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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30877252/optogenetic-reactivation-of-memory-ensembles-in-the-retrosplenial-cortex-induces-systems-consolidation
#1
André F de Sousa, Kiriana K Cowansage, Ipshita Zutshi, Leonardo M Cardozo, Eun J Yoo, Stefan Leutgeb, Mark Mayford
The neural circuits underlying memory change over prolonged periods after learning, in a process known as systems consolidation. Postlearning spontaneous reactivation of memory-related neural ensembles is thought to mediate this process, although a causal link has not been established. Here we test this hypothesis in mice by using optogenetics to selectively reactivate neural ensembles representing a contextual fear memory (sometimes referred to as engram neurons). High-frequency stimulation of these ensembles in the retrosplenial cortex 1 day after learning produced a recent memory with features normally observed in consolidated remote memories, including higher engagement of neocortical areas during retrieval, contextual generalization, and decreased hippocampal dependence...
March 15, 2019: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30874665/prior-information-free-single-shot-scattering-imaging-beyond-the-memory-effect
#2
Xiaoyu Wang, Xin Jin, Junqi Li, Xiaocong Lian, Xiangyang Ji, Qionghai Dai
Imaging beyond the memory effect (ME) is critical to seeing through the scattering media. Methods proposed before have suffered from invasive point spread function measurement or the availability of prior information of the imaging targets. In this Letter, we propose a prior-information-free single-shot scattering imaging method to exceed the ME range. The autocorrelation of each imaging target is separated blindly from the autocorrelation of the recorded dual-target speckle via Fourier spectrum guessing and iterative energy constrained compensation...
March 15, 2019: Optics Letters
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30873758/hemisphere-specific-effects-of-prefrontal-theta-burst-stimulation-on-visual-recognition-memory-accuracy-and-awareness
#3
Ivan Carbajal, Jonathan T O'Neil, Robert T Palumbo, Joel L Voss, Anthony J Ryals
BACKGROUND: The prefrontal cortex has been implicated in episodic memory and the awareness of memory. Few studies have probed the nature and necessity of its role via brain stimulation. There are uncertainties regarding whether the hemisphere of stimulation predicts effects on memory and whether effects of stimulation are format-specific, with most previous studies utilizing verbal/semantic stimuli. OBJECTIVE: Our primary objective was to determine if theta-burst transcranial magnetic stimulation (TBS) to prefrontal cortex modulates visual memory accuracy, visual memory awareness, or both, and whether these effects depend on brain hemisphere...
March 14, 2019: Brain and Behavior
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30868181/effects-of-the-synthetic-cannabinoid-5f-amb-on-anxiety-and-recognition-memory-in-mice
#4
Shiho Ito, Satoshi Deyama, Masaki Domoto, Tong Zhang, Hitoki Sasase, Akari Fukao, Hirohito Esaki, Eiichi Hinoi, Shuji Kaneko, Katsuyuki Kaneda
RATIONALE: N-[[1-(5-fluoropentyl)-1H-indazol-3-yl]carbonyl]-L-valine methyl ester (5F-AMB) is a synthetic cannabinoid that has been distributed recently. Although inhalation of 5F-AMB produces adverse effects, such as impaired memory and disturbed consciousness, in humans, the psychopharmacological effects of 5F-AMB in rodents have not been investigated. OBJECTIVES: We first examined the effects of intraperitoneal and intracerebroventricular injections of 5F-AMB on anxiety-like behavior and locomotor activity in the open field (OF) test and recognition memory in the novel object recognition test (NOR) in C57BL/6J mice...
