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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30776852/the-prevalence-and-diagnosis-of-stereoblindness-in-adults-less-than-60-years-of-age-a-best-evidence-synthesis
#1
REVIEW
Adrien Chopin, Daphne Bavelier, Dennis Michael Levi
PURPOSE: Stereoscopic vision (or stereopsis) is the ability to perceive depth from binocular disparity - the difference of viewpoints between the two eyes. Interestingly, there are large individual differences as to how well one can appreciate depth from such a cue. The total absence of stereoscopic vision, called 'stereoblindness', has been associated with negative behavioural outcomes such as poor distance estimation. Surprisingly, the prevalence of stereoblindness remains unclear, as it appears highly dependent on the way in which stereopsis is measured...
March 2019: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30776797/a-cost-effectiveness-analysis-of-vaccination-for-prevention-of-herpes-zoster-and-related-complications-input-for-national-recommendations
#2
Lisa A Prosser, Rafael Harpaz, Angela M Rose, Acham Gebremariam, Angela Guo, Ismael R Ortega-Sanchez, Fangjun Zhou, Kathleen Dooling
Background: The U.S. Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recently developed recommendations for use of a new recombinant zoster vaccine (RZV). Objective: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of vaccination with RZV compared with zoster vaccine live (ZVL) and no vaccination, the cost-effectiveness of vaccination with RZV for persons who have previously received ZVL, and the cost-effectiveness of preferential vaccination with RZV over ZVL. Design: Simulation (state-transition) model using U...
February 19, 2019: Annals of Internal Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30776778/skeletal-age-at-death-estimation-bayesian-versus-regression-methods
#3
Efthymia Nikita, Panos Nikitas
Age-at-death estimation in a skeletal assemblage (target sample) is biased by the demographic profile of the material used for age prediction (training sample) when this profile is different from that of the target sample. This bias is minimized if the demographic profile of the target sample is properly taken into account in the method developed for age-at-death estimation. In the Bayesian approach this is accomplished via the informative prior. For methods based on regression, we propose two techniques: (a) using weighting factors taken from the demographic profile of the target sample, and (b) creating a new hypothetical training sample that has a demographic profile similar to that of the target sample...
February 5, 2019: Forensic Science International
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30776767/the-cost-of-hypoglycemia-associated-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-in-taiwan
#4
Alena Strizek, Chee-Jen Chang, Wesley Furnback, Bruce Wang, Jérémie Lebrec, Thomas Lew
OBJECTIVES: To quantify the incremental burden of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and a hypoglycemic event in Taiwan using the National Health Insurance Research Database. METHODS: Data from 2000 through 2013 with an index period of 2001 through 2012 from the National Health Insurance Research Database's 2-million-patient sample were used. Using a nested case-control study design, patients were indexed if they reported a diagnosis of T2DM during the index period...
February 15, 2019: Value in Health Regional Issues
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30776698/cerebrovascular-disease-burden-in-late-onset-non-lesional-focal-epilepsy
#5
Laura Abraira, Laura Ludovica Gramegna, Manuel Quintana, Estevo Santamarina, Javier Salas-Puig, Silvana Sarria, Alex Rovira, Manuel Toledo
PURPOSE: Late-onset non-lesional focal epilepsy, defined as new-onset seizures in patients older than 60 years, is diagnosed increasingly more often in relation to aging of the population. It has been attributed mainly to occult cerebral small vessel disease (SVD), although high levels of evidence to support this notion are lacking. This study aimed to evaluate the burden of leukoaraiosis, a marker of cerebral SVD, and hippocampal atrophy in patients with late-onset epilepsy (LOE). METHODS: Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies were retrospectively analyzed by two blinded radiologists...
