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Fat deposition

Xiaopeng Mu, Xiaoyan Cui, Ranran Liu, Qinghe Li, Maiqing Zheng, Guiping Zhao, Changrong Ge, Jie Wen, Yaodong Hu, Huanxian Cui
Ovariectomy results in improved meat quality (growth rate, tenderness, and flavor) of broilers. However, some negative effects increased (abdominal fat (AF) deposition, low feed conversion, etc.) have also been reported. In this study, the gene expression profiles of AF tissue in ovariectomized and sham-operated chickens were determined to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and pathways to explore the molecular mechanisms underlying AF accumulation. Comparing the ovariectomized group and the sham-operated group, the abdominal fat weight (AFW) and abdominal fat percentage (AFP) were increased significantly ( p < 0...
February 18, 2019: Genes
Yueyue Lei, Leilei Gong, Fanggen Tan, Yixiao Liu, Shuangshuang Li, Houwang Shen, Min Zhu, Weiwei Cai, Fei Xu, Bao Hou, Yuetao Zhou, Hongxiu Han, Liying Qiu, Haijian Sun
Destructive glucose and lipid metabolism in the liver is a crucial characteristic of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), eventually leading to insulin resistance and subsequent hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia. Vaccarin is an active flavonoid glycoside associated with various biological functions, but its effects on glucose and lipid metabolic disorder in T2DM are still unclear. In this study, glucosamine (GlcN) and free fatty acids (FFAs, oleate/palmitate, 2:1 ratio) were applied to mimic insulin resistance and lipid deposition in HepG2 cells, respectively...
February 16, 2019: European Journal of Pharmacology
Pulavendran Sivasami, Nabin Poudel, Maria Cristina Munteanu, Joanna Hudson, Pamela Lovern, Lin Liu, Tim Griffin, Myron E Hinsdale
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The cellular and extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions that regulate adipose tissue homeostasis are incompletely understood. Proteoglycans (PGs) and their sulfated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) provide spatial and temporal signals for ECM organization and interactions with resident cells by impacting growth factor and cytokine activity. Therefore, PGs and their GAGs could be significant to adipose tissue homeostasis. The purpose of this study was to determine the role of ECM sulfated GAGs in adipose tissue homeostasis...
February 18, 2019: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
L Huang, S Tepaamorndech, C P Kirschke, Y Cai, J Zhao, Xiaohan Cao, Andrew Rao
BACKGROUND: A genome-wide mapping study using male F2 zinc transporter 7-knockout mice (znt7-KO) and their wild type littermates in a mixed 129P1/ReJ (129P1) and C57BL/6J (B6) background identified a quantitative trait locus (QTL) on chromosome 7, which had a synergistic effect on body weight gain and fat deposit with the znt7-null mutation. RESULTS: The genetic segment for body weight on mouse chromosome 7 was investigated by newly created subcongenic znt7-KO mouse strains carrying different lengths of genomic segments of chromosome 7 from the 129P1 donor strain in the B6 background...
February 18, 2019: BMC Genetics
Biswapriya Biswavas Misra, Ruiz-Hernández Ixchel Mariel, Hernández-Bolio Gloria Ivonne, Hernández-Núñez Emanuel, Díaz-Gamboa Raúl, Colli-Dula Reyna Cristina
The common bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) is a carnivorous cetacean thriving in marine environment that is one of the apex predators of the marine food web. They are found in coastal and estuarine ecosystems which are known to be sensitive to environmental impacts. Dolphins are considered sentinel organisms for monitoring the health of coastal marine ecosystems in their role as predators that can bioaccumulate contaminants. Although recent studies have focused on capturing the circulating metabolomes of these mammals, as well as in the context of pollutants and exposures in the marine environment, the skin and blubber are important surface and protective organs that have not been probed for metabolism...
February 10, 2019: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part D, Genomics & Proteomics
Xiang Tao, Yuting Hu, Li Li, Rui Xu, Jing Fu, Qiangsong Tong, Qin Fu
β2 Adrenergic receptors (β2 ARs) are G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that are expressed in major insulin target tissues. β2 ARs play an important role in the regulation of lipid metabolism during aging; however, little is known about the significance of β2 ARs in the pathogenesis of hepatic fat accumulation in high-fat diet (HFD) mice. This study aims to examine the role of β2 AR in the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) induced by HFD and the underlying mechanisms. Surprisingly, we found that genetic deletion of β2 AR significantly increased the liver weight of mice fed a HFD for 20 weeks compared to that of wild-type (WT) mice...
February 12, 2019: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Kawita Chumphoochai, Pawanrat Chalorak, Worawit Suphamungmee, Prasert Sobhon, Krai Meemon
BACKGROUND: Saponins have been showed to possess many pharmacological properties including altered fat metabolism. The black sea cucumber, Holothuria leucospilota, is a marine animal that contains a specialized organ called cuvierian tubules that produce and secrete the bioactive saponins into the tubules and body wall. Therefore, the aims of this study are to investigate the anti-obesity effect of saponins extracted from body wall and cuvierian tubules of H. leucospilota. RESULTS: The butanol extracts of H...