March 13, 2019: Psychopharmacology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30864846/oscillatory-eeg-changes-during-arithmetic-learning-in-children
#5
Mojtaba Soltanlou, Christina Artemenko, Thomas Dresler, Andreas J Fallgatter, Hans-Christoph Nuerk, Ann-Christine Ehlis
Most studies have investigated brain activation changes after the course of arithmetic learning, and the question remains whether these changes are detectable during the course of learning, i.e., before memory consolidation. Twenty-four fifth graders solved multiplication problems while ongoing electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded. The arithmetic training revealed reduced errors together with a power increase in theta (4-7 Hz) but not in lower alpha (8-10 Hz) or upper alpha (10-13 Hz) bands. We conclude that increases in theta power subserved a shift from slow, procedural strategies to more efficient, automated procedural and retrieval strategies, which led to more efficient performance...
March 13, 2019: Developmental Neuropsychology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30862869/interfering-with-emotional-processing-resources-upon-associative-threat-memory-reactivation-does-not-affect-memory-retention
#6
Anastasia Chalkia, Lauranne Vanaken, Riet Fonteyne, Tom Beckers
Ample evidence suggests that memories enter a labile state upon retrieval, requiring reconsolidation processes in order to be retained. During this period of instability, various interventions can be applied to modify problematic memories. A novel behavioral intervention was designed, aimed at disrupting amygdala-based cognitive processing following the retrieval of a conditioned threat memory, in order to prevent its reconsolidation. We fear-conditioned participants on day 1, and reactivated their memory on day 2...
March 12, 2019: Scientific Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30862534/detecting-the-neural-correlates-of-episodic-memory-with-mobile-eeg-recollecting-objects-in-the-real-world
#7
Joanne L Park, David I Donaldson
Episodic memory supports recognition of the details of complex real world experiences, providing a continuous record of events embedded within spatial and temporal context. Despite the inherently dynamic nature of real events, the bulk of neuroscientific research to date examines recognition in absence of the detailed contextual information that is known to be a defining characteristic. Given the importance of environmental context for episodic memory, examining ERP correlates of memory in more naturalistic settings is vital for progress in understanding how retrieval operates in daily life...
March 9, 2019: NeuroImage
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30859121/posttraumatic-stress-disorder-and-total-amyloid-burden-and-amyloid-%C3%AE-42-40-ratios-in-plasma-results-from-a-pilot-study-of-world-trade-center-responders
#8
Sean A P Clouston, Yael Deri, Erica Diminich, Richard Kew, Roman Kotov, Candace Stewart, Xiaohua Yang, Sam Gandy, Mary Sano, Evelyn J Bromet, Benjamin J Luft
Introduction: Chronic posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with poor memory and increased burden of various degenerative cerebral neuropathologies. The goal of this pilot study was to determine whether PTSD was associated with changes in plasma-based neuropathological biomarkers of neurodegeneration among World Trade Center (WTC) responders. Methods: Thirty-four WTC responders had blood drawn and flash-frozen within 15 minutes of retrieval. PTSD symptoms were assessed at that time...
December 2019: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30858810/tracking-affective-language-comprehension-simulating-and-evaluating-character-affect-in-morally-loaded-narratives
#9
Björn 't Hart, Marijn E Struiksma, Anton van Boxtel, Jos J A van Berkum
Facial electromyography research shows that corrugator supercilii ("frowning muscle") activity tracks the emotional valence of linguistic stimuli. Grounded or embodied accounts of language processing take such activity to reflect the simulation or "re-enactment" of emotion, as part of the retrieval of word meaning (e.g., of "furious") and/or of building a situation model (e.g., for "Mark is furious"). However, the same muscle also expresses our primary emotional evaluation of things we encounter...
2019: Frontiers in Psychology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30858162/more-is-less-increased-processing-of-unwanted-memories-facilitates-forgetting
#10
Tracy H Wang, Katerina Placek, Jarrod A Lewis-Peacock
The intention to forget can produce long-lasting effects. This ability has been linked to suppression of both rehearsal and retrieval of unwanted memories -- processes mediated by prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Here, we describe an alternative account in which the intention to forget is associated with increased engagement with the unwanted information. We used pattern classifiers to decode human functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data from a task in which male and female participants viewed a series of pictures and were instructed to remember or forget each one...
