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Yang Liu, Zhijie Chen, Gongping Liu, Youssef Belmabkhout, Karim Adil, Mohamed Eddaoudi, William Koros
Membrane-based separation is poised to reduce the operation cost of propylene/propane separation; however, identifying a suitable molecular sieve for membrane development is still an ongoing challenge. Here, the successful identification and use of a metal-organic framework (MOF) material as fillers, namely, the Zr-fum-fcu-MOF possessing an optimal contracted triangular pore-aperture driving the efficient diffusive separation of propylene from propane in mixed-matrix membranes are reported. It is demonstrated that the fabricated hybrid membranes display a high propylene/propane separation performance, far beyond the current trade-off limit of polymer membranes with excellent properties under industrial conditions...
February 15, 2019: Advanced Materials
Tomas Matza
Experimental design and metrics have become increasingly common in international assistance, as donor agencies have demanded rigorous forms of evaluation and monitoring. This article contributes to debates about the effects of an "evidence-based turn" on interventions and recipients by exploring two questions: What constitutes evidence when it comes to everyday practices of aid at global scales? How are the goals of assistance affected? The article draws on collaborative research with an NGO and a group of social scientists who seek to improve child well-being in El Salvador...
February 15, 2019: Medical Anthropology Quarterly
Brock A Harpur, M Marta Guarna, Elizabeth Huxter, Heather Higo, Kyung-Mee Moon, Shelley E Hoover, Abdullah Ibrahim, Andony P Melathopoulos, Suresh Desai, Robert W Currie, Stephen F Pernal, Leonard J Foster, Amro Zayed
Social organisms combat pathogens through individual innate immune responses or through social immunity -allobehaviours that limit pathogen transmission within groups. While we have a relatively detailed understanding of the genetics and evolution of the innate immunity in animals, we know little about social immunity. Addressing this knowledge gap is crucial for understanding how life-history traits influence immunity, and if trade-offs exist between innate and social immunity. Hygienic behaviour in the Western honey bee, Apis mellifera, provides an excellent model for investigating the genetics and evolution of social immunity in animals...
February 15, 2019: Genome Biology and Evolution
Huan Wang, Xiao-Ling Ji, Hao Zhang, Xiao-Qing Li, Yu Deng
Analytical propagation formulae of partially coherent beams (PCBs) in nonlinear media are derived. It is proven that the ABCD law is valid if a new complex beam parameter is adopted, which presents a simple method to study the propagation of PCBs through an optical system in nonlinear media. In self-focusing media, the spatial coherence for the beam spreading case is better than that for the beam self-focusing case, when the propagation distance is longer than the inversion coherence distance. An optimal beam will necessarily involve a trade-off between collimation and spatial coherence when PCBs propagate in self-focusing media...
February 15, 2019: Optics Letters
Mohammed Gagaoua, Brigitte Picard, Valérie Monteils
BACKGROUND: This study implemented a holistic approach based on the farm-to-fork data at the 4 levels of the continuum (farm - slaughterhouse - muscle - meat) to study the inter-individual cluster variability of beef tenderness. For that, 171 young bulls were selected on a large database of 480 animals according to the industrial expectations based on animal and carcass characteristics. The targeted factors were age at slaughter [14; 20 months], carcass weight [370; 470 kg], EUROP conformation [7; 15] and fatness [2...
February 14, 2019: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
F Hall, H M de Freitas, C Kerr, T Ito, B Nafees, A J Lloyd, J Penton, M Hadi, S Lanar, T P Pham
PURPOSE: To capture UK societal health utility values for high-risk metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer (mHSPC) and the disutility associated with treatment-related adverse events (AEs) to inform future cost-utility analyses. METHODS: A literature review, and patient and clinical expert interviews informed the development of health states characterising mHSPC symptoms and the impact of treatment-related AEs on health-related quality of life (HRQL). Three base health states were developed describing a typical patient with high-risk mHSPC: receiving androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) [Base State 1]; receiving docetaxel plus ADT [Base State 2]; completed docetaxel and still receiving ADT whose disease has not yet progressed [Base State 3]...
