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Gilberto Pires da Rosa, Francisca Costa, Joana Guimarães, Fernando Friões
We report the case of a 50-year-old caucasian man presenting with lumbar pain, bilateral ataxia, central facial palsy, ophthalmoparesis and urinary retention. Cerebral MRI hinted a hyperintensity of the medulla oblongata and cervical medulla suggestive of myelitis. Cerebrospinal fluid displayed lymphocytic pleocytosis and elevated protein concentration. Without the possibility to rule out an infectious or inflammatory aetiology, antibiotics and corticosteroids were started. Nevertheless, neurological status deteriorated with loss of muscle strength and left eye amaurosis...
March 16, 2019: BMJ Case Reports
Godwell Nhamo, Charles Nhemachena, Senia Nhamo
Water-Sanitation-Hygiene (WASH) remains vital for the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, yet many countries have not localised the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), including SDG 6, which focuses on ensuring the availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all. Even in leading African economies such as South Africa, many communities still use the bucket system for sanitation. Using a Composite Index drawn from three indicators whose data were available for 53 of the 54 African countries, it emerged that these states are at various stages of fulfilling the targets set out in SDG 6...
March 10, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Sofie Vengberg, Mio Fredriksson, Ulrika Winblad
Patient choice of provider and provider competition have been introduced with the claim that they would lead to improved quality. For this to occur, certain conditions must be fulfilled on both the demand and the supply side. However, supply side-mechanisms - with provider behaviour as central - have been largely neglected in the literature, especially in primary care markets. In this article, we focus on provider behaviour and explore if and how choice and competition function as quality enhancing drivers in Swedish primary care...
January 29, 2019: Social Science & Medicine
Isabel Büsing, Andre Brant, Tobias Lange, Björn Delfs, Daniela Poppinga, Rafael Kranzer, Hui Khee Looe, Björn Poppe
INTRODUCTION: The aim of the present work is to perform dosimetric characterization of a novel vented PinPoint ionization chamber (PTW 31023, PTW-Freiburg, Germany). This chamber replaces the previous model (PTW 31014), where the diameter of the central electrode has been increased from 0.3 to 0.6mm and the guard ring has been redesigned. Correction factors for reference and non-reference measurement conditions were examined. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Measurements and calculations of the correction factors were performed according to the DIN 6800-2...
March 13, 2019: Zeitschrift Für Medizinische Physik
Elizabeth Palmer Kelly, Alexa Meara, Madison Hyer, Nicolette Payne, Timothy M Pawlik
CONTEXT/OBJECTIVES: We sought to characterize patterns of social support types (i.e. emotional, informational, appraisal and instrumental) within the caregiver/spouse, family and spiritual/religious contexts for patients diagnosed with cancer. METHODS: Focus groups were conducted with mixed-groups of cancer patients, and caregiver/family members at a Midwestern comprehensive cancer center. Participants completed brief demographic questionnaires. Focus groups were moderated using semi-structured interviews...
March 13, 2019: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
Kaat De Pourcq, Melissa De Regge, Koen Van den Heede, Carine Van de Voorde, Gemmel Paul, Kristof Eeckloo
CONTEXT: Financial challenges and the need for high-quality care have vastly increased the number of hospital collaborations in recent decades. The governance of these collaborations remains a challenge. The goal of this study is twofold: (1) to investigate the governance characteristics in a hospital collaboration and (2) explore the impact on the performance of the hospital collaboration. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted to provide a comprehensive overview of the evidence on governance in interhospital collaborations...
March 5, 2019: Health Policy
Grayce Behnke, Nicholas B Tiscione, John Rakus, Lauren Richards-Waugh
This study demonstrates the validation of a semi-quantitative method for the rapid screening of whole blood and urine specimens using clonazepam as the target molecule for the Neogen® Benzodiazepine kit. Decision points were validated at 10.0 ng/mL for whole blood and 25.0 ng/mL for urine. The validation design was based on the Scientific Working Group for Forensic Toxicology (SWGTOX) Standard Practices for Method Validation and included the evaluation of sensitivity, precision, specificity, carryover, hook effect, drift, ruggedness/robustness and a case sample evaluation...