March 11, 2019: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30853627/reconsolidation-of-sucrose-instrumental-memory-in-rats-the-role-of-retrieval-context
#11
Alessandro Piva, Elisabetta Gerace, Marzia Di Chio, Laura Padovani, Giovanna Paolone, Domenico E Pellegrini-Giampietro, Cristiano Chiamulera
Memory reconsolidation enables the update of a previously consolidated memory trace after its reactivation. Although Pavlovian memory reconsolidation has been widely demonstrated, instrumental memory reconsolidation is still debated. The most critical issue on instrumental memory reconsolidation findings have mainly been linked to the presence of specific boundary conditions for reactivation, for instance contextual parameters. In this study, we investigated the role of the spatial context on molecular markers of sucrose instrumental memory reactivation...
March 7, 2019: Brain Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30852261/reconsidering-unconscious-persistence-suppressing-unwanted-memories-reduces-their-indirect-expression-in-later-thoughts
#12
Yingying Wang, Andrea Luppi, Jonathan Fawcett, Michael C Anderson
When we seek to forget unwelcome memories, does the suppressed content still exert an unconscious influence on our thoughts? Although intentionally stopping retrieval of a memory reduces later episodic retention for the suppressed trace, it remains unclear the extent to which suppressed content persists in indirectly influencing mental processes. Here we tested whether inhibitory control processes underlying retrieval suppression alter the influence of a memory's underlying semantic content on later thought...
March 7, 2019: Cognition
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30852129/sleep-improves-memory-for-the-content-but-not-execution-of-intentions-in-adolescents
#13
Ruth L F Leong, Elaine van Rijn, Shirley Y J Koh, Michael W L Chee, June C Lo
OBJECTIVE: Sleep benefits prospective memory in young adults probably in part due to its well-established role in enhancing declarative memory, thereby facilitating retrieval of the intention content. In prior work on adolescents, we did not detect differences in prospective memory comparing five nights of sleep restriction and adequate sleep. Here, we examined whether this might be attributed to a limited role of sleep in benefiting the declarative content in this age group, and whether a sleep benefit on prospective memory would be uncovered with a shorter retention interval...
January 29, 2019: Sleep Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30849026/are-there-age-differences-in-consolidated-episodic-memory
#14
Philip A Allen, Michelle L Hughes, James R Houston, Elliott Jardin, Peter Mallik, Conor McLennan, Douglas L Delahanty
Background/Study Context: While most aging research on memory uses a retention interval of one hour or less, episodic consolidation takes longer (e.g., 6-24 hours for synaptic consolidation). In three experiments, we examined age differences in recall followed by recognition in which the retention interval was varied in younger and older adults. METHODS: In Experiment 1 (n = 24 for both age groups), zero-, 1- and 24-hour retention intervals were used for recall for all participants, and a 24-hour retention interval was used for recognition...
March 8, 2019: Experimental Aging Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30847390/human-verbal-memory-encoding-is-hierarchically-distributed-in-a-continuous-processing-stream
#15
Michal T Kucewicz, Krishnakant Saboo, Brent M Berry, Vaclav Kremen, Laura R Miller, Fatemeh Khadjevand, Cory S Inman, Paul Wanda, Michael R Sperling, Richard Gorniak, Kathryn A Davis, Barbara C Jobst, Bradley Lega, Sameer A Sheth, Daniel S Rizzuto, Ravishankar K Iyer, Michael J Kahana, Gregory A Worrell
Processing of memory is supported by coordinated activity in a network of sensory, association, and motor brain regions. It remains a major challenge to determine where memory is encoded for later retrieval. Here, we used direct intracranial brain recordings from epilepsy patients performing free recall tasks to determine the temporal pattern and anatomical distribution of verbal memory encoding across the entire human cortex. High γ frequency activity (65-115 Hz) showed consistent power responses during encoding of subsequently recalled and forgotten words on a subset of electrodes localized in 16 distinct cortical areas activated in the tasks...
