatory therapies, vagal stimulation, renal denervation, and interventions on the intracardiac nervous system have all been studied in preclinical models, with encouraging preliminary clinical data...
March 18, 2019: Current Cardiology Reports
Zhi-Hong Wang, Tong Liu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 18, 2019: Neuroscience Bulletin
Robert Y North, Yan Li, Pradipta Ray, Laurence D Rhines, Claudio Esteves Tatsui, Ganesh Rao, Caj A Johansson, Hongmei Zhang, Yeun Hee Kim, Bo Zhang, Gregory Dussor, Tae Hoon Kim, Theodore J Price, Patrick M Dougherty
Neuropathic pain encompasses a diverse array of clinical entities affecting 7-10% of the population, which is challenging to adequately treat. Several promising therapeutics derived from molecular discoveries in animal models of neuropathic pain have failed to translate following unsuccessful clinical trials suggesting the possibility of important cellular-level and molecular differences between animals and humans. Establishing the extent of potential differences between laboratory animals and humans, through direct study of human tissues and/or cells, is likely important in facilitating translation of preclinical discoveries to meaningful treatments...
March 19, 2019: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
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