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Congenital AND Infect*

Zhenyu Zhang, Ruiqi Liu, Ru Wang, Jun Tang, Chuanqi Liu, Xinghan Chen, Ying Cen, Zhengyong Li
Objective: To summarize clinical experience and curative effect in applying three-dimensional mechanical equilibrium concept to cartilage scaffold construction in total auricular reconstruction. Methods: Between June 2015 and June 2017, ninety-seven microtia patients (102 ears) were treated with total ear reconstruction by using tissue expanders. The patients included 43 males and 54 females and their age ranged from 7 to 45 years with an average of 14 years. There were 92 unilateral cases (45 in left side and 47 in right side) and 5 bilateral ones...
March 1, 2019: Chinese Journal of Reparative and Reconstructive Surgery
Dirk Schlüter, Antonio Barragan
Toxoplasma gondii is a widespread parasitic pathogen that infects over one third of the global human population. The parasite invades and chronically persists in the central nervous system (CNS) of the infected host. Parasite spread and persistence is intimately linked to an ensuing immune response, which does not only limit parasite-induced damage but also may facilitate dissemination and induce parasite-associated immunopathology. Here, we discuss various aspects of toxoplasmosis where knowledge is scarce or controversial and, the recent advances in the understanding of the delicate interplay of T...
2019: Frontiers in Immunology
Rachel A Mercaldo, Steven E Bellan
Zika virus (ZIKV) infection during pregnancy is associated with microcephaly and other birth defects, collectively termed Congenital Zika Syndrome (CZS). During the epidemic in 2015-16, ZIKV spread through the Americas and quickly joined the list of other known teratogenic pathogens, TORCH. Multiple ZIKV vaccines have been developed for protection of pregnant women and women of childbearing age. However, ZIKV infection incidence has since waned substantially, and adverse birth outcomes are rare outcomes of infection...
March 11, 2019: Vaccine
Yajie Wang, Minzhi Wu, Xiangdong Gong, Liang Zhao, Jing Zhao, Chuanwu Zhu, Chancong Gong
Mother-to-child transmission of syphilis remains a major global public health issue, and elimination of congenital syphilis is one of the millennium development goals of the World Health Organization (1). In 2012, an estimated 930,000 maternal syphilis infections caused 350,000 adverse pregnancy outcomes, including 143,000 early fetal deaths and stillbirths, 62,000 neonatal deaths, 44,000 preterm or low-weight births, and 102,000 infected infants worldwide (2). In China, the number of congenital syphilis cases reported annually increased from 468 in 2000 to 10,032 in 2013; the corresponding national congenital syphilis incidence rate increased nearly 26-fold, from 2...
March 15, 2019: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Ali Shabbir Hussain, Syed Rehan Ali, Nadia Mohammad, Nabiha Ali, Shakeel Ahmed, Tauseef Ahmad
A foetus affected by a congenital rubella infection can develop congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). Aniridia is the absence of iris, rarely been described in literature in association with CRS, can easily be overlooked, leading to complications e.g. glaucoma and blindness later in life. We report a case of a neonate with CRS and aniridia presenting at a tertiary care hospital.
January 2019: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
N V Ankith, M Avinash, K S Srivijayanand, Ajoy Prasad Shetty, Rishi Mugesh Kanna, Shanmuganathan Rajasekaran
Study Design: Observational retrospective computed tomography (CT) based study. Purpose: To analyze the congenital anomalies of the cervical spine, their morphological variations and their clinical significance. Overview of Literature: Studies published to date have focused mainly on upper cervical anomalies; no study has comprehensively reported on anomalies of both the occipitocervical and subaxial cervical spine. Methods: Nine hundred and thirty cervical spine CT scans performed in Ganga Hospital, Coimbatore, India between January 2014 and November 2017 were screened by two independent observers to document anomalies of both the upper and lower cervical spine...
March 14, 2019: Asian Spine Journal
Léo Pomar, Didier Musso, Gustavo Malinger, Manon Vouga, Alice Panchaud, David Baud
The risk of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection during pregnancy depends on the incidence of the disease, which is highly variable in different affected geographic areas (<1% to 75%). Among infected pregnant women, the risk of any adverse fetal/neonatal outcome was estimated at 5-42%, with 1-4% of fetal loss and 4-9% of suspected CZS. The estimated rate of maternal-fetal transmission ranges between 7% and 26%, depending on the methodology of the study. Findings associated with CZS are microcephaly (33-64%), ventriculomegaly (63-92%), calcifications (71-92%), malformations of cortical development (79-82%), anomalies of the corpus callosum (71-100%) and of the posterior fossa (21-82%), arthrogryposis (10-25%), eye abnormalities (25%), and extra-neurologic signs such as intra uterine growth restriction (14%), placentomegaly, transient hepatitis, mild anemia...