January 2019: ENeuro
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30846961/a-novel-test-of-pure-irrelevance-induced-blindness
#16
Christian Büsel, Thomas Ditye, Lukas Muttenthaler, Ulrich Ansorge
Load theory claims that bottom-up attention is possible under conditions of low perceptual load but not high perceptual load. At variance with this claim, a recent one-trial study showed that under low load, with only two colors in the display - a ring and a disk -, an instruction to process only one of the two stimuli led to better memory performance for the color of the relevant than of the irrelevant stimulus. Control experiments showed that if instructed to pay attention to both objects, participants were able to memorize both colors...
2019: Frontiers in Psychology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30846933/acute-but-not-permanent-effects-of-propranolol-on-fear-memory-expression-in-humans
#17
Anastasia Chalkia, Jeroen Weermeijer, Lukas Van Oudenhove, Tom Beckers
Experimental evidence in humans and non-human animals suggests that the administration of propranolol shortly after the retrieval of an emotional memory can lead to an attenuation of its later expression, a phenomenon known as post-reactivation amnesia. Using more potent amnestic drugs, post-reactivation amnesia has been shown in animals to be reversible by re-administration of the drug prior to memory retention testing. The latter finding suggests that, at least under some circumstances, post-reactivation amnesia may not reflect a disruption of reconsolidation (i...
2019: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30845269/first-person-view-of-one-s-body-in-immersive-virtual-reality-influence-on-episodic-memory
#18
Lucie Bréchet, Robin Mange, Bruno Herbelin, Quentin Theillaud, Baptiste Gauthier, Andrea Serino, Olaf Blanke
Episodic memories (EMs) are recollections of contextually rich and personally relevant past events. EM has been linked to the sense of self, allowing one to mentally travel back in subjective time and re-experience past events. However, the sense of self has recently been linked to online multisensory processing and bodily self-consciousness (BSC). It is currently unknown whether EM depends on BSC mechanisms. Here, we used a new immersive virtual reality (VR) system that maintained the perceptual richness of life episodes and fully controlled the experimental stimuli during encoding and retrieval, including the participant's body...
2019: PloS One
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30844064/does-the-key-task-measure-prospective-memory-cautionary-findings-from-parallel-studies-in-hiv-disease-and-older-adults
#19
Michelle A Babicz, Kelli L Sullivan, Michael Weinborn, Romola S Bucks, Amanda Ng, Erica Hodgson, Denise Parker, Maria Pushpanathan, Lara Fine, Shayne Loft, Steven Paul Woods
OBJECTIVE: Despite its brevity and face validity, little is known about the construct validity of the naturalistic "Key Task" of prospective memory (PM), in which an examinee is instructed to remind the examiner at a designated time to retrieve keys (or another belonging) placed out of sight. METHOD: Study 1 included 162 HIV+ and 52 HIV- comparison participants who completed the Key Task alongside well-validated measures of PM and a comprehensive neuropsychological battery that included everyday functioning measures...
March 7, 2019: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30842744/associative-memory-impairments-are-associated-with-functional-alterations-within-the-memory-network-in-schizophrenia-patients-and-their-unaffected-first-degree-relatives-an-fmri-study
#20
Viola Oertel, Dominik Kraft, Gilberto Alves, Christian Knöchel, Denisa Ghinea, Helena Storchak, Silke Matura, David Prvulovic, Robert A Bittner, David E J Linden, Andreas Reif, Michael Stäblein
Memory impairments are a major characteristic of schizophrenia (SZ). In the current study, we used an associative memory task to test the hypothesis that SZ patients and first-degree relatives have altered functional patterns in comparison to healthy controls. We analyzed the fMRI activation pattern during the presentation of a face-name task in 27 SZ patients, 23 first-degree relatives, and 27 healthy controls. In addition, we performed correlation analyses between individual psychopathology, accuracy and reaction time of the task and the beta scores of the functional brain activations...
2019: Frontiers in Psychiatry
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