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Body contour

Jenny A Kent, Kota Z Takahashi, Nicholas Stergiou
BACKGROUND: Uneven ground is a frequently encountered, yet little-studied challenge for individuals with amputation. The absence of control at the prosthetic ankle to facilitate correction for surface inconsistencies, and diminished sensory input from the extremity, add unpredictability to an already complex control problem, and leave limited means to produce appropriate corrective responses in a timely manner. Whole body angular momentum, L, and its variability across several strides may provide insight into the extent to which an individual can regulate their movement in such a context...
February 4, 2019: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
Kento Imai, Kazunori Shimizu, Hiroyuki Honda
Bioactive peptides have a positive impact on body functions and conditions and may influence health. However, peptides are degraded by digestive enzymes, such as pepsin in the stomach when ingested orally. In order to solve this problem, we previously focused on porous silica gel and found that by using calcined silica gel, hydrophobic and negatively charged peptides could be efficiently delivered into the intestine, because peptides adsorbed on the cavity of the silica gel could be protected from enzymatic degradation...
January 29, 2019: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Diletta Maria Pierazzi, Roberto Cuomo, Giuseppe Nisi, Luca Grimaldi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2019: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Dominik Duscher, Maximilian Zaussinger, Raphael Wenny, Georg M Huemer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2019: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Dan Nguyen, Troy Long, Xun Jia, Weiguo Lu, Xuejun Gu, Zohaib Iqbal, Steve Jiang
With the advancement of treatment modalities in radiation therapy for cancer patients, outcomes have improved, but at the cost of increased treatment plan complexity and planning time. The accurate prediction of dose distributions would alleviate this issue by guiding clinical plan optimization to save time and maintain high quality plans. We have modified a convolutional deep network model, U-net (originally designed for segmentation purposes), for predicting dose from patient image contours of the planning target volume (PTV) and organs at risk (OAR)...
January 31, 2019: Scientific Reports
David B Sarwer
Over the past 60 years, a growing body of research has investigated the psychological aspects of cosmetic surgery and related minimally-invasive treatments. While the earliest studies were influenced by psychoanalytic thinking, much of the work over the past several decades has been influenced by Thomas Cash's cognitive-behavioral theory of body image and has focused on the appearance concerns of patients who seek these procedures. The majority of individuals interested in the procedures report heightened dissatisfaction typically focused on the feature being considered for treatment...
January 28, 2019: Body Image
Lida Xing, Ryan C McKellar, Jingmai K O'Connor, Ming Bai, Kuowei Tseng, Luis M Chiappe
Over the last three years, Burmese amber (~99 Ma, from Myanmar) has provided a series of immature enantiornithine skeletal remains preserved in varying developmental stages and degrees of completeness. These specimens have improved our knowledge based on compression fossils in Cretaceous sedimentary rocks, adding details of three-dimensional structure and soft tissues that are rarely preserved elsewhere. Here we describe a remarkably well-preserved foot, accompanied by part of the wing plumage. These body parts were likely dismembered, entering the resin due to predatory or scavenging behaviour by a larger animal...
January 30, 2019: Scientific Reports
Jenna Thuman, Alessandrina M Freitas, Christie Schaeffer, Chris A Campbell
INTRODUCTION: The obese or ptotic breast demonstrates significant difficulty in breast reconstruction after mastectomy with increased rates of perioperative complications compared with the general population, regardless of reconstruction type. Implant-based reconstruction in this patient population with the traditional horizontal elliptical skin-sparing mastectomy tends to have aesthetically displeasing qualities secondary to skin flap redundancy and blunting of the breast contour. Wise-pattern closures have been described with submuscular direct-to-implant and 2-stage reconstructions, with more favorable complication profile when staged...
January 28, 2019: Annals of Plastic Surgery
Bruce M Hannon, Michael R Murphy
Our objective was to examine the potential of limit feeding that keeps a previously growing animal at a constant size (termed progressive limit feeding) to maximize profit using a 3-D surface to integrate the effects of animal size, feeding rate, and time in the feedlot. The constant size contours of the surface were determined using a combination of results. We used data from a study of growing beef cattle being fed to maintain specified sizes coupled with modern growth rate data for animals fed ad libitum in a feedlot...
January 26, 2019: Journal of Animal Science
Shoji Seki, Yasuhito Yahara, Hiroto Makino, Kenji Kobayashi, Masato Nakano, Norikazu Hirano, Kei Watanabe, Jun Takahashi, Yoshiharu Kawaguchi, Tomoatsu Kimura
BACKGROUND: Differential rod contouring (DRC) is useful for periapical vertebral derotation and decreasing rib hump in patients with thoracic adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). However, it is unknown whether DRC in the thoracolumbar/lumbar spine also contributes to derotation. We assessed the contributions of rod contouring and of DRC to the reduction of apical axial vertebral body rotation in patients with AIS with thoracolumbar/lumbar curvatures. METHODS: Forty-five (Lenke type 3 or 4, 17; Lenke type 5 or 6, 28) were analyzed for the contribution of DRC to thoracolumbar/lumbar spinal derotation...
January 22, 2019: Journal of Orthopaedic Science: Official Journal of the Japanese Orthopaedic Association
Natalie Hermann, Anne Klassen, Rosalia Luketina, Peter M Vogt, Kay Hendrik Busch
One of the most important parts of result evaluation in plastic surgery, especially postbariatric and body-contouring surgery, is the appraisal of changes in patients' quality of life after treatment. Standardised assessments of patient-reported outcomes (PROs) are indispensable.BODY-Q (A. Klassen et al.) is a multifaceted, valid PRO instrument comprising a total of 26 scales for the evaluation of multiple factors of everyday life in order to quantify well-being, satisfaction and functionality. Each scale contains 4-10 statements, which have to be rated by patients...