February 14, 2019: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Quan Zhuang, Ruoyu Ma, Yanshuang Yin, Tianhao Lan, Meng Yu, Yingzi Ming
Renal fibrosis, as the fundamental pathological process of chronic kidney disease (CKD), is a pathologic extension of the normal wound healing process characterized by endothelium injury, myofibroblast activation, macrophage migration, inflammatory signaling stimulation, matrix deposition, and remodelling. Yet, the current method of treating renal fibrosis is fairly limited, including angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition, angiotensin receptor blockade, optimal blood pressure control, and sodium bicarbonate for metabolic acidosis...
2019: Stem Cells International
R N Pena, J L Noguera, M J García-Santana, E González, J F Tejeda, R Ros-Freixedes, N Ibáñez-Escriche
The adipogenic nature of the Iberian pig defines many quality attributes of its fresh meat and dry-cured products. The distinct varieties of Iberian pig exhibit great variability in the genetic parameters for fat deposition and composition in muscle. The aim of this work is to identify common and distinct genomic regions related to fatty acid composition in Retinto, Torbiscal, and Entrepelado Iberian varieties and their reciprocal crosses through a diallelic experiment. In this study, we performed GWAS using a high density SNP array on 382 pigs with the multimarker regression Bayes B method implemented in GenSel...
February 14, 2019: Scientific Reports
Qing Zhu, Yong-Yi Zhu, Wei-Ning Wang
High fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity is associated with insulin resistance (IR) and other chronic, diet associated illnesses, including neuroinflammation and brain injury. However, the involvement of inflammatory response in HFD-elicited central nerve injury has yet to be fully determined. Recent studies have indicated that tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated ubiquitous scaffolding and signaling protein (TRUSS), also known as TRPC4AP, plays an essential role in regulating inflammation via the meditation of NF-κB signaling...
February 11, 2019: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Shudai Lin, Zihao Zhang, Tingting Xie, Bowen Hu, Zhuohao Ruan, Li Zhang, Congjun Li, Charles Li, Wen Luo, Qinghua Nie, Xiquan Zhang
Natural antisense transcripts (NATs) are widely present in mammalian genomes and act as pivotal regulator molecules of gene expression. However, studies on NATs in the chicken are relatively rare. We identified a novel antisense transcript in the chicken, designated GHR-AS-EST, transcribed from the growth hormone receptor (GHR) locus, which encodes a well-known regulatory molecule of muscle development and fat deposition. GHR-AS-EST is predominantly expressed in the chicken liver and muscle tissues. GHR-AS-EST sequence conservation among vertebrates is weak...
February 14, 2019: RNA Biology
Mohamed Bekheit, Petru O Bucur, Chloe Audebert, Elodie Miquelestorena-Standley, Irene Vignon-Clementel, Eric Vibert
BACKGROUND: The hepatic volume gain following resection is essential for clinical recovery. Previous studies have focused on cellular regeneration. This study aims to explore the rate of hepatic regeneration of the porcine liver following major resection, highlighting estimates of the early microarchitectural changes that occur during the cellular regeneration. METHODS: Nineteen large white pigs had 75% resection with serial measurements of the hepatic volume, density, blood flow, and architectural changes...
February 13, 2019: European Surgical Research. Europäische Chirurgische Forschung. Recherches Chirurgicales Européennes
David Højland Ipsen, Josephine Skat-Rørdam, Maria Malvina Tsamouri, Markus Latta, Jens Lykkesfeldt, Pernille Tveden-Nyborg
Hepatic fibrosis increases mortality in humans with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), but it remains unclear how fibrosis stage and progression affect the pathogenic mechanisms of NASH. This study investigates the transcriptional regulation and the impact of fibrosis stage, of pathways relating to hepatic lipid and cholesterol homeostasis, inflammation and fibrosis using RT-qPCR in the guinea pig NASH model. Animals were fed a chow (4% fat), a high-fat (20% fat, 0.35% cholesterol) or high-fat/high-sucrose (20% fat, 15% sucrose, 0...
February 13, 2019: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
Lucía De la Cruz-Color, Zamira Helena Hernández-Nazará, Montserrat Maldonado-González, Eliseo Navarro-Muñíz, José Alfredo Domínguez-Rosales, José Rodrigo Torres-Baranda, Elizabeth Del Carmen Ruelas-Cinco, Sandra Margarita Ramírez-Meza, Bertha Ruíz-Madrigal
The expansion of adipose tissue is regulated by insulin and leptin through SREBP-1c, up-regulating lipogenesis in tissues by SCD1 enzyme, while ATGL enzyme is key in lipolysis. THE RESEARCH OBJECTIVE WAS TO EVALUATE THE EXPRESSION OF SREBF1, SCD1, PNPLA2, AND LEP GENES IN HEPATIC-ADIPOSE TISSUE, AND RELATED THEM WITH THE INCREMENT AND DISTRIBUTION OF FAT DEPOTS OF INDIVIDUALS WITHOUT INSULIN RESISTANCE.: Thirty-eight subjects undergoing elective cholecystectomy with liver and adipose tissue biopsies (subcutaneous-omental) are included...
