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Vinicius Ponzio, Yuan Chen, Anderson Messias Rodrigues, Jennifer L Tenor, Dena L Toffaletti, José Osmar Medina-Pestana, Arnaldo Lopes Colombo, John R Perfect
Genotypic diversity and fluconazole susceptibility of 82 Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii isolates from 60 renal transplant recipients in Brazil were characterized. Clinical characteristics of the patients and prognostic factors were analysed. Seventy-two (87.8%) isolates were C. neoformans and 10 (12.2%) were C. gattii. VNI was the most common molecular type (40 cases; 66.7%), followed by VNII (9 cases; 15%), VGII (6 cases; 10%), VNB (4 cases; 6.7%) and VNI/II (1 case; 1.7%). The isolates showed a high genetic diversity in the haplotype network and six new sequence types were described, most of them for VNB...
2019: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Amaury Dos Santos Bentes, Bodo Wanke, Márcia Dos Santos Lazéra, Ana Karla Lima Freire, Roberto Moreira da Silva Júnior, Diego Fernando Silva Rocha, Silviane Bezerra Pinheiro, Steven Edward Zelski, Ani Beatriz Jackisch Matsuura, Liliane Coelho da Rocha, Erica Simplício de Souza, João Vicente Braga de Souza
BACKGROUND: Cryptococcosis is a global invasive mycosis associated with significant morbidity and mortality. In the northern region of Brazil, this disease is caused by Cryptococcus neoformans genotype VNI and Cryptococcus gattii genotype VGII. However, few environmental studies have been conducted in this large tropical area. AIMS: This study was performed to isolate, genotype, and determine the frequency of cryptococcal agents in environmental samples near Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil...
March 9, 2019: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
Kátia Santana Cruz, Emerson Silva Lima, Marcia de Jesus Amazonas da Silva, Erica Simplício de Souza, Andreia Montoia, Adrian Martin Pohlit, João Vicente Braga de Souza
Background: Cryptococcosis is a fungal disease of bad prognosis due to its pathogenicity and the toxicity of the drugs used for its treatment. The aim of this study was to investigate the medicinal potential of carbazole and β -carboline alkaloids and derivatives against Cryptococcus neoformans and C. gattii . Methods: MICs were established in accordance with the recommendations of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute for alkaloids and derivatives against C...
2019: International Journal of Microbiology
Marília Martins Nishikawa, Rodrigo Almeida-Paes, Fabio Brito-Santos, Carlos Roberto Nascimento, Miguel Madi Fialho, Luciana Trilles, Bernadina Penarrieta Morales, Sérgio Alves da Silva, Wallace Santos, Lucilaide Oliveira Santos, Silvana Tulio Fortes, Paola Cardarelli-Leite, Márcia Dos Santos Lázera
Early diagnosis, efficient clinical support, and proper antifungal therapy are essential to reduce death and sequels caused by cryptococcosis. The emergence of resistance to the antifungal drugs commonly used for cryptococcosis treatment is an important issue of concern. Thus, the in vitro antifungal susceptibility of clinical strains from northern Brazil, including C. neoformans VNI (n = 62) and C. gattii VGII (n = 37), to amphotericin B (AMB), 5-flucytosine, fluconazole, voriconazole, and itraconazole was evaluated using the Etest and Vitek 2 systems and the standardized broth microdilution (CLSI-BMD) methodology...
January 17, 2019: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
Gar-Hing Andrew Lee, Ian Arthur, Adam Merritt, Michael Leung
Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii species complexes have a worldwide distribution; however, there is geographical variation in the prevalence of different molecular types. Additionally, antifungal susceptibility differences between molecular types have been demonstrated. This study investigates the distribution of cryptococcal molecular types among human clinical isolates over a 10-year period from a Western Australian population. Molecular type was determined based on polymorphisms in the phospholipase gene locus identified through amplification and sequencing...
January 15, 2019: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
Laura J Schmertmann, Alex Kan, Valentina S A Mella, Cristina M Fernandez, Mathew S Crowther, George Madani, Richard Malik, Wieland Meyer, Mark B Krockenberger
Cryptococcosis, caused by environmental fungi in the Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii species complexes, affects a variety of hosts, including koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus). Cryptococcal antigenemia and nasal colonization are well characterized in captive koalas, but free-ranging populations have not been studied systematically. Free-ranging koalas (181) from the Liverpool Plains region of New South Wales, Australia, were tested for cryptococcal antigenemia (lateral flow immunoassay) and nasal colonization (bird seed agar culture)...
January 12, 2019: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
Fernanda Wirth, Maria Isabel Azevedo, Luciano Z Goldani
There are limited data on the molecular epidemiology of cryptococcosis in Brazil. Here, we report on the identification of the molecular pattern of the Cryptococcus species that caused meningitis in patients admitted in a Brazilian reference tertiary care hospital, and review the published studies addressing the molecular epidemiology of Cryptococcus in Brazil. Our study has shown the predominance of molecular type VNII in HIV-infected patients with cryptococcal meningoencephalitis. Molecular types VNII and VGII were occasionally detected in HIV-infected and non-infected patients with meningoencephalitis...