February 8, 2019: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30776685/growth-and-differentiation-factor-15-is-a-biomarker-for-low-back-pain-associated-disability
#6
Nader Tarabeih, Adel Shalata, Svetlana Trofimov, Alexander Kalinkovich, Gregory Livshits
The development of low back pain (LBP) is often associated with obesity and sarcopenia. However, the mechanisms of this association remain unclear. To clarify this, we measured circulating levels of a selected panel of soluble factors, presumably involved in obesity and sarcopenia pathogenesis, and correlated them with several LBP-related characteristics, taking into account body composition and other relevant covariates. In the cross-sectional study of 1078 individuals, we collected data on self-reported LBP, body composition (including fat and skeletal muscle mass) assessed by the bioimpedance method and anthropometrically, and measured plasma levels of several cytokines by ELISA...
February 15, 2019: Cytokine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30776651/age-related-differences-in-neural-spectral-power-during-motor-learning
#7
Laura Milena Rueda-Delgado, Kirstin Friederike Heise, Andreas Daffertshofer, Dante Mantini, Stephan Patrick Swinnen
We investigated how older adults preserve the capability to acquire new motor skills in the face of age-related brain alterations. We assessed neural changes associated with learning a bimanual coordination task over 4 days of practice in healthy young (n = 24) and older adults (n = 24). The electroencephalogram was recorded during task performance at the start and end of training. Motor performance improved with practice in both groups, but the amount of learning was lower in the older adults. Beta power (15-30 Hz) in sensorimotor and prefrontal cortices of older adults was reduced with training, indicative of higher neural activity...
January 6, 2019: Neurobiology of Aging
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30776649/the-influence-of-tau-amyloid-alpha-synuclein-tdp-43-and-vascular-pathology-in-clinically-normal-elderly-individuals
#8
Alexandra M Wennberg, Jennifer L Whitwell, Nirubol Tosakulwong, Stephen D Weigand, Melissa E Murray, Mary M Machulda, Leonard Petrucelli, Michelle M Mielke, Clifford R Jack, David S Knopman, Joseph E Parisi, Ronald C Petersen, Dennis W Dickson, Keith A Josephs
Many individuals live to older ages without clinical impairment. It is unknown whether brain pathologies in these individuals are associated with subtle clinical deficits. We analyzed the brains of 161 clinically normal (Clinical Dementia Rating score = 0) older individuals enrolled in the Mayo Clinic Patient Registry or Study of Aging. We assessed for the presence and burden of beta-amyloid, tau, alpha-synuclein, TDP-43, and vascular pathology. We investigated whether pathologies were associated with antemortem cognitive and motor function, depression, MRI volumetric measures, or the apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 allele...
January 21, 2019: Neurobiology of Aging
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30776582/parental-age-and-the-risk-of-childhood-acute-myeloid-leukemia-results-from-the-childhood-leukemia-international-consortium
#9
Paraskevi Panagopoulou, Alkistis Skalkidou, Erin Marcotte, Friederike Erdmann, Xiaomei Ma, Julia E Heck, Anssi Auvinen, Beth A Mueller, Logan G Spector, Eve Roman, Catherine Metayer, Corrado Magnani, Maria S Pombo-de-Oliveira, Michael E Scheurer, Ana-Maria Mora, John D Dockerty, Johnni Hansen, Alice Y Kang, Rong Wang, David R Doody, Eleanor Kane, Joachim Schüz, Christos Christodoulakis, Evangelia Ntzani, Eleni Th Petridou
BACKGROUND: Parental age has been associated with several childhood cancers, albeit the evidence is still inconsistent. AIM: To examine the associations of parental age at birth with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) among children aged 0-14 years using individual-level data from the Childhood Leukemia International Consortium (CLIC) and non-CLIC studies. MATERIAL/METHODS: We analyzed data of 3182 incident AML cases and 8377 controls from 17 studies [seven registry-based case-control (RCC) studies and ten questionnaire-based case-control (QCC) studies]...
February 15, 2019: Cancer Epidemiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30776563/frailty-and-health-risks-in-an-agricultural-population-chile-2014-2017
#10
Natalia Bustamante-Ara, Luis Villarroel, Fabio Paredes, Andrea Huidobro, Catterina Ferreccio
BACKGROUND: Aging presents an emerging health and social challenge. We report the prevalence of frailty, its association with chronic diseases and the risk of hospitalization or death within 29 months. METHODS: Cross-sectional and prospective study. From 2014 to 2017, we examined frailty in an agricultural population in Chile. We enrolled 619 individuals aged 60-74 years from the Maule Cohort. Measured frailty prevalence, based the presence of ≥3 of the five factors (unintentional weight loss, weakness, slowness, self-reported exhaustion, low physical activity)...