February 12, 2019: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
D L Tian, R J Guo, Y M Li, P P Chen, B B Zi, J J Wang, R F Liu, Y N Min, Z P Wang, Z Y Niu, F Z Liu
This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of lysine deficiency or excess on growth and the expression of lipid metabolism genes in slow-growing birds. A total of 360 one-day-old chicks were randomly divided into 3 groups, with 6 replicates of 20 birds each. The birds fed the basal diet with a total lysine 0.60% (LL), 1.00% (ML), or 1.40% (HL). The amount of lysine (ML) as the control group, LL and HL as the experimental group, the trial period last 3 wk. The results showed that compared with ML, LL significantly decreased average daily gain and average daily feed intake and remarkably increased feed conversion ratio of birds at 21 day old (P < 0...
February 9, 2019: Poultry Science
Honglin Yan, Shanchuan Cao, Yan Li, Hongfu Zhang, Jingbo Liu
PURPOSE: The present study was conducted to determine whether reduced meal frequency (MF) could restore high-fat diet (HFD)-modified phenotypes and microbiota under the condition of fixed feed allowance. METHODS: A total of 32 barrows with initial weight of 61.6 ± 0.8 kg were assigned to two diets [control diet (CON) versus HFD] and two meal frequencies [12 equal meals/day (M12) versus 2 equal meals/day (M2)], the trial lasted 8 weeks. The lipid metabolism and inflammatory response in adipose tissue as well as the profiles of intestinal microbiota and bacterial-derived metabolites were determined...
February 12, 2019: European Journal of Nutrition
Elisa Mariana García, Agustín López, María Zimerman, Olegario Hernández, José Ignacio Arroquy, Mónica Azucena Nazareno
Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary incorporation of tannin-rich woody species on meat oxidative stability, carcass traits and meat quality in goats. Methods: Two tannin-rich species were tested using a three-treatments feeding trial, where treatments consisted of: Larrea divaricata and Acacia aroma both at 12.5% in dry matter basis of the diet and a control diet (alfalfa hay). All feeding diets were iso-protein and iso-energy...
January 3, 2019: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Hu Liu, Yifan Chen, Zhongchao Li, Yakui Li, Changhua Lai, Xiangshu Piao, Jaap Milgen, Fenglai Wang
Objective: Feed energy required for pigs is first prioritized to meet maintenance costs. Additional energy intake in excess of the energy requirement for maintenance is retained as protein and fat in the body, leading to weight gain. The objective of this study was to estimate the ME requirements for maintenance (MEm) by regressing body weight gain against ME intake (MEI) in growing pigs. Methods: Thirty-six growing pigs (26.3 ± 1.7 kg) were allotted to 1 of 6 treatments with 6 replicates per treatment in a randomized complete block design...
February 7, 2019: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Zhong Xu, Hao Sun, Zhe Zhang, Cheng-Yue Zhang, Qing-Bo Zhao, Qian Xiao, Babatunde Shittu Olasege, Pei-Pei Ma, Xiang-Zhe Zhang, Qi-Shan Wang, Yu-Chun Pan
Background: Porcine respiratory disease is one of the most important health problems which causes significant economic losses. Objective: To understand the genetic basis for susceptibility to swine enzootic pneumonia (EP) in pigs, we detected 102,809 SNPs in a total of 249 individuals based on genome-wide sequencing data. Methods: Genome comparison of three susceptibility to swine EP pig breeds (Jinhua, Erhualian and Meishan) with two western lines that are considered more resistant (Duroc and Landrace) using XP-EHH and FST statistical approaches identified 691 positively selected genes...
February 7, 2019: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Caihong Zhu, Zhihao Li, Bei Li, Manuela Pfammatter, Simone Hornemann, Adriano Aguzzi
Progression of prion diseases is driven by the accumulation of prions in the brain. Ablation of microglia or deletion of the eat-me-signal, milk-fat globule epidermal growth factor VIII (Mfge8), accelerates prion pathogenesis, suggesting that microglia defend the brain by phagocytosing prions. Similar to Mfge8, developmental endothelial locus-1 (Del-1) is a secreted protein that acts as an opsonin bridging phagocytes and apoptotic cells to facilitate phagocytosis. We therefore asked whether Del-1 might play a role in controlling prion pathogenesis...
January 11, 2019: Neurobiology of Aging
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