November 30, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
Laura Friggeri, Tatiana Y Hargrove, Girish Rachakonda, Anna L Blobaum, Paxtyn Fisher, Gabriel Melo de Oliveira, Cristiane França da Silva, Maria de Nazaré Correia Soeiro, W David Nes, Craig W Lindsley, Fernando Villalta, F Peter Guengerich, Galina I Lepesheva
Sterol 14α-demethylases (CYP51) are the cytochrome P450 enzymes essential for sterol biosynthesis in eukaryotes and therapeutic targets for antifungal azoles. Multiple attempts to repurpose antifungals for treatment of human infections with protozoa (Trypanosomatidae) have been undertaken, yet so far none of them revealed sufficient efficacy. VNI and its derivative VFV are two potent experimental inhibitors of Trypanosomatidae CYP51, effective in vivo against Chagas disease, visceral leishmaniasis, and sleeping sickness and currently under consideration as antiprotozoal drug candidates...
November 19, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Lumena P Machado Siqueira, Viviane M Favero Gimenes, Roseli Santos de Freitas, Márcia de Souza Carvalho Melhem, Lucas Xavier Bonfietti, Afonso Rafael da Silva, Letícia B Souza Santos, Adriana L Motta, Flavia Rossi, Gil Benard, João N de Almeida
Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii are the main pathogenic species of invasive cryptococcosis among the Cryptococcus species. Taxonomic studies have shown that these two taxa have different genotypes or molecular types with biological and ecoepidemiological peculiarities. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has been proposed as an alternative method for labor-intensive methods for C. neoformans and C. gattii genotype differentiation. However, Vitek MS, one of the commercial MALDI-TOF MS instruments, has not been yet been evaluated for this purpose...
January 2019: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Kamthorn Yolsuriyanwong, Eric Marcotte, Mukund Venu, Bipan Chand
BACKGROUND: Thoracic and foregut operations can cause vagal nerve injury resulting in delayed gastric emptying or gastroparesis. However, the cause of gastroparesis in these patients is not always from a vagal injury. We hypothesize that vagal nerve integrity (VNI) testing may better define who has vagal nerve dysfunction. This information may change subsequent operations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of VNI testing in patients with prior thoracic or gastric surgery...
October 25, 2018: Surgical Endoscopy
K Pakshir, H Fakhim, A Vaezi, J F Meis, M Mahmoodi, K Zomorodian, J Javidnia, S Ansari, F Hagen, H Badali
OBJECTIVE: Cryptococcosis is a major opportunistic fungal infection caused by members of the genus Cryptococcus, mainly those belonging to the Cryptococcus neoformans/Cryptococcus gattii species complexes. Here, we report a comprehensive molecular epidemiological study of the environmental distribution of Cryptococcus isolates in Shiraz, Iran with review of litreature. METHOD: A total of 406 samples were obtained from Eucalyptus trees and 139 samples from pigeon droppings...
October 12, 2018: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
Qinqin Yuan, Jumei Zhang, Jinghan Zou, Hongjun Fan, Ling Jiang, Hua Xie
Mass-selected heteronuclear vanadium-nickel carbonyl anions VNi(CO) n - ( n = 2-6) were investigated by photoelectron velocity-map imaging spectroscopy and quantum chemical calculations to obtain their chemical bonding and intrinsic electronic structure in the gas phase. The calculated energies (adiabatic detachment energies)/vertical detachment energies (VDEs) match well with experimental values: 1.30/1.49, 1.66/1.95, 2.22/2.48, 2.70/2.89, and 2.95/3.15 eV. The VDE value of VNi(CO) n - increases with an increase of cluster size, implying that the negative electron is stabilized upon the bonding of CO molecules...
October 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Cristian Anacona, Fabiola E González C, Luis Reinel Vásquez-A, Patricia Escandón
BACKGROUND: Cryptococcosis is a systemic opportunistic mycosis, caused by Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii, which affects mainly the central nervous system of immunocompromised patients; no reports have been made on the isolation of the fungus from the environment of Popayán, Colombia. AIMS: The main objective of this investigation was to determinate the incidence of C. neoformans in the urban perimeter in the City of Popayán, Colombia. METHODS: A total of 303 samples from droppings of Columba livia and Bubulcus ibis were collected between September 2012 and June 2013...
July 2018: Revista Iberoamericana de Micología
Joslaine de Oliveira Nunes, Rosianne Assis de Sousa Tsujisaki, Maína de Oliveira Nunes, Gláucia Moreira Espíndola Lima, Anamaria Mello Miranda Paniago, Elenir Rose Jardim Cury Pontes, Marilene Rodrigues Chang
INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to describe cryptococcal meningitis (CM) cases and the associated demographic, clinical, and microbiological data obtained from cities in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul in the Midwestern region of Brazil. METHODS: The data from 129 patients with laboratory-confirmed CM admitted from 1997 to 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. The molecular types of Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii isolated from cerebrospinal fluid were analyzed to determine their geographic distribution...
