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Line Infection

Thattakudian Sheikuduman Mohamed Saleem, Kakavakam Jyothi, S Chandra Babu
Drug induced adverse drug reactions is more common in long term therapy particularly in immune compromised patients. Most of the drugs causing dermatological reactions like skin rashes, pruritus, steven johnson syndrome and exfoliative dermatitis. Nevirapine is the first line drug for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection from the category of non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase enzyme inhibitor (NNRTI). In the present cases, we have reported the nevirapine induced severe exfoliative dermatitis. A patient admitted in the hospital with the symptoms of scaling on the skin and he received Nevirapine as a drug for his diagnosis of HIV for past three years...
January 2019: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Humaira Majeed Khan, Syeda Maryam Raza, Aftab Ahmad Anjum, Muhammad Asad Ali
Antiviral activity of Astragalus membranaceus aqueous and methanol root extracts was determined against Avian influenza H9 virus. Toxicity profile of extracts was evaluated using chicken embryos and BHK-21 cell line. Different concentrations (400, 200, 100, 50, 25. 12.5, 6.25 and 3.12μg/mL) of both aqueous and methanol extracts were mixed with standard virus inoculum (4HAunits) and incubated for 30minutes at 37°C prior to inject the chicken embryos. Chorioallantoic fluid harvested 72 hours post inoculation and evaluated for virus growth using hemagglutination assay...
January 2019: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
G J Mc Callum, M B Arregui, I Smith, L F Bracco, F Wolman, O Cascone, A M Targovnik, M V Miranda
Expression of recombinant proteins with baculovirus-infected insect larvae is a scarcely investigated alternative in comparison to that in insect cell lines, a system with growing popularity in the field of biotechnology. The aim of this study was to investigate the chromatographic behavior and physicochemical properties of the proteome of Rachiplusia nu larvae infected with recombinant Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrosis virus (AcMNPV), in order to design rational purification strategies for the expression of heterologous proteins in this very complex and little-known system, based on the differential absorption between target recombinant proteins and the system's contaminating ones...
February 14, 2019: Protein Expression and Purification
James Nyagwange, Elias Awino, Edwin Tijhaar, Nicholas Svitek, Roger Pelle, Vishvanath Nene
Chemotherapy of East Coast fever, a lymphoproliferative cancer-like disease of cattle causing significant economic losses in Africa, is largely dependent on the use of buparvaquone, a drug that was developed in the late 1980's. The disease is caused by the tick-borne protozoan pathogen Theileria parva. Buparvaquone can be used prophylactically and it is also active against tropical theileriosis, caused by the related parasite Theileria annulata. Recently, drug resistance was reported in T. annulata, and could occur in T...
January 25, 2019: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
Matthieu Blanchet, Vigigah Sinnathamby, Andrew Vaillant, Patrick Labonté
More than 290 million people have chronic HBV infection and are at risk of developing cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. HBV subviral particles are produced in large excess over virions in infected patients and are the primary source of HBsAg, which is postulated to be important in allowing HBV to chronically persist by interfering with immune function. Nucleic acid polymers (NAPs) have been shown to result in clearance of HBsAg from the blood in pre-clinical and clinical studies. In this study, we show for the first time the recapitulation of NAPs induced inhibition of secretion of HBsAg in vitro using the human HepG2...
February 13, 2019: Antiviral Research
Mark F Skinner, Mykolas D Imbrasas, Chris Byra, Matthew M Skinner
OBJECTIVES: To compare relative response of enamel, dentin and bone to developmental stressors between attritional and catastrophic mortality assemblages of pigs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Heads from 70 Sus scrofa of known sex, weight and age comprising an attritional sample of 50 sick pen (SP) pigs that died prematurely versus 20 control pigs slaughtered at 6 months (Catastrophic assemblage). Hard tissue changes (alveolar bone thinning), abnormal bone formation (Harris lines) and re-modeling (auditory bullae) were recorded...