March 13, 2019: Prenatal Diagnosis
Jennifer L Anderson, Kimberly Vu, Yarah M Haidar, Edward C Kuan, Tjoson Tjoa
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Thyroglossal duct cysts (TGDCs) are the most common congenital neck cyst and typically present in childhood or adolescence, although a subset remains asymptomatic until adulthood. Although treatment involves surgical excision, few large-scale studies exist regarding the risks of surgical treatment of TGDCs in adults. This study aims to describe the characteristics of adult patients undergoing TGDC excision and to analyze risk factors associated with reoperation or other postoperative complications...
March 13, 2019: Laryngoscope
Holger Till, Karl Kashofer, Pablo Laje, Ahmed ElHaddad, Gert Warncke, Gregor Gorkiewicz, Georg Singer
INTRODUCTION: Experts of pediatric endosurgery recommend early thoracoscopic resection of congenital pulmonary airway malformations (CPAM) even in asymptomatic infants due to the risk of later infections. However, neither the rate of lower airway inflammation nor the underlying microbes and their pathogenic potential have been revealed in CPAMs yet. Using latest gene-sequencing techniques, we present the first study analyzing the pulmonary microbiome in young asymptomatic infants with CPAM...
March 13, 2019: Journal of Laparoendoscopic & Advanced Surgical Techniques. Part A
Natalia Golender, Velizar Bumbarov, Itay Assis, Martin Beer, Yevgeny Khinich, Ori Koren, Nir Edery, Avi Eldar, Kerstin Wernike
The insect-transmitted Shuni virus (SHUV) belongs to the Simbu serogroup of orthobunyaviruses and it is known to induce abortions, stillbirths and severe congenital malformations in ruminants and may cause neurological signs in infected horses. Here, SHUV was detected in brain samples of two Israeli cattle which suffered from severe neurological signs that led to the deaths of the animals. During histopathological examination of the first case, a five-month-old calf, small perivascular cuffs, composed mainly of neutrophils with few lymphocytes were observed in the brain stem and cerebrum...
March 12, 2019: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Rafael Calero-Bernal, Solange M Gennari
Toxoplasmosis is caused by the globally distributed protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii (phylum Apicomplexa); the disease can be clinically important for almost all homeothermic animals, including birds and humans. Toxoplasmosis course involves general clinical signs, such as fever, anorexia, or dyspnea, and more specific signs with neural, respiratory, cutaneous, or ocular involvement. Because of the wide range of clinical signs, the diagnosis in domestic and pet animals can be complicated. Hence, this review aims to provide a comprehensive analysis of some scarcely discussed aspects of toxoplasmosis, such as ocular and cutaneous manifestations, congenital infections, influence of T...
2019: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Emmanuel Ademola Anigilaje, Temilade Christianah Adesina
Introduction: Renal disorders contribute to childhood morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Therefore, the knowledge of the burden of childhood renal diseases is required for preventive and management purposes. This article determines the pattern and the outcomes of childhood renal diseases seen at the University of Abuja Teaching Hospital (UATH), Gwagwalada, Abuja, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective review of children aged 1 month to 17 years, who were seen at the paediatric nephrology clinic, emergency paediatric unit and paediatric ward of the UATH over 4 years from January 2013 to December 2016...
January 2019: Nigerian Postgraduate Medical Journal
M Escobar Castellanos, S de la Mata Navazo, M Carrón Bermejo, M García Morín, Y Ruiz Martín, J Saavedra Lozano, M C Miranda Herrero, E Barredo Valderrama, P Castro de Castro, M Vázquez López
BACKGROUND: Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is an important cause of disability. There is little evidence on the prognostic value of lesions identified in neuroimaging studies. AIM: The study aimed to assess the severity of lesions detected with brain MRI and transfontanellar ultrasound and their relationship with long-term neurological deficits. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective, analytical, observational study of 36 patients with congenital CMV infection...
