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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30760783/l-pgds-produced-pgd-2-in-premature-but-not-in-mature-adipocytes-increases-obesity-and-insulin-resistance
#1
Ko Fujimori, Kosuke Aritake, Yo Oishi, Nanae Nagata, Toko Maehara, Michael Lazarus, Yoshihiro Urade
Lipocalin-type prostaglandin (PG) D synthase (L-PGDS) is responsible for the production of PGD2 in adipocytes and is selectively induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) in adipose tissue. In this study, we investigated the effects of HFD on obesity and insulin resistance in two distinct types of adipose-specific L-PGDS gene knockout (KO) mice: fatty acid binding protein 4 (fabp4, aP2)-Cre/L-PGDS flox/flox and adiponectin (AdipoQ)-Cre/L-PGDS flox/flox mice. The L-PGDS gene was deleted in adipocytes in the premature stage of the former strain and after maturation of the latter strain...
February 13, 2019: Scientific Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30745879/autophagy-in-adipocyte-browning-emerging-drug-target-for-intervention-in-obesity
#2
REVIEW
Seung-Hyun Ro, Yura Jang, Jiyoung Bae, Isaac M Kim, Cameron Schaecher, Zachery D Shomo
Autophagy, lipophagy, and mitophagy are considered to be the major recycling processes for protein aggregates, excess fat, and damaged mitochondria in adipose tissues in response to nutrient status-associated stress, oxidative stress, and genotoxic stress in the human body. Obesity with increased body weight is often associated with white adipose tissue (WAT) hypertrophy and hyperplasia and/or beige/brown adipose tissue atrophy and aplasia, which significantly contribute to the imbalance in lipid metabolism, adipocytokine secretion, free fatty acid release, and mitochondria function...
2019: Frontiers in Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30745516/-molecular-understanding-of-hierarchy-and-lineage-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-vivo
#3
Kenji Kawabe, Takeshi Takarada
Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) is a type of tissue stem cell. In clinical studies, cultured MSCs have shown important therapeutic effects on diseases via the reduction of neurological defects and regulation of immune responses. However, in vivo MSC localization, function, and properties are poorly understood; therefore, the molecular understanding of MSCs hierarchy is less advanced compared to hematopoietic stem cell hierarchy. To address these issues, we developed a method that enables us to visualize MSCs, manipulate their function, and analyze their molecular biology in vivo...
2019: Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi. Folia Pharmacologica Japonica
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30742994/treatment-with-celastrol-protects-against-obesity-through-suppression-of-galanin-induced-fat-intake-and-activation-of-pgc-1%C3%AE-glut4-axis-mediated-glucose-consumption
#4
Penghua Fang, Biao He, Mei Yu, Mingyi Shi, Yan Zhu, Zhenwen Zhang, Ping Bo
Overweight and obesity may cause several metabolic complications, including type 2 diabetes mellitus and hyperlipidemia. Despite years of progress in medicine, there are no highly effective pharmacological treatments for obesity. The natural compound celastrol, a pentacyclic triterpene extracted from the roots of Tripterygium Wilfordi (thunder god vine) plant, exerts various bioactivities including anti-diabetic and anti-obese effects. Although celastrol could decrease food intake and obesity, the detailed mechanism for celastrol is still unclear as yet...
February 8, 2019: Biochimica et biophysica acta. Molecular basis of disease
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30742779/a-mir-29a-driven-negative-feedback-loop-regulates-peripheral-glucocorticoid-receptor-signaling
#5
Christina Glantschnig, Mascha Koenen, Manuel Gil Lozano, Michael Karbiener, Ines Pickrahn, Jasmine Williams-Dautovich, Rucha Patel, Carolyn L Cummins, Maude Giroud, Götz Hartleben, Elena Vogl, Matthias Blüher, Jan Tuckermann, Henriette Uhlenhaut, Stephan Herzig, Marcel Scheideler
The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) represents the crucial molecular mediator of key endocrine, glucocorticoid hormone-dependent regulatory circuits, including control of glucose, protein, and lipid homeostasis. Consequently, aberrant glucocorticoid signaling is linked to severe metabolic disorders, including insulin resistance, obesity, and hyperglycemia, all of which also appear upon chronic glucocorticoid therapy for the treatment of inflammatory conditions. Of note, long-term glucocorticoid exposure under these therapeutic conditions typically induces glucocorticoid resistance, requiring higher doses and consequently triggering more severe metabolic phenotypes...