January 22, 2019: Handchirurgie, Mikrochirurgie, Plastische Chirurgie
Jianyong Jiang, Ke Li, Sergey Komarov, Joseph A O'Sullivan, Yuan-Chuan Tai
PURPOSE: We investigated the feasibility of a novel positron emission tomography (PET) system that provides near real-time feedback to an operator who can interactively scan a patient to optimize image quality. The system should be compact and mobile to support point-of-care (POC) molecular imaging applications. In this study, we present the key technologies required and discuss the potential benefits of such new capability. METHODS: The core of this novel PET technology includes trackable PET detectors and a fully 3D, fast image reconstruction engine implemented on multiple graphics processing units (GPUs) to support dynamically changing geometry by calculating the system matrix on-the-fly using a tube-of-response approach...
January 22, 2019: Medical Physics
Mitsue Kawamura, Michio Yoshimura, Hiromi Asada, Mitsuhiro Nakamura, Yukinori Matsuo, Takashi Mizowaki
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We created a scoring system incorporating dosimetric and clinical factors to assess the risk of severe, acute skin reactions in patients undergoing intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) to treat head and neck cancer (HNC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 101 consecutive patients who received definitive IMRT or volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) with a prescription dose of 70 Gy to treat HNC between 2013 and 2017 in our hospital were enrolled...
January 21, 2019: Radiation Oncology
Ansgar Espeland, Nina Dalen
OBJECTIVE: To compare disc and nerve root findings, image quality, and pain between supine lumbar MRI positions with straightened v s flexed hips and knees. METHODS: In this prospective pilot study, 14 adults with sciatica or suspected lumbar radiculopathy underwent MRI supine with their hips and knees flexed and then straightened. For each position, two experienced radiologists assessed disc contour, location/size of disc herniation, nerve root affection, image quality, image evaluation difficulty, and sagittal angles between the vertebral bodies at each disc level L3-S1...
January 17, 2019: British Journal of Radiology
Chenzhi Lai, Xiaolei Jin, Xianlei Zong, Guodong Song
BACKGROUND: Lower face contouring surgery has become a popular aesthetic surgery in East Asian countries. Various surgical methods have been used to improve lower face aesthetics. When a patient has a wide as well as long lower face, procedures like chin polishing or T-type osteotomy are traditionally performed, but these surgical methods have several disadvantages. The authors devised a simple and reliable method to correct the wide and long lower face, without the complications associated with the traditional methods...
January 3, 2019: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Reza Ghaderi, Akbar Karegar, Esmaeil Miraeiz
Trichotylenchus gorganiensis n. sp. is described and illustrated based on morphological and morphometric data. The new species is characterized by its 760-1073 µm long body, conoid-rounded lip region continuous with the body contour and bearing 5-7 fine striae, 22.0-24.5 µm long stylet, basal pharyngeal bulb offset or slightly overlapping intestine, post-anal sac extending 50-73 % of the tail region, and cylindrical or subclavate tail with a striated terminus. Differences of the new species from the closely related species T...
December 3, 2018: Zootaxa
Nora Gaspar, Ronny Eichler, Eran Stark
BACKGROUND: Modern electrophysiological experiments are moving towards closing the loop, where the extrinsic (behavioral) and intrinsic (neuronal) variables automatically affect stimulation parameters. Rodent experiments targeting spatial behavior require animal 2D kinematics to be continuously monitored in a reliable and accurate manner. Cameras provide a robust, flexible, and simple way to track kinematics on the fly. Indeed, several available camera-based systems yield high spatiotemporal resolution...
January 13, 2019: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Lorne K Rosenfield, Christopher R Davis
Abdominal contour deformities are an aesthetic challenge to the plastic surgeon. Patients present with diverse clinical histories, multiple co-morbidities, and unique aesthetic demands. Weight loss, previous pregnancy, and aging are three principal indications for abdominoplasty. Bariatric surgery has increased demand for body contouring procedures. This heterogeneous patient cohort means a "one size fits all" abdominoplasty is not appropriate. Precise evaluation, evidence-based decision-making, and artistic acumen are required, while balancing patient goals with safe, realistic, and long-lasting aesthetic outcomes...
January 14, 2019: Aesthetic Surgery Journal
Anna Elander, Christina Biörserud, Trude Staalesen, Jonas Ockell, Monika Fagevik Olsén
BACKGROUND: Excess skin is well known after massive weight loss but, there is missing knowledge from various groups. OBJECTIVES: To describe and compare excess skin in a reference population during obesity, after obesity surgery, and after reconstructive abdominoplasty. SETTING: University hospital, Sweden. METHODS: The following 6 groups were included: the reference population, obese adults before obesity surgery, obese adults after obesity surgery, adolescents after obesity surgery, super-obese adults after obesity surgery, and adults after abdominoplasty...
November 5, 2018: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
Hady Ahmady Phoulady, Dmitry Goldgof, Lawrence O Hall, Kevin R Nash, Peter R Mouton
The use of unbiased stereology to quantify structural parameters such as mean cell and nuclear size (area and volume) can be useful for a wide variety of biological studies. Here we propose a novel segmentation framework using an Active Contour Model to automate the collection of stereology from stained cells and other objects in tissue sections. This approach is demonstrated for stained brain sections from young adult Fischer 344 rats. Animals were perfused in-vivo with 4% paraformaldehyde and sectioned by frozen microtomy at an instrument setting of 40 μm...
January 7, 2019: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
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