March 16, 2019: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Naina Levitan, Claus Barkmann, Hertha Richter-Appelt, Michael Schulte-Markwort, Inga Becker-Hebly
Adolescents with gender dysphoria (GD) often face various associated social, emotional, and behavioral difficulties. In such a marginalized group, it is crucial to identify factors that may impact psychological functioning to better accommodate their needs. Therefore, the present study investigated the impact of two specific risk factors, poor peer relations and general family functioning, on the development of psychological problems in adolescents with GD, and their possible interaction effect. The Youth Self-Report, a Peer Relations Scale, and a General Family Functioning scale were assessed in a sample of n = 180 clinically referred adolescents (mean age 15...
March 15, 2019: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
Eleftherios Pelechas, Evripidis Kaltsonoudis, Paraskevi V Voulgari, Alexandros A Drosos
Despite the progress in the treatment of ankylosing spondylitis (AS), a significant number of patients do not achieve low disease activity (LDA). The aim of the study is to estimate the size of unmet needs in the treatment of AS in a long-term observational study. Between January 2003 and December 2017, 220 patients with radiographic SpA were evaluated fulfilling the ASAS criteria. They were followed up at predefined times and were naive to biological treatment with anti-tumor necrosis factor agents (anti-TNFs) and the interleukin (IL)-17 inhibitor...
March 15, 2019: Rheumatology International
Christabel Y L Chan, Kum C Hiong, Celine Y L Choo, Mel V Boo, Wai P Wong, Shit F Chew, Yuen K Ip
Giant clams contain phototrophic zooxanthellae, and live in nutrient-deficient tropical waters where light is available. We had obtained the complete cDNA coding sequence of a homolog of Na + :Glucose Cotransporter 1 ( SGLT1-like ) from the ctenidium of the fluted giant clam, Tridacna squamosa SGLT1-like had a host origin and was expressed predominantly in the ctenidium. Molecular characterizations reveal that SGLT1-like of T. squamosa could transport urea, in addition to glucose, as other SGLT1s do. It has an apical localization in the epithelium of ctenidial filaments and water channels, and the apical anti-SGLT1-like immunofluorescence was stronger in individuals exposed to light than to darkness...
March 15, 2019: Journal of Experimental Biology
Barton L Anderson, Kairen Tan, Phillip J Marlow
The mechanisms responsible for generating illusory contours are thought to fulfil an adaptive role in providing estimates of missing contour fragments generated by partial camouflage. One striking apparent counter-example to this view was described in Current Biology 21 (2011) 492-496, which showed that illusory contours could arise in motion displays depicting visible occluding discs occluding and disoccluding thin contours. These motion sequences generate illusory contours even though they play no necessary role in accounting for occlusion and disocclusion of the thin contours...
March 12, 2019: Vision Research
Chenglian Bai, Ning Kang, Junping Zhao, Jun Dai, Hui Gao, Yuanhong Chen, Haojia Dong, Changjiang Huang, Qiaoxiang Dong
Lipid rafts and associated membrane proteins (flotillin, caveolin) play important roles in cell signaling and sperm fertilization while heat shock proteins (Hsp) ensure properly protein folding to fulfill their physiological functions. The markedly reduced fertility in thawed sperm after cryopreservation could result from disrupted membrane lipid rafts and these proteins. To explore the effect of sperm cryopreservation on lipid rafts and heat shock proteins, we compared lipid raft integrity, lipid raft associated proteins (Flot-1, Flot-2, Cav-1), and heat shock proteins (Hsp90, Hsp70) in fresh and thawed sperm cryopreserved under different scenarios in yellow catfish...
March 12, 2019: Cryobiology
Dora Koller, Pablo Zubiaur, Miriam Saiz-Rodríguez, Francisco Abad-Santos, Aneta Wojnicz
A simple and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated in human plasma for the simultaneous determination of aripiprazole (ARI) and its metabolite dehydro-aripiprazole (DARI); olanzapine (OLA), risperidone (RIS), paliperidone (PAL), quetiapine (QUE), clozapine (CLO) and caffeine (CAF). CAF is included to the method because it can have an influence on drug metabolism due to competitive inhibition. The above mentioned compounds and their isotope-labeled internal standards were extracted from 200 µL human plasma samples by both, effective phospholipids-eliminating three-step microelution-solid-phase extraction (µ-SPE) and protein precipitation (PPT) for comparison...