February 11, 2019: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30742088/hspa12a-is-required-for-adipocyte-differentiation-and-diet-induced-obesity-through-a-positive-feedback-regulation-with-ppar%C3%AE
#6
Xiaojin Zhang, Xuan Chen, Tao Qi, Qiuyue Kong, Hao Cheng, Xiaofei Cao, Yuehua Li, Chuanfu Li, Li Liu, Zhengnian Ding
Obesity is one of the most serious public health problems. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) plays the master role in adipocyte differentiation for obesity development. However, optimum anti-obesity drug has yet been developed, mandating more investigation to identify novel regulator in obesity pathogenesis. Heat shock protein 12A (HSPA12A) encodes a novel member of the HSP70 family. Here, we report that obese patients showed increased adipose HSPA12A expression, which was positively correlated with increase of body mass index...
February 11, 2019: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30741534/non-invasive-tracking-and-regenerative-capabilities-of-transplanted-human-umbilical-cord-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-labeled-with-i-iii-iv-semiconducting-nanocrystals-in-liver-injured-living-mice
#7
Shashank Shankar Chetty, Selvarasu Praneetha, Kavitha Govarthanan, Rama Shanker Verma, Arumugam Vadivel Murugan
Acute liver injury is a critical syndrome ascribed to prevalent death of hepatocyte and imperatively requires a liver transplantation. Such methodology is certainly hampered due to deficit of healthy donors. In this regard, stem cells-based regenerative therapies are attractive in repairing injured tissues and organs for medical applications. However, it is crucial to understand the migration, engraftment and regeneration capabilities of transplanted stem cells in the living animal models. For the first time, we demonstrate rapid labeling of umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) with near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent CuInS2-ZnS nanocrystals (CIZS-NCs) to develop an innovative nano-bioconjugates (MSCs-CIZS-NBCs) that exhibit 98% labeling efficiency...
February 11, 2019: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30737105/silver-nanoparticles-inhibit-beige-fat-function-and-promote-adiposity
#8
Lishu Yue, Wenjun Zhao, Dongmei Wang, Meiyao Meng, Ying Zheng, Yu Li, Jin Qiu, Jian Yu, Yang Yan, Peng Lu, Youmin Sun, Jie Fu, Jiqiu Wang, Qiang Zhang, Lingyan Xu, Xinran Ma
OBJECTIVE: Obesity is a complex chronic disease of high prevalence worldwide. Multiple factors play integral roles in obesity development, with rising interest focusing on the contribution of environmental pollutants frequent in modern society. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are widely used for bactericidal purpose in various applications in daily life. However, their potential toxicity and contribution to the obesity epidemic are not clear. METHODS: Beige adipocytes are newly discovered adipocytes characterized by high thermogenic and energy dissipating capacity upon activation and the "browning" process...
January 24, 2019: Molecular Metabolism
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30733647/a-simple-and-reliable-protocol-for-long-term-culture-of-murine-bone-marrow-stromal-mesenchymal-stem-cells-that-retained-their-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-stemness-in-long-term-culture
#9
Basem M Abdallah, Abdullah M Alzahrani, Ashraf M Abdel-Moneim, Nicholas Ditzel, Moustapha Kassem
Background: Bone marrow derived stromal stem cells (BMSCs) are a clonogenic cell population that is characterized by self-renewal capacity and differentiation potential into osteoblasts, and other mesenchymal cell types. Mouse BMSCs (mBMSCs) are difficult to be cultured and propagated in vitro due to their replicative senescent phenotype, heterogeneity and high contamination with plastic adherent hematopoietic progenitors (HPCs). In this study, we described long-term culture of homogenous population of mBMSCs using simple and highly reproducible approach based on frequent subculturing (FS) at fixed split ratio in the presence of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF)...
2019: Biological Procedures Online
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30725119/mots-c-peptide-regulates-adipose-homeostasis-to-prevent-ovariectomy-induced-metabolic-dysfunction
#10
Huanyu Lu, Ming Wei, Yue Zhai, Qingyang Li, Zichen Ye, Li Wang, Wenjing Luo, Jingyuan Chen, Zifan Lu
The postmenopausal state is associated with an increased risk of metabolic disorder including reduced energy expenditure and weight gain, leading to higher cardiovascular and cancer risks among other diseases. Mitochondrial-derived peptide (MOTS-c) is a 16-amino acid peptide encoded by mitochondrial DNA. Here, we showed that MOTS-c treatment in mice prevented ovariectomy-induced obesity and insulin resistance. After ovariectomy, low levels of estrogens increased fat mass overload and disturbed normal adipose function, forcing the development of insulin resistance...