July 2018: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
Laura Friggeri, Tatiana Y Hargrove, Zdzislaw Wawrzak, Anna L Blobaum, Girish Rachakonda, Craig W Lindsley, Fernando Villalta, W David Nes, Maurizio Botta, F Peter Guengerich, Galina I Lepesheva
Because of the increase in the number of immunocompromised patients, the incidence of invasive fungal infections is growing, but the treatment efficiency remains unacceptably low. The most potent clinical systemic antifungals (azoles) are the derivatives of two scaffolds: ketoconazole and fluconazole. Being the safest antifungal drugs, they still have shortcomings, mainly because of pharmacokinetics and resistance. Here, we report the successful use of the target fungal enzyme, sterol 14α-demethylase (CYP51), for structure-based design of novel antifungal drug candidates by minor modifications of VNI [( R)- N-(1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-2-(1 H-imidazol-1-yl)ethyl)-4-(5-phenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl)benzamide)], an inhibitor of protozoan CYP51 that cures Chagas disease...
July 12, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Diego Fernando Silva Rocha, Katia Santana Cruz, Carla Silvana da Silva Santos, Lizandra Stephanny Fernandes Menescal, João Ricardo da Silva Neto, Silviane Bezerra Pinheiro, Lucyane Mendes Silva, Luciana Trilles, João Vicente Braga de Souza
Cryptococcosis is considered endemic in Amazonas state, occurring more frequently in individuals with AIDS, who are predominantly infected by Cryptococcus neoformans molecular type VNI. Infections by Cryptococcus gattii VGII predominate in immunocompetent hosts from the American continent and are associated with outbreaks in North America, particularly the subtypes VGIIa and VGIIb, which are also present in the Brazilian Amazon region. Despite few environmental studies, several aspects of the molecular epidemiology of this disease in Amazonas remain unclear, including the limited use of multilocus sequence typing (MLST) to evaluate the genetic population structure of clinical isolates, mainly C...
2018: PloS One
Massimo Cogliati, Mala Rakoto Andrianarivelo, Mohamed Ellabib, Emmanuel N Nnadi, Muriel Cornet
Prevalence of molecular type VNII among Cryptococcus neoformans species complex is probably underestimated since it can be distinguished from VNI only using molecular typing methods such as URA5-RFLP, AFLP, MLST, or whole genome sequencing. Previously, we described a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method able to identify VNI, VNIV, and VNIII hybrids, but, at that time, VNII molecular type was not described yet. In this study, 16 VNII global isolates were analyzed by our multiplex PCR method, and results showed that it was able to produce a specific pattern for all the studied VNII isolates, which was different from those of VNI, VNIV, and VNIII...
May 14, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
Marina Muñoz, Milena Camargo, Juan D Ramírez
Members of the Cryptococcus complex, includes Cryptococcus neoformans (most common fungal infection of the brain) and Cryptococcus gattii (high-impact emerging pathogen worldwide). Currently, the fungal multilocus sequence typing database (Fungal MLST Database) constitutes a valuable data repository of the genes used for molecular typing of these pathogens. We analyzed the data available in the Fungal MLST Database for seven housekeeping genes, with the aim to evaluate its contribution in the description of intra-taxa diversity, population genetic structure, and evolutionary patterns...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
Joudeh B Freij, Man Shun Fu, Carlos M De Leon Rodriguez, Amanda Dziedzic, Anne E Jedlicka, Quigly Dragotakes, Diego C P Rossi, Eric H Jung, Carolina Coelho, Arturo Casadevall
The genus Cryptococcus includes several species pathogenic for humans. Until recently, the two major pathogenic species were recognized to be Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii We compared the interaction of murine macrophages with three C. gattii species complex strains (WM179, R265, and WM161, representing molecular types VGI, VGIIa, and VGIII, respectively) and one C. neoformans species complex strain (H99, molecular type VNI) to ascertain similarities and differences in the yeast intracellular pathogenic strategy...
July 2018: Infection and Immunity
Yanyong Wang, Man Qiao, Yafei Li, Shuangyin Wang
Intrinsically inferior electrocatalytic activity of NiFe layered double hydroxides (LDHs) nanosheets is considered as a limiting factor to inhibit the electrocatalytic properties for oxygen evolution reaction (OER). Proper defect engineering to tune the surface electronic configuration of electrocatalysts may significantly improve the intrinsic activity. In this work, the selective formation of cation vacancies in NiFe LDHs nanosheets is successfully realized. The as-synthesized NiFe LDHs-VFe and NiFe LDHs-VNi electrocatalysts show excellent activity for OER, mainly attributed to the introduction of rich iron or nickel vacancies in NiFe LDHs nanosheets, which efficiently tune the surface electronic structure increasing the adsorbing capacity of OER intermediates...
April 2018: Small
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