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Acute symptomatic seizures

Anna M Bank, Carl W Bazil
Seizure- and epilepsy-related complications are a common cause of emergency medical evaluation, accounting for 5% of 911 calls and 1% of emergency department visits. Emergency physicians and neurologists must be able to recognize and treat seizure- and epilepsy-related emergencies. This review describes the emergency evaluation and management of new onset seizures, breakthrough seizures in patients with known epilepsy, status epilepticus, acute symptomatic seizures, and acute adverse effects of antiepileptic drugs...
February 2019: Seminars in Neurology
Sara Dawit, Shubhang K Bhatt, Devika M Das, Andrew R Pines, Harn J Shiue, Brent P Goodman, Joseph F Drazkowski, Joseph I Sirven
Both variegate and acute intermittent porphyria can manifest with various neurological symptoms. Although acute symptomatic seizures have been previously described, they are typically tonic-clonic and focal impaired awareness seizures. Convulsive status epilepticus and epilepsia partialis continua are rare and have been described on a case report basis. To our knowledge, there are no previously reported cases describing non-convulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) with electroencephalogram (EEG) documentation in the setting of acute porphyria crisis...
2019: Epilepsy & Behavior Case Reports
Anna M Drazyk, Rhea Y Y Tan, Jonathan Tay, Matthew Traylor, Tilak Das, Hugh S Markus
Background and Purpose- Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is the most common monogenic form of stroke usually presenting with migraine with aura, lacunar infarcts, and cognitive impairment. Acute encephalopathy is a less recognized presentation of the disease. Methods- Data collected prospectively from 340 consecutively recruited symptomatic patients with diagnosis of CADASIL seen in a British National CADASIL clinic was retrospectively reviewed and original clinical records and imaging obtained...
January 14, 2019: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
Kristin Elf, Tommy Carlsson, Liliana Santeliz Rivas, Emma Widnersson, Lena Nyholm
BACKGROUND: Many patients with neurological insults requiring neurointensive care have an increased risk of acute symptomatic seizures. Various nursing interventions performed when caring for these patients may elicit pathological cerebral electrical activity including seizures and stimulus-induced rhythmic, periodic, or ictal discharges (SIRPIDs). The aim was to explore changes in electroencephalogram (EEG) due to neurointensive care nursing interventions. METHODS: A convenience sample was recruited between November 2015 and April 2016, consisting of 12 adult patients with impaired consciousness due to a neurosurgical condition...
February 2019: Journal of Neuroscience Nursing: Journal of the American Association of Neuroscience Nurses
Pabitra Hriday Patra, Melissa Barker-Haliski, H Steve White, Benjamin J Whalley, Sarah Glyn, Haramrit Sandhu, Nicholas Jones, Michael Bazelot, Claire M Williams, Alister James McNeish
OBJECTIVE: Epilepsy is a progressive neurological disease characterized by recurrent seizures and behavioral comorbidities. We investigated the antiseizure effect of cannabidiol (CBD) in a battery of acute seizure models. Additionally, we defined the disease-modifying potential of chronic oral administration of CBD on associated comorbidities in the reduced intensity status epilepticus-spontaneous recurrent seizures (RISE-SRS) model of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). METHODS: We evaluated the acute antiseizure effect of CBD in the maximal electroshock seizure, 6-Hz psychomotor seizure, and pentylenetetrazol acute seizure tests, as well as the corneal kindling model of chronic seizures in mice following intraperitoneal administration...
December 26, 2018: Epilepsia
Pedro Andrade, Ivette Banuelos-Cabrera, Niina Lapinlampi, Tomi Paananen, Robert Ciszek, Xavier Ekolle Ndode-Ekane, Asla Pitkanen
Severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) induces seizures or status epilepticus (SE) in 20%-30% of patients during the acute phase. We hypothesized that severe TBI induced with lateral fluid-percussion injury (FPI) triggers post-impact SE. Adult Sprague-Dawley male rats were anesthetized with isoflurane and randomized into sham-operated experimental control or lateral FPI-induced severe TBI groups. Electrodes were implanted right after impact or sham-operation, then video-electroencephalogram (EGG) monitoring was started...