February 6, 2019: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30723473/spred2-regulates-high-fat-diet-induced-adipose-tissue-inflammation-and-metabolic-abnormalities-in-mice
#11
Takahiro Ohkura, Teizo Yoshimura, Masayoshi Fujisawa, Toshiaki Ohara, Rie Marutani, Kaya Usami, Akihiro Matsukawa
Chronic low-grade inflammation in visceral adipose tissues triggers the development of obesity-related insulin resistance, leading to the metabolic syndrome, a serious health condition with higher risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and stroke. In the present study, we investigated whether Sprouty-related EVH1-domain-containing protein 2 (Spred2), a negative regulator of the Ras/Raf/ERK/MAPK pathway, plays a role in the development of high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity, adipose tissue inflammation, metabolic abnormalities, and insulin resistance...
2019: Frontiers in Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30721625/fndc5-loss-of-function-attenuates-exercise-induced-browning-of-white-adipose-tissue-in-mice
#12
Yan Xiong, Zihuan Wu, Bin Zhang, Chao Wang, Fengyi Mao, Xiao Liu, Keping Hu, Xiaobo Sun, Wen Jin, Shihuan Kuang
Fibronectin type III domain containing 5 (Fndc5) is a transmembrane protein highly expressed in the skeletal muscle. It was reported that exercise promotes the shedding of the extracellular domain of Fndc5, generating a circulating peptide (irisin) that cross-talks to adipose tissues to convert lipid-storing white adipocytes to energy-catabolizing beige adipocytes. However, the requirement of Fndc5 in mediating the beneficial effect of exercise remains to be determined. Here, we created a mouse model of Fndc5 mutation through transcription activator-like effector nuclease-mediated DNA targeting...
February 5, 2019: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30718820/resveratrol-induced-gut-microbiota-reduces-obesity-in-high-fat-diet-fed-mice
#13
Pan Wang, Daotong Li, Weixin Ke, Dong Liang, Xiaosong Hu, Fang Chen
OBJECTIVE: Resveratrol (RSV) is a natural polyphenol with putative anti-obesity effects; however, its mechanisms of action remain unclear due to its low bioavailability. Microbial functions in the physiology result from the microbiota-host coevolution has profoundly affected host metabolism. Here, we sought to determine how beneficial microbiome caused by RSV interventions affects antiobesity. METHODS: C57BL/6J mice were fed either standard diet (SD) or RSV (300 mg/kg/day) diet for 16 weeks...
February 4, 2019: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30718686/telmisartan-induces-browning-of-fully-differentiated-white-adipocytes-via-m2-macrophage-polarization
#14
Eun Jeong Jeon, Dong Young Kim, Na Hyun Lee, Hye-Eun Choi, Hyae Gyeong Cheon
Telmisartan is a well-known anti-hypertensive drug acting as an angiotensin 2 receptor blocker (ARB), but it also possesses partial PPARγ agonistic activity and induces insulin sensitivity. In the present study, we investigated the effects of telmisartan on macrophage polarization in association with its browning capacity, because PPARγ plays a key role in M2 polarization and in the browning of white adipocytes. Telmisartan induced M2 marker expression in murine macrophages concentration dependently, which was confirmed by flow cytometry...
February 4, 2019: Scientific Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30717975/the-novel-adipokine-ctrp5-is-a-negative-regulator-of-white-adipose-tissue-browning
#15
Caijun Rao, Dandan Huang, Xiaoxiang Mao, Ru Chen, Dan Huang, Kai Huang
The browning of white adipose tissue predominantly emerges as an adaptation to environmental cues, such as cold exposure. The enhanced browning of adipose tissue results in improved energy and glucose homeostasis and reduced fat mass and body weight, which is greatly beneficial for the treatment of obesity and other metabolic diseases. C1q/TNF-related protein 5 (CTRP5) is a novel adipokine associated with a variety of endocrine and metabolic diseases; however, whether it can regulate the metabolism of adipose tissue itself remains unknown...