February 16, 2019: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Philipp Koehler, Sibylle C Mellinghoff, Katrien Lagrou, Alexandre Alanio, Dorothee Arenz, Martin Hoenigl, Felix C Koehler, Cornelia Lass-Flörl, Jacques F Meis, Malcolm Richardson, Oliver A Cornely
BACKGROUND: Mucormycosis is a life-threatening infection in immunocompromised patients and in haematological malignancy patients in particular. OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to develop and evaluate a scoring tool to measure adherence to current guidelines for mucormycosis. METHODS: Current guidelines of scientific societies on mucormycosis management were reviewed. We assembled diagnostic, treatment and follow-up milestones and designed the EQUAL Mucormycosis Score...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Weiwei Wang, Yanni Yu, Yi Jiang, Jing Qu, Longxing Niu, Jicheng Yang, Mingzhong Li
Vascularization remains a critical challenge in dermal tissue regeneration. In this study, a vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF165) and angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1) dual gene co-expression vector that encoded green fluorescent protein (GFP) was constructed from an Arg-Gly-Asp-modified adenovirus. Silk fibroin (SF) scaffolds loaded with adenovirus vectors were fabricated by freeze-drying method. In vitro, the human endothelial-derived cell line EA.hy926 was infected with adenovirus vectors and then expressed GFP, secreted VEGF165 and Ang-1, and promoted cell proliferation effectively...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
Mehboob Arslan, Xin Yang, Diwakar Santhakumar, Xingjian Liu, Xiaoyuan Hu, Muhammad Munir, Yinü Li, Zhifang Zhang
Interferons (IFNs) are pleiotropic cytokines that establish a first line of defense against viral infections in vertebrates. Several types of IFN have been identified; however, limited information is available in poultry, especially using live animal experimental models. IFN-lambda (IFN-λ) has recently been shown to exert a significant antiviral impact against viral pathogens in mammals. In order to investigate the in vivo potential of chicken IFN-λ (chIFN-λ) as a regulator of innate immunity, and potential antiviral therapeutics, we profiled the transcriptome of chIFN-λ-stimulated chicken immune organs (in vivo) and compared it with primary chicken embryo fibroblasts (in vitro)...
February 14, 2019: Genes
Cecilie Bay-Richter, Eskild Petersen, Nico Liebenberg, Betina Elfving, Gregers Wegener
Toxoplasma gondii (TOX) is an intracellular parasite which infects warm-blooded animals including humans. An increasing number of clinical studies now hypothesize that latent toxoplasmosis may be a risk factor for the development of psychiatric disease. For depression, the results have been varied and we speculate that genetic background is important for the response to latent toxoplasmosis. The main objective of this study was to elucidate gene - environment interactions in the behavioural response to TOX infection by use of genetically vulnerable animals (Flinders sensitive line, FSL) compared to control animals (Flinders resistant line, FRL)...
February 12, 2019: Behavioural Brain Research
Sinuhe Hahn, Paul Hasler, Lenka Vokalova, Shane V van Breda, Olav Lapaire, Gabor Nandor Than, Irene Hoesli, Simona W Rossi
Neutrophils are often exclusively considered as first line innate immune defence, able to rapidly kill or trap pathogens and causing in case of over activation tissue damage. In the female reproductive tract, however, the presence and activity of neutrophils seem to be tightly regulated. Major players in orchestrating this regulation are cyclical steroid sex hormones present during the menstrual cycle and pregnancy. This review describes the role of sex hormones in regulating directly or indirectly the functionality of neutrophils, the role of neutrophils during fertilisation and pregnancy and in controlling viral, fungal and bacterial infection...
February 15, 2019: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
Annabel T Olson, Zhigang Wang, Amber B Rico, Matthew S Wiebe
Poxviruses employ sophisticated, but incompletely understood, signaling pathways that engage cellular defense mechanisms and simultaneously ensure viral factors are modulated properly. For example, the vaccinia B1 protein kinase plays a vital role in inactivating the cellular antiviral factor BAF, and likely orchestrates other pathways as well. In this study, we utilized experimental evolution of a B1 deletion virus to perform an unbiased search for suppressor mutations and identify novel pathways involving B1...
February 15, 2019: PLoS Pathogens
Ryan C Donohue, Christian K Pfaller, Roberto Cattaneo
Measles virus (MeV) is dual-tropic: it replicates first in lymphatic tissues and then in epithelial cells. This switch in tropism raises the question of whether, and how, intra-host evolution occurs. Towards addressing this question, we adapted MeV either to lymphocytic (Granta-519) or epithelial (H358) cells. We also passaged it consecutively in both human cell lines. Since passaged MeV had different replication kinetics, we sought to investigate the underlying genetic mechanisms of growth differences by performing deep-sequencing analyses...
February 15, 2019: PLoS Pathogens
Anna Kula, Nadège Delacourt, Sophie Bouchat, Gilles Darcis, Veronique Avettand-Fenoel, Roxane Verdikt, Francis Corazza, Coca Necsoi, Caroline Vanhulle, Maryam Bendoumou, Arsene Burny, Stephane DE Wit, Christine Rouzioux, Oliver Rohr, Carine van Lint
OBJECTIVES: Few single latency-reversing agents (LRAs) have been tested in vivo and only some of them have demonstrated an effect, albeit weak, on the decrease of latent reservoir. Therefore, other LRAs and combinations of LRAs need to be assessed. Here, we evaluated the potential of combined treatments of therapeutically promising LRAs, disulfiram and romidepsin. SETTING: and methods: We assessed the reactivation potential of individual disulfiram or simultaneous or sequential combined treatments with romidepsin in vitro in latently-infected cell lines of T-lymphoid and myeloid origins and in ex vivo cultures of CD8-depleted peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) isolated from 18 HIV-1 cART-treated individuals...