December 13, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
Jian-Hua Chen, Xiang-Qin Zhou, Qiang Lu, Li-Ri Jin, Yan Huang
Background: Few studies have been published on new-onset geriatric epilepsy especially in older Chinese people. This study was to have a comprehensive understanding of new-onset geriatric epilepsy and find a more reasonable diagnosis and management of epilepsy in older people. Methods: One hundred and three patients with onset age 60 years and older were admitted between January 2008 and December 2016. Electronic medical records were reviewed to collect information...
December 20, 2018: Chinese Medical Journal
Ruzica Kravljanac, Nebojsa Jovic, Biljana Vucetic Tadic, Djordje Kravljanac, Tatjana Pekmezovic
PURPOSE: Evaluation of the etiology, clinical characteristics and outcome of the first status epilepticus (fSE) event in children. METHOD: The patients with fSE hospitalized in our Institute from 1995 to 2011 were included. The etiology was characterized as either known (symptomatic) or unknown (cryptogenic). Outcome was assessed at the end of hospitalization. Logistic regression analyses were used to assess predictors of the outcome, with odds ratio adjusted by age as a measure effect...
May 21, 2018: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
Prannoy George Mathen, T P Sreekrishnan, K P Gireesh Kumar, Naveen Mohan
Camphor is a toxic compound easily available over the counter, which can cause fatal seizures in children when ingested. It is available in several forms and is commonly used in Indian households, especially for religious rituals and for its cough-suppressive and nasal-decongestant effect. The toxic effect remains unknown in most homes. Seizures are usually well controlled with intravenous benzodiazepines, and recurrences of seizures are rarely reported.
July 2018: Journal of Emergencies, Trauma, and Shock
Frances Alexandria Kavanagh, Paul Anthony Heaton, Anna Cannon, Siba Prosad Paul
Febrile convulsions (FCs) are characterised by convulsions associated with fever in children aged between 6 months and 6 years. FCs are relatively common and affect 3-4% of children in western countries. This is the most common seizure disorder seen in children. The cause of febrile illness in FC is usually benign and most frequently due to acute viral infection. Convulsions secondary to an intracranial infection (e.g. meningitis, encephalitis) or from acute electrolyte imbalance should not be labelled as FCs...
November 8, 2018: British Journal of Nursing: BJN
Masaya Togo, Takefumi Hitomi, Tomohiko Murai, Hajime Yoshimura, Masao Matsuhashi, Riki Matsumoto, Michi Kawamoto, Nobuo Kohara, Ryosuke Takahashi, Akio Ikeda
OBJECTIVE: Slow wave with frequency <0.5 Hz are recorded in various situations such as normal sleep, epileptic seizures. However, its clinical significance has not been fully clarified. Although infra-slow activity was recently defined as activity between 0.01 and 0.1 Hz, we focus on the activity recorded with time constant of 2 seconds for practical usage. We defined short "infraslow" activity (SISA) less than 0.5 Hz recorded with time constant of 2 seconds and investigated the occurrence and clinical significance of SISA in acute anoxic encephalopathy...
November 2018: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
Shavonne L Massey, Haochang Shou, Robert Clancy, Marissa DiGiovine, Mark P Fitzgerald, France W Fung, John Farrar, Nicholas S Abend
PURPOSE: Many neonates undergo electroencephalogram (EEG) monitoring to identify and manage acute symptomatic seizures. Information about brain function contained in the EEG background data may also help predict neurobehavioral outcomes. For EEG background features to be useful as prognostic indicators, the interpretation of these features must be standardized across electroencephalographers. We aimed at determining the interrater and intrarater agreement among electroencephalographers interpreting neonatal EEG background patterns...
October 31, 2018: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
Carlotta Spagnoli, Raffaele Falsaperla, Michela Deolmi, Giovanni Corsello, Francesco Pisani
Neonatal seizures are the most common neurological event in newborns, showing higher prevalence in preterm than in full-term infants. In the majority of cases they represent acute symptomatic phenomena, the main etiologies being intraventricular haemorrhage, hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, central nervous system infections and transient metabolic derangements.Current definition of neonatal seizures requires detection of paroxysmal EEG-changes, and in preterm newborns the incidence of electrographic-only seizures seems to be particularly high, further stressing the crucial role of electroencephalogram monitoring in this population...