February 1, 2019: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30717609/prohibitin-a-hypothetical-target-for-sex-based-new-therapeutics-for-metabolic-and-immune-diseases
#16
Suresh Mishra, Bl Grégoire Nyomba
Traditional sex-related biases in research are now obsolete, and it is important to identify the sex of humans, animals, and even cells in research protocols, due to the role of sex as a fundamental facet of biology, predisposition to disease, and response to therapy. Genetic sex, epigenetics and hormonal regulations, generate sex-dimorphisms. Recent investigations acknowledge sex differences in metabolic and immune health as well as chronic diseases. Prohibitin, an evolutionarily conserved molecule, has pleotropic functions in mitochondrial housekeeping, plasma membrane signaling, and nuclear genetic transcription...
February 4, 2019: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30715852/bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-derived-exosomal-mir-29b-3p-regulates-aging-associated-insulin-resistance
#17
Tian Su, Yuzhong Xiao, Ye Xiao, Qi Guo, Changjun Li, Yan Huang, Qiufang Deng, Jingxiang Wen, Fangliang Zhou, Xiang-Hang Luo
Insulin resistance is the major pathological characteristic of type 2 diabetes and the elderly often develop insulin resistance. However, the deep-seated mechanisms for aging-related insulin resistance remain unclear. Here, we showed that nano-sized exosomes released by bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) of aged mice could be taken up by adipocytes, myocytes, and hepatocytes, resulting in insulin resistance both in vivo and in vitro. Using microRNA (miRNA) array assays, we found that the amount of miR-29b-3p was dramatically increased in exosomes released by BM-MSCs of aged mice...
February 4, 2019: ACS Nano
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30715559/sialoglycoprotein-isolated-from-carassius-auratus-eggs-promotes-osteogenesis-by-stimulating-mesenchymal-stem-cells-to-commit-to-osteoblast-differentiation
#18
Lei Mao, Meiling Wang, Xingjun Xi, Yufeng Dai, Na Wang, Jingfeng Wang, Changhu Xue
In this study, we explore whether the pro-osteogenic effects of sialoglycoprotein from Carassius auratus eggs (Ca-SGP) involve mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Ovariectomized osteoporotic mice treated with Ca-SGP had increased bone formation and reduced bone marrow adipose tissue. As MSCs are common progenitors of osteoblasts and adipocytes, we isolated MSCs from Ca-SGP-treated mice and found that they tended to differentiate into osteoblasts over adipocytes confirmed by Alizarin red and Oil red O staining. This change was seen at the gene and protein level...
February 4, 2019: Cell and Tissue Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30710574/inflammation-and-er-stress-differentially-regulate-stamp2-expression-and-localization-in-adipocytes
#19
Jørgen Sikkeland, Torstein Lindstad, Hatice Zeynep Nenseth, Xavier Dezitter, Su Qu, Ridhwan M Muhumed, Meric Erikci Ertunc, Margaret F Gregor, Fahri Saatcioglu
BACKGROUND: Chronic ER stress and dysfunction is a hallmark of obesity and a critical contributor to metaflammation, abnormal hormone action and altered substrate metabolism in metabolic tissues, such as liver and adipocytes. Lack of STAMP2 in lean mice induces inflammation and insulin resistance on a regular diet, and it is dysregulated in the adipose tissue of obese mice and humans. We hypothesized that the regulation of STAMP2 is disrupted by ER stress. METHODS: 3 T3-L1 and MEF adipocytes were treated with ER stress inducers thapsigargin and tunicamycin, and inflammation inducer TNFα...
January 30, 2019: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30709903/iron-down-regulates-leptin-by-suppressing-protein-o-glcnac-modification-in-adipocytes-resulting-in-decreased-levels-of-o-glycosylated-creb
#20
Yan Gao, Jingfang Liu, Zhenzhong Bai, Sandy Sink, Chengyu Zhao, Felipe Ramos Lorenzo, Donald A McClain
We previously reported that iron down-regulates transcription of the leptin gene by increasing occupancy of phosphorylated cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (pCREB)2 at two sites in the leptin gene promoter. Several nutrient-sensing pathways including O-GlcNAcylation also regulate leptin. We therefore investigated if O-glycosylation plays a role in iron- and CREB-mediated regulation of leptin. We found that high iron decreases protein O-GlcNAcylation both in cultured 3T3L1 adipocytes and in mice fed high-iron diets and down-regulates leptin mRNA and protein levels...
February 1, 2019: Journal of Biological Chemistry
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