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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30759497/human-factors-influencing-out-of-hospital-cardiac-arrest-survival
#1
Dominic P Morgan, David Muscatello, Andrew Hayen, Joanne Travaglia
OBJECTIVE: Programmes that reduce the time to defibrillation are likely to improve overall survival rates from out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCAs). This research sought to identify human factors common among community responders taking an automated external defibrillator (AED) to a victim of an OHCA that are either barriers or enablers of desired behaviour. METHODS: A qualitative methodology was used. Community members who had access to an AED and who had been notified of an incident of OHCA near them were approached to participate in the research...
February 13, 2019: Emergency Medicine Australasia: EMA
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30758331/context-and-topography-determine-the-role-of-basolateral-amygdala-metabotropic-glutamate-receptor-5-in-appetitive-pavlovian-responding
#2
Shaun Yon-Seng Khoo, Mandy Rita LeCocq, Ghislaine E Deyab, Nadia Chaudhri
Preclinical data have shown that the excitatory metabotropic Gαq -coupled glutamate receptor, mGluR5, has a role in substance abuse and relapse. However, little is known about the contribution of mGluR5 to the expression of conditioned responding elicited by appetitive Pavlovian cues. We investigated this question in rats that were trained to associate a discrete, auditory conditioned stimulus (CS) with a fructose-glucose solution (5.5% fructose/4.5% glucose; "sugar"). In subsequent tests for the expression of conditioned responding without sugar delivery, CS-elicited fluid port entries were elevated in a context associated with sugar, relative to an equally familiar, neutral context...
February 8, 2019: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30758138/rechallenge-of-targeted-therapy-in-metastatic-melanoma
#3
REVIEW
Robin Reschke, Jan-Christoph Simon, Mirjana Ziemer
Rechallenge of targeted therapy in patients with BRAFV600 -mutated melanoma plays an important role, because of the prolonged overall survival of melanoma patients. Patients may be rechallenged after a drug-free interval following adverse drug reactions, after radiation therapy or surgery, following disease progression on subsequent immunotherapy or chemotherapy, or after disease progression without interim therapeutic intervention. To date, only few data has been published on treatment outcomes associated with rechallenge...
February 13, 2019: Journal der Deutschen Dermatologischen Gesellschaft, Journal of the German Society of Dermatology: JDDG
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30755767/assessing-the-risk-factors-for-refractory-eosinophilic-esophagitis-in-children-and-adults
#4
Erminia Ridolo, Irene Martignago, Irene Pellicelli, Cristoforo Incorvaia
Background: Up to one-third of the patients suffering from eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) present a refractory form, as defined by nonresponsiveness in clinical, endoscopic, or histological assessment after first-line therapy. Several studies recently investigated which factors can influence the development of this disease, but very few analyzed the factors underlying refractory EoE. Methods: Medical charts of patients affected by EoE were retrospectively evaluated...
2019: Gastroenterology Research and Practice
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30755192/breast-cancer-knowledge-perceptions-and-practices-in-a-rural-community-in-coastal-kenya
#5
Shahin Sayed, Anthony K Ngugi, Megan R Mahoney, Jaameeta Kurji, Zohray M Talib, Sarah B Macfarlane, Theresa A Wynn, Mansoor Saleh, Amyn Lakhani, Esther Nderitu, Felix Agoi, Zul Premji, Jo Anne Zujewski, Zahir Moloo
BACKGROUND: Data on breast healthcare knowledge, perceptions and practice among women in rural Kenya is limited. Furthermore, the role of the male head of household in influencing a woman's breast health seeking behavior is also not known. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge, perceptions and practice of breast cancer among women, male heads of households, opinion leaders and healthcare providers within a rural community in Kenya. Our secondary objective was to explore the role of male heads of households in influencing a woman's breast health seeking behavior...
February 12, 2019: BMC Public Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30755181/first-experience-with-tolvaptan-for-the-treatment-of-neonates-and-infants-with-capillary-leak-syndrome-after-cardiac-surgery
#6
Anne Kerling, Okan Toka, André Rüffer, Hanna Müller, Sheeraz Habash, Christel Weiss, Sven Dittrich, Julia Moosmann
BACKGROUND: Postoperative fluid management in critically ill neonates and infants with capillary leak syndrome (CLS) and extensive volume overload after cardiac surgery on cardiopulmonary bypass is challenging. CLS is often resistant to conventional diuretic therapy, aggravating the course of weaning from invasive ventilation, increasing length of stay on ICU and morbidity and mortality. METHODS: Tolvaptan (TLV, vasopressin type 2 receptor antagonist) was used as an additive diuretic in neonates and infants with CLS after cardiac surgery...
February 12, 2019: BMC Pediatrics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30755131/establishing-sanctioned-safe-consumption-sites-in-the-united-states-five-jurisdictions-moving-the-policy-agenda-forward
#7
Alene Kennedy-Hendricks, Jenna Bluestein, Alex H Kral, Colleen L Barry, Susan G Sherman
OBJECTIVE: Safe consumption sites enable use of preobtained drugs in hygienic settings where trained staff are available to respond to overdoses and connect individuals with health and social services. This study examined efforts to advance policies to establish safe consumption sites in the United States, where no sanctioned sites exist. METHODS: Between April and July 2018, the authors conducted 25 telephone interviews with a purposive sample of key informants in five communities considering safe consumption site implementation...
February 13, 2019: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30755016/predictors-of-response-to-exercise-training-in-patients-with-coronary-artery-disease-a-subanalysis-of-the-saintex-cad-study
#8
Isabel Witvrouwen, Nele Pattyn, Andreas B Gevaert, Nadine Possemiers, Amaryllis H Van Craenenbroeck, Veronique A Cornelissen, Paul J Beckers, Luc Vanhees, Emeline M Van Craenenbroeck
Exercise training improves peak oxygen uptake, an important predictor of mortality in coronary artery disease patients. The influence of clinical and disease characteristics on training response is not well established in coronary artery disease. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate whether baseline cardiovascular disease variables and training intensity can predict the maximal aerobic response to exercise training. The Study on Aerobic INTerval EXercise training in coronary artery disease patients (SAINTEX-CAD) previously showed that 12 weeks of aerobic interval training and continuous training equally improved peak oxygen uptake in coronary artery disease patients...
February 12, 2019: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30754672/honey-mediated-wound-healing-h%C3%A2-o%C3%A2-entry-through-aqp3-determines-extracellular-ca-2-influx
#9
Simona Martinotti, Umberto Laforenza, Mauro Patrone, Francesco Moccia, Elia Ranzato
Since Biblical times, honey has been utilized in "folk medicine", and in recent decades the positive qualities of honey have been re-discovered and are gaining acceptance. Scientific literature states that honey has been successfully utilized on infections not responding to classic antiseptic and antibiotic therapy, because of its intrinsic H₂O₂ production. In our study, we demonstrated the involvement of H₂O₂ as a main mediator of honey regenerative effects on an immortalized human keratinocyte cell line...
February 11, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30753769/psychopathology-and-self-harm-among-incoming-first-year-students-in-six-mexican-universities
#10
Corina Benjet, Raúl A Gutiérrez-García, Adrián Abrego-Ramírez, Guilherme Borges, Anabell Covarrubias-Díaz, Ma Del Socorro Durán, Rogaciano González-González, Alicia E Hermosillo-de la Torre, Kalina I Martínez-Martínez, María Elena Medina