February 14, 2019: Quality of Life Research
Ray T Alisauskas, Paul B Conn
Aerial survey is an important, widely employed approach for estimating free-ranging wildlife over large or inaccessible study areas. We studied how a distance covariate influenced probability of double-observer detections for birds counted during a helicopter survey in Canada's central Arctic. Two observers, one behind the other but visually obscured from each other, counted birds in an incompletely shared field of view to a distance of 200 m. Each observer assigned detections to one of five 40-m distance bins, guided by semi-transparent marks on aircraft windows...
January 2019: Ecology and Evolution
Jamie S Sanderlin, William M Block, Brenda E Strohmeyer, Victoria A Saab, Joseph L Ganey
Capture-recapture techniques provide valuable information, but are often more cost-prohibitive at large spatial and temporal scales than less-intensive sampling techniques. Model development combining multiple data sources to leverage data source strengths and for improved parameter precision has increased, but with limited discussion on precision gain versus effort. We present a general framework for evaluating trade-offs between precision gained and costs associated with acquiring multiple data sources, useful for designing future or new phases of current studies...
January 2019: Ecology and Evolution
Chen Jiang, Hyung Woo Choi, Xiang Cheng, Hanbin Ma, David Hasko, Arokia Nathan
Overcoming the trade-offs among power consumption, fabrication cost, and signal amplification has been a long-standing issue for wearable electronics. We report a high-gain, fully inkjet-printed Schottky barrier organic thin-film transistor amplifier circuit. The transistor signal amplification efficiency is 38.2 siemens per ampere, which is near the theoretical thermionic limit, with an ultralow power consumption of <1 nanowatt. The use of a Schottky barrier for the source gave the transistor geometry-independent electrical characteristics and accommodated the large dimensional variation in inkjet-printed features...
February 15, 2019: Science
Denis K Samuylov, Prateek Purwar, Gabor Szekely, Gregory Paul
Deblurring is a fundamental inverse problem in bioimaging. It requires modelling the point spread function (PSF), which captures the optical distortions entailed by the image formation process. The PSF limits the spatial resolution attainable for a given microscope. However, recent applications require a higher resolution, and have prompted the development of super-resolution techniques to achieve sub-pixel accuracy. This requirement restricts the class of suitable PSF models to analog ones. In addition, deblurring is computationally intensive, hence further requiring computationally efficient models...
February 11, 2019: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
Antoine Bale, Remi Rouffaud, Anne-Christine Hladky-Hennion, Pascal Marchet, Franck Levassort
A new model for piezoelectric textured ceramics was developed that considers the presence of porosity, which can appear during heat treatment (ceramic sintering). In the long wavelength approximation, a matrix method, which has already been applied to piezoelectric composites, was extended to textured ceramics for three phases porosity (air), piezoelectric single-crystal (related to the texturation degree), and ceramic to calculate the effective electroelastic modulus. This method was first compared and validated with finite element calculations...
February 11, 2019: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
Marco Esposito, Christoph Hennersperger, Rudiger Gobl, Laurent Demaret, Martin Storath, Nassir Navab, Maximilian Baust, Andreas Weinmann
Three-dimensional freehand imaging techniques are gaining wider adoption due to their ?exibility and cost ef?ciency. Typical examples for such a combination of a tracking system with an imaging device are freehand SPECT or freehand 3D ultrasound. However, the quality of the resulting image data is heavily dependent on the skill of the human operator and on the level of noise of the tracking data. The latter aspect can introduce blur or strong artifacts, which can signi?cantly hamper the interpretation of image data...
February 11, 2019: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Zhaojiang Zuo, Sarathi Maheshika Weraduwage, Alexandra T Lantz, Lydia M Sanchez, Sean E Weise, Jie Wang, Kevin Childs, Thomas D Sharkey
Isoprene synthase converts dimethylallyl diphosphate to isoprene and appears to be necessary and sufficient to allow plants to emit isoprene at significant rates. Isoprene can protect plants from abiotic stress but is not produced naturally by all plants; for example, Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) do not produce isoprene. It is typically present at very low concentrations, suggesting a role as a signaling molecule; however, its exact physiological role and mechanism of action are not fully understood...