February 7, 2019: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Wei-Chen Tai, Chih-Ming Liang, Chung-Mou Kuo, Pao-Yuan Huang, Cheng-Kun Wu, Shih-Cheng Yang, Yuan-Hung Kuo, Ming-Tsung Lin, Chen-Hsiang Lee, Chien-Ning Hsu, Keng-Liang Wu, Tsung-Hui Hu, Seng-Kee Chuah
BACKGROUND: The first-line eradication rate of standard triple therapy for Helicobacter pylori infection has declined to <80%, and alternative therapies with >90% success rates are needed. Inconsistent eradication rates were reported for proton pump inhibitor- and amoxicillin-containing high-dose dual therapy. OBJECTIVES: We performed a prospective, randomized controlled study to assess the efficacy of esomeprazole- and amoxicillin-containing high-dose dual therapy and investigated the influencing clinical factors...
February 14, 2019: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Marine Perrier, Louise Castain, Leslie Regad, Eve Todesco, Roland Landman, Benoit Visseaux, Yazdan Yazdanpanah, Christophe Rodriguez, Véronique Joly, Vincent Calvez, Anne-Geneviève Marcelin, Diane Descamps, Charlotte Charpentier
OBJECTIVES: To assess, at ART initiation, the impact of baseline substitutions in protease, Gag and gp41 regions on the virological response to a first-line PI-based regimen. PATIENTS AND METHODS: One hundred and fifty-four HIV-infected ART-naive patients initiating a PI-based regimen including darunavir (n = 129) or atazanavir (n = 25) were assessed, including 36 experiencing virological failure (VF). Whole pol, gag and gp41 genes were sequenced at ART baseline by ultra-deep sequencing (UDS) using Illumina® technology...
February 14, 2019: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Jesús R García-Corral, Luis E Cárdenas-Lailson, Carlos A Sanjuan-Martínez, Christian H Arellano-Solorio, Jorge E Aquino-Matus, Andrea Carrillo-Romero
Background: Acute pancreatitis represents one of the most frequent digestive pathologies worldwide, which can be complicated as an infected necrotizing acute pancreatitis, that may require treatment with necrosectomy and open abdomen with the risk that this leads to the appearance of intestinal fistula and giant incisional hernias difficult to manage. Clinical case: A 35-year-old woman underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis, which was re-admitted due to jaundice and abdominal pain 3 days after her hospital discharge...
2019: Cirugia y Cirujanos
Isaac Okoh Abah, Nondumiso Bq Ncube, Hazel A Bradley, Oche O AgbaJi, Phyllis Kanki
BACKGROUND: Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) associated with antiretroviral therapy (ART) can rapidly reverse the gains of ART resulting in poor health outcomes. We need an improved understanding of specific ART-related ADRs that influence virologic outcomes. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the frequency of clinical ADRs and assess their effect on virologic failure in patients on ART. METHOD: We described the prevalence of major clinical ADRs, and the association between specific ADRs and virologic failure in a clinic cohort of HIV-1 infected Nigerians aged ≥18 years, on first-line ART between June 2004 and February 2012...
February 14, 2019: Current HIV Research
Edward K Len, Ritesh Akkisetty, Sandia Royal, Maryanne Brooks, Susette Coyle, Rajan Gupta, Matthew Lissauer
BACKGROUND: Hospital over-capacity often forces boarding patients outside of their designated intensive care unit (ICU). Anecdotal evidence suggested medical intensive care unit (MICU) patients boarding in the surgical intensive care unit (SICU) were responsible for increases in healthcare-associated infection (HAI) rates. We studied the effect of ICU boarding on rates of SICU HAIs. METHODS: This single-center, retrospective two-year database study compared primary SICU patients (Home) to MICU patients boarding in the SICU (Boarders)...
February 15, 2019: Surgical Infections
Olga P Nyssen, Adrian G McNicholl, Javier P Gisbert
BACKGROUND: Bismuth-containing quadruple therapy has been suggested as first-line and rescue alternative for Helicobacter pylori eradication. Our objective was to perform a meta-analysis evaluating the efficacy and safety of single capsule Pylera® (bismuth, metronidazole, and tetracycline) plus a proton-pump inhibitor (PPI) in any line of treatment. METHODS: Studies were selected up to October 2018. Outcomes were eradication and adverse events (AEs) rates pooled using the generic inverse variance method...
February 14, 2019: Helicobacter
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