November 1, 2018: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
Rodney Ogwang, Ronald Anguzu, Pamela Akun, Albert Ningwa, Edward Kayongo, Kevin Marsh, Charles R J C Newton, Richard Idro
OBJECTIVE: Plasmodium falciparum is epileptogenic and in malaria endemic areas, is a leading cause of acute seizures. In these areas, asymptomatic infections are common but considered benign and so, are not treated. The effects of such infections on seizures in patients with epilepsy is unknown. This study examined the relationship between P. falciparum infection and seizure control in children with a unique epilepsy type, the nodding syndrome. DESIGN: This cross-sectional study was nested in an ongoing trial 'Doxycycline for the treatment of nodding syndrome (NCT02850913)'...
October 18, 2018: BMJ Open
Angelos M Katramados, Lotfi Hacein-Bey, Panayiotis N Varelas
The most feared complication after acute ischemic stroke is symptomatic or asymptomatic hemorrhagic conversion. Neuroimaging and clinical criteria are used to predict development of hemorrhage. Seizures after acute ischemic stroke or stroke-like symptoms from seizures are not common but may lead to confusion in the peristroke period, especially if seizures are repetitive or evolve into status epilepticus, which could affect neuroimaging findings. Malignant infarction develops when cytotoxic edema is large enough to lead to herniation and death...
November 2018: Neuroimaging Clinics of North America
Kevin Gurcharran, Zachary M Grinspan
PURPOSE: To summarize the epidemiology, morbidity, mortality, and costs of status epilepticus (SE) in the pediatric population. METHOD: Review of the medical literature. RESULTS: The overall incidence of pediatric SE is roughly 20 per 100,000 children per year, with overall mortality of 3%. Underlying etiology is the biggest risk factor for SE, with symptomatic (acute > remote) etiologies associated with worse outcomes. The most common cause of SE in children is febrile SE, though this entity occurs primarily in early childhood...
August 29, 2018: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
Bernd J Vorderwülbecke, Gregor Lichtner, Falk von Dincklage, Martin Holtkamp
BACKGROUND: In intensive care units (ICUs), antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are used for manifold indications. This is the first study to assess the prevalence of acute AED use in ICUs and to identify associated clinical variables. METHODS: All patients in seven adult ICUs of a German university hospital in 2016 were retrospectively evaluated. Data were extracted from the computerized critical care information system and manually reviewed. Acute AED treatments were defined as initiated during ICU treatment or ≤ 6 h before ICU admission, excluding benzodiazepines and sedatives...
December 2018: Journal of Neurology
Mauricio López-Espejo, Marta Hernández-Chávez, Isidro Huete
BACKGROUND: There are few studies evaluating risk factors for poststroke epilepsy (PSE) after an arterial ischemic stroke (AIS) in childhood. This study aimed to evaluate clinical and radiological predictors for PSE in a cohort of children with a first-ever AIS. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of a single-center prospective consecutive cohort of children beyond neonatal age with a first-ever AIS admitted at the Pontifical Catholic University of Chile's Clinical Hospital between 2003 and 2013...
November 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Jafar Mehvari Habibabadi, Mohammad Saadatnia, Nasim Tabrizi
Many conflicting issues exist about seizure in the setting of cerebral venous and sinus thrombosis (CVST). In this article we aimed to address the existing data regarding incidence, characteristics, predictors, treatment, and prognosis of acute and late seizures in patients with CVST and to prepare more practical information for clinicians. PubMed, Embase, Web of science and Cochrane databases were searched within 1966-2016 using relevant keywords. A total of 63 papers met the inclusion criteria. Seizures are classified as acute symptomatic seizures (ASS; first 14 days) and post-CVST epilepsy (PCE; after 14 days)...
September 2018: Epilepsia Open
Chinmay Nagesh, Savith Kumar, Ramshekhar Menon, Bejoy Thomas, Ashalatha Radhakrishnan, Chandrasekharan Kesavadas
Accurate identification of the epileptogenic zone is an important prerequisite in presurgical evaluation of refractory epilepsy since it affects seizure-free outcomes. Apart from structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI), delineation has been traditionally done with electroencephalography and nuclear imaging modalities. Arterial spin labelling (ASL) sequence is a non-contrast magnetic resonance perfusion technique capable of providing similar information. Similar to single-photon emission computed tomography, its utility in epilepsy is based on alterations in perfusion linked to seizure activity by neurovascular coupling...
September 2018: Korean Journal of Radiology: Official Journal of the Korean Radiological Society
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