March 8, 2019: Neurología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Neurología
Kei Ando, Kazuyoshi Kobayashi, Kenyu Ito, Mikito Tsushima, Masayoshi Morozumi, Satoshi Tanaka, Masaaki Machino, Kyotaro Ota, Naoki Ishiguro, Shiro Imagama
Sufficient internal fixation for occipitocervical (OC) or C1-C2 instability in pediatric patients with Down syndrome is difficult owing to small osseous structures, congenital deformities, and immature ossification. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcomes of patients aged 8 years or younger with Down syndrome who underwent OC or C1-C2 fusion using freeze-dried allograft as bone graft substitute. The participants included seven consecutive patients aged 8 years or younger with Down syndrome who were treated for upper cervical disorders with posterior OC or C1-C2 fusion using freeze-dried allografts at our hospital between 2007 and 2016 and had a minimum follow-up of 1 year...
March 6, 2019: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics. Part B
Nicole P Lindsey, Charsey C Porse, Emily Potts, Judie Hyun, Kayleigh Sandhu, Elizabeth Schiffman, Kimberly B Cervantes, Jennifer L White, Krystal Mason, Kamesha Owens, Caroline Holsinger, Marc Fischer, J Erin Staples
BACKGROUND: The clinical findings among children with postnatally acquired Zika virus disease are not well characterized. We describe and compare clinical signs and symptoms for children aged <18 years. METHODS: Zika virus disease cases were included if they met the national surveillance case definition, had illness onset in 2016 or 2017, resided in a participating state, and were reported to CDC. Pediatric cases were aged <18 years; congenital and perinatal infections were excluded...
March 11, 2019: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Jamie L Rothenburger, Chelsea G Himsworth, Krista M D La Perle, Frederick A Leighton, Nicole M Nemeth, Piper M Treuting, Claire M Jardine
To achieve a contemporary understanding of the common and rare lesions that affect wild, urban Norway rats ( Rattus norvegicus), we conducted a detailed pathology analysis of 672 rats from Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. Grossly evident lesions, such as wounds, abscesses, and neoplasms, were present in 71 of 672 rats (11%) and tended to be severe. The most common and significant lesions were infectious and inflammatory, most often affecting the respiratory tract and associated with bite wounds. We assessed a subset of rats (up to n = 406 per tissue) for the presence of microscopic lesions in a variety of organ systems...
March 2019: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Giuseppe Mamone, Vincenzo Carollo, Kelvin Cortis, Sarah Aquilina, Rosa Liotta, Roberto Miraglia
Fibropolycystic liver diseases, also known as ductal plate malformations, are a group of associated congenital disorders resulting from abnormal development of the biliary ductal system. These disorders include congenital hepatic fibrosis, biliary hamartomas, polycystic liver disease, choledochal cysts and Caroli disease. Recently, it has been thought to include biliary atresia in this group of diseases, because ductal plate malformations could be implicated in the pathogenesis of this disease. Concomitant associated renal anomalies can also be present, such as autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD), medullary sponge kidney and nephronophthisis...
March 9, 2019: Abdominal Radiology
Jing Zou, Pei-Yong Shi
Zika virus (ZIKV) can cause devastating congenital syndrome in fetuses from pregnant women and autoimmune disorder Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults. No clinically approved vaccine or drug is currently available for ZIKV. This unmet medical need has motivated a global effort to develop countermeasures. Several promising ZIKV vaccine candidates have already entered clinical trials. In contrast, antiviral development of ZIKV is lagging behind. Here, we review the overall strategies for ZIKV drug discovery, including (i) repurposing of clinically approved drugs, (ii) viral replication-based phenotypic screening for inhibitors, and (iii) targeted drug discovery of viral proteins...
March 7, 2019: Current Opinion in Virology
Igor Renan Honorato Gatto, Karina Sonálio, Luís Guilherme de Oliveira
The genus Pestivirus , which belongs to the family Flaviviridae , includes ssRNA+ viruses responsible for infectious diseases in swine, cattle, sheep, goats, and other domestic and wild animals. Recently, several putative pestiviruses species have been discovered and characterized in mammalian species (giraffe pestivirus, antelope pestivirus, HoBi virus, Bungowannah virus, and Linda virus); one of these is a genetically distinct pestivirus, named atypical porcine pestivirus (APPV), discovered using the next-generation sequencing technology...
2019: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Thomas M Stadler, Grégoire B Morand, Stephan Schmid, Martina A Broglie
Fourth branchial arch anomalies are extremely rare. The anatomic course of the fourth branchial arch fistula usually determines the delay in diagnosis. High clinical suspicion should be given to reoccurring neck infections in infants and young adults. Diagnosis is obtained by direct laryngoscopy.
February 2019: Clinical Case Reports
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