June 1, 2019: Talanta
Mohammad Tanvi Newaz, Peter Davis, Marcus Jefferies, Manikam Pillay
INTRODUCTION: The fact that safety climate impacts safety behavior and delivers better safety outcomes is well established in construction. However, the way workers safety perception is inclined and developed is still unclear. METHOD: In this research, the influence of supervisors' developing safety climate and its impact on workers' safety behavior and their conceptualization of safety is explored through the lens of the 'Psychological Contract' (PC). More specifically, it is argued that 'Psychological Contract of Safety' (PCS) is a vital factor in explaining how workers attach meaning to a supervisor behavior...
February 2019: Journal of Safety Research
Jesús López-Alcalde, Elena Stallings, Sheila Cabir Nunes, Abelardo Fernández Chávez, Mathilde Daheron, Xavier Bonfill Cosp, Javier Zamora
BACKGROUND: Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) are common and increase morbidity, mortality, and healthcare costs. Their control continues to be an unresolved issue worldwide. HAIs epidemiology shows sex/gender differences. Thus the lack of consideration of sex/gender in Cochrane reviews will limit their applicability and capacity to support informed decisions. This study aims to describe the extent to which Cochrane reviews of interventions for preventing HAIs consider sex and gender...
March 15, 2019: BMC Health Services Research
Viktoria Mühlbauer, Birte Berger-Höger, Martina Albrecht, Ingrid Mühlhauser, Anke Steckelberg
BACKGROUND: Shared decision-making in oncology requires information on individual prognosis. This comprises cancer prognosis as well as competing risks of dying due to age and comorbidities. Decision aids usually do not provide such information on competing risks. We conducted an overview on clinical prediction tools for early breast cancer and developed and pilot-tested a decision aid (DA) addressing individual prognosis using additional chemotherapy in early, hormone receptor-positive breast cancer as an example...
March 15, 2019: BMC Health Services Research
György Tóth, László Pálfalvi, József A Fülöp, Gergő Krizsán, Nicholas H Matlis, Gábor Almási, János Hebling
Recently a hybrid-type terahertz (THz) pulse source was proposed for high energy terahertz pulse generation. It is the combination of the conventional tilted-pulse-front setup and a nonlinear crystal with a transmission stair-step echelon of period in the hundred-micrometer range etched into the front face. The tilt angle introduced by the conventional tilted-pulse-front setup (pre-tilt) was chosen to be equal to the tilt-angle needed inside the nonlinear crystal (62° for lithium niobate (LN)) in order to fulfill velocity-matching...
March 4, 2019: Optics Express
Rajesh Kanawade, Ajay Kumar, Dnyandeo Pawar, Kaushal Vairagi, Dattatray Late, Sudipta Sarkar, Ravindra K Sinha, Samir Mondal
In this research work we demonstrated negative axicon optical fiber tip filled with Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) as a sensor platform for volatile organic gases detection at room temperature. The response of the sensor was measured with various Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) such as Chloroform, Hexane, Isopropanol, Acetone, Toluene and Methanol in the concentration ranging from 5 to 200 ppm. The corresponding sensitivity and limit of detection (LOD) of the developed sensor for the measured VOCs were observed between the order of around 23...
March 4, 2019: Optics Express
Yuan Cao, Yongli Zhao, Jianquan Wang, Xiaosong Yu, Zhangchao Ma, Jie Zhang
Quantum key distribution (QKD) holds the potential of providing long-term integrity and confidentiality for data and communications. Currently, many fiber-based QKD systems have been commercialized and several QKD networks have been deployed. Given the high cost and complexity of QKD network deployment, QKD as a service (QaaS) becomes a promising pattern for future QKD networks. The QaaS concept is that multiple users can apply for QKD services to obtain their required secret-key rates (SKRs) from the same QKD network infrastructure instead of deploying their dedicated QKD networks...
March 4, 2019: Optics Express
Masahiro Kumazawa, Toshihiko Sasaki, Masato Koashi
Characterization of photon statistics of a light source is one of the most basic tools in quantum optics. Existing methods rely on an implicit and unverifiable assumption that the source never emits too many photons to stay within the measuring range of the detectors. As a result, they fail to fulfill the demand arising from emerging applications of quantum information such as quantum cryptography. Here, we propose a characterization method using a conventional Hanbury-Brown-Twiss setup to produce rigorous bounds on emission probabilities of low photon numbers from an unknown source...
February 18, 2019: Optics Express
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