February 13, 2019: Plant Physiology
Kyle F Edwards
Mixotrophy, the combination of autotrophic and heterotrophic nutrition, is a common trophic strategy among unicellular eukaryotes in the ocean. There are a number of hypotheses about the conditions that select for mixotrophy, and field studies have documented the prevalence of mixotrophy in a range of environments. However, there is currently little evidence for how mixotrophy varies across environmental gradients, and whether empirical patterns support theoretical predictions. Here I synthesize experiments that have quantified the abundance of phototrophic, mixotrophic, and heterotrophic nanoflagellates, to ask whether there are broad patterns in the prevalence of mixotrophy (relative to pure autotrophy and heterotrophy), and to ask whether observed patterns are consistent with a trait-based model of trophic strategies...
February 13, 2019: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Claire Oget, Charlotte Allain, David Portes, Gilles Foucras, Alessandra Stella, Jean-Michel Astruc, Julien Sarry, Gwenola Tosser-Klopp, Rachel Rupp
BACKGROUND: The identification of loci associated with resistance to mastitis or of the causative mutations may be helpful in breeding programs for dairy sheep as it is for cattle worldwide. Seven genomic regions that control milk somatic cell counts, an indirect indicator of udder infection, have already been identified in sheep (Spanish Churra, French Lacaune and Italian Sardinian-Lacaune backcross populations). In this study, we used a 960 custom-designed ovine single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chip in Lacaune and Manech Tête Rousse dairy sheep to validate these seven genomic regions associated with mastitis...
February 13, 2019: Genetics, Selection, Evolution: GSE
Benjamin Richard, Goetz M Richter, Marianna Cerasuolo, Ian Shield
Background and Aims: Bioenergy is central for the future energy mix to mitigate climate change impacts; however, its intricate link with the water cycle calls for an evaluation of the carbon-water nexus in biomass production. The great challenge is to optimize trade-offs between carbon harvest and water use by choosing cultivars that combine low water use with high productivity. Methods: Regional scenarios were simulated over a range of willow genotype × environment interactions for the major UK soil × climate variations with the process-based model LUCASS...
February 13, 2019: Annals of Botany
Nitzan Shahar, Tobias U Hauser, Michael Moutoussis, Rani Moran, Mehdi Keramati, Raymond J Dolan
A well-established notion in cognitive neuroscience proposes that multiple brain systems contribute to choice behaviour. These include: (1) a model-free system that uses values cached from the outcome history of alternative actions, and (2) a model-based system that considers action outcomes and the transition structure of the environment. The widespread use of this distinction, across a range of applications, renders it important to index their distinct influences with high reliability. Here we consider the two-stage task, widely considered as a gold standard measure for the contribution of model-based and model-free systems to human choice...
February 13, 2019: PLoS Computational Biology
James Ar Marshall, Ralf Hjm Kurvers, Jens Krause, Max Wolf
Collective decision-making is ubiquitous, and majority-voting and the Condorcet Jury Theorem pervade thinking about collective decision-making. Thus, it is typically assumed that majority-voting is the best possible decision mechanism, and that scenarios exist where individually-weak decision-makers should not pool information. Condorcet and its applications implicitly assume that only one kind of error can be made, yet signal detection theory shows two kinds of errors exist, 'false positives' and 'false negatives'...
February 13, 2019: ELife
Rafael Fonseca Benevenuto, Tarald Seldal, Stein Joar Hegland, Cesar Rodriguez-Saona, Joseph Kawash, James Polashock
BACKGROUND: Bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) is one of the most abundant wild berries in the Northern European ecosystems. This species plays an important ecological role as a food source for many vertebrate and invertebrate herbivores. It is also well-recognized for its bioactive compounds, particularly substances involved in natural defenses against herbivory. These defenses are known to be initiated by leaf damage (e.g. chewing by insects) and mediated by activation of the jasmonic acid (JA) signaling pathway...
February 12, 2019: BMC Plant Biology
Josh Faber-Hammond, Kaitlin P Coyle, Shannon K Bacheller, Cameron G Roberts, Jay Mellies, Reade B Roberts, Suzy C P Renn
Many of the various parental care strategies displayed by animals are accompanied by a significant reduction in food intake that imposes substantial energy trade-offs. Mouthbrooding, as seen in several species of fish in which the parent holds the developing eggs and fry in the buccal cavity, represents an extreme example of reduced food intake during parental investment and is accompanied by a range of physiological adaptations. In this study we use 16S sequencing to characterize the gut microbiota of female A...
February 11, 2019: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
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