February 10, 2019: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30776531/undergraduate-nursing-students-experiences-of-anxiety-producing-situations-in-clinical-practicums-a-descriptive-survey-study
#11
Angel H Wang, Charlotte T Lee, Sherry Espin
BACKGROUND: Clinical practicums are regarded as one of the most anxiety-producing aspects of the curriculum by nursing students. Practicum-associated anxiety has negative impacts on learning, performance, and well-being. Little is known about what makes final year nursing students anxious during their practicum experience and the impact of clinical and student characteristics on their level of anxiety. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of the study were (1) to explore which clinical situations final year nursing students perceive as anxiety-producing; (2) to identify if perceived level of anxiety associated with clinical tasks differ by clinical and student characteristics; and (3) to determine the relationship between clinical and student characteristics and perceived level of anxiety among nursing students...
February 6, 2019: Nurse Education Today
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30776517/low-cost-stereoscopic-recordings-of-neurological-surgery-operative-microscopy-for-anatomical-laboratory-training
#12
Ihsan Dogan, Omer Selcuk Sahin, Burak Ozaydin, Mustafa K Baskaya
OBJECTIVE: Stereoscopic video recordings of operative microscopy during neuroanatomical dissections are an important component of surgical training and research in well-financed medical schools and teaching hospitals. However, the high cost of the latest operative microscopes with integrated video recording equipment can be a limiting factor in their worldwide use. The aim of the present work is to provide a simple low-cost 3-dimensional (3D) stereoscopic operative microscope recording system that can be used even in economically and resource-limited locations...
February 15, 2019: World Neurosurgery
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30776395/measuring-eating-motives-in-older-adults-with-and-without-functional-impairments-with-the-eating-motivation-survey-tems
#13
Hanna M Rempe, Gudrun Sproesser, Anne Gingrich, Alexandra Spiegel, Thomas Skurk, Beate Brandl, Hans Hauner, Britta Renner, Dorothee Volkert, Cornel C Sieber, Ellen Freiberger, Eva Kiesswetter
Gaining a better understanding which motives play a role in daily eating is crucial in order to develop personalized interventions promoting adequate diet. The Eating Motivation Survey (TEMS) is a comprehensive tool to assess manifold reasons for eating but has not been specifically applied in an older sample including very old persons and persons differing in functional status. Therefore, the first step of the study was to investigate whether the basic motives of TEMS are consistent in an older sample and comparable across older adults with and without functional impairments...
February 15, 2019: Appetite
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30776379/smartphone-use-while-eating-increases-caloric-ingestion
#14
Renata Fiche da Mata Gonçalves, Danyela de Almeida Barreto, Pâmela Ione Monteiro, Márcio Gilberto Zangeronimo, Paula Midori Castelo, Andries van der Bilt, Luciano José Pereira
The use of smartphones during meals may possibly influence the number of ingested calories. We evaluated the influence of smartphones' distraction during eating on caloric intake. Physical (masticatory parameters, sex and body mass index - BMI); environmental (with or without distraction) and psychological (stress levels) variables were evaluated as confounding factors. Sixty-two adults were recruited for experimental snack tests performed on four different days. At baseline, we evaluated masticatory performance, swallowing threshold, masticatory frequency and body mass index (BMI)...
February 15, 2019: Physiology & Behavior
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30776305/management-of-childhood-obesity-an-audit-of-clinical-practice-in-secondary-care
#15
Gloria J Dainty, David M Reith, Barry J Taylor
AIM: Childhood obesity continues to be a major health issue for children world-wide, with well-recognised major health effects. This study evaluated the prevalence of obesity in children presenting to secondary care in Southern New Zealand, as well as their clinical management. METHODS: Obesity prevalence was determined by a review of data contained in the electronic anthropometry database in the region for the period 19 July 2010-16 July 2015. All clinical records were further examined using a standard data extraction form for 333 obese children regarding their clinical management...
February 18, 2019: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30776290/effect-of-titrating-positive-end-expiratory-pressure-peep-with-an-esophageal-pressure-guided-strategy-vs-an-empirical-high-peep-fio2-strategy-on-death-and-days-free-from-mechanical-ventilation-among-patients-with-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-a-randomized
#16
Jeremy R Beitler, Todd Sarge, Valerie M Banner-Goodspeed, Michelle N Gong, Deborah Cook, Victor Novack, Stephen H Loring, Daniel Talmor
Importance: Adjusting positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) to offset pleural pressure might attenuate lung injury and improve patient outcomes in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Objective: To determine whether PEEP titration guided by esophageal pressure (PES), an estimate of pleural pressure, was more effective than empirical high PEEP-fraction of inspired oxygen (Fio2) in moderate to severe ARDS. Design, Setting, and Participants: Phase 2 randomized clinical trial conducted at 14 hospitals in North America...
February 18, 2019: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30776161/age-specific-associations-between-estradiol-cortico-amygdalar-structural-covariance-verbal-and-spatial-skills
#17
Tuong-Vi Nguyen, Sherri Lee Jones, Patricia Gower, Jimin Lew, Matthew D Albaugh, Kelly N Botteron, James J Hudziak, Vladimir S Fonov, D Louis Collins, Benjamin C Campbell, Linda Booij, Catherine Herba, Patricia Monnier, Simon Ducharme, Deborah Waber, James T McCracken
Estradiol is known to play an important role in the developing human brain, but little is known on the entire network of potential regions which might be affected and on how these effects may vary from childhood to early adulthood, which in turn can explain sexually differentiated behaviors. Here we examined the relationship between estradiol, cortico-amygdalar structural covariance, and cognitive or behavioral measures typically showing sex differences (verbal/spatial skills, anxious-depressed symptomatology) in 152 children and adolescents (6-22 years old)...
February 18, 2019: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30776079/epidemiology-of-invasive-group-b-streptococcal-infections-among-nonpregnant-adults-in-the-united-states-2008-2016
#18
Louise K Francois Watkins, Lesley McGee, Stephanie J Schrag, Bernard Beall, Jennifer Hudson Jain, Tracy Pondo, Monica M Farley, Lee H Harrison, Shelley M Zansky, Joan Baumbach, Ruth Lynfield, Paula Snippes Vagnone, Lisa A Miller, William Schaffner, Ann R Thomas, James P Watt, Susan Petit, Gayle E Langley
Importance: Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is an important cause of invasive bacterial disease. Previous studies have shown a substantial and increasing burden of GBS infections among nonpregnant adults, particularly older adults and those with underlying medical conditions. Objective: To update trends of invasive GBS disease among US adults using population-based surveillance data. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this population-based surveillance study, a case was defined as isolation of GBS from a sterile site between January 1, 2008, and December 31, 2016...
February 18, 2019: JAMA Internal Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30776015/simultaneous-aerobic-exercise-and-memory-training-program-in-older-adults-with-subjective-memory-impairments
#19
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2019: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30776008/clinical-presentation-diagnostic-features-and-mortality-in-dementia-with-lewy-bodies
#20
Sinéad Moylett, Annabel Price, Rudolf N Cardinal, Dag Aarsland, Christoph Mueller, Rob Stewart, John T O'Brien
BACKGROUND: Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is the second most common degenerative dementia in older people. However, rates of misdiagnosis are high, and little is known of its natural history and outcomes. Very few previous studies have been able to access routine clinical information for large, unbiased DLB cohorts in order to establish initial presentation, neuropsychological profile, and mortality. OBJECTIVE: To examine in detail, symptom patterns at presentation and their association with outcomes, including mortality, in a large naturalistic DLB cohort from a secondary care sample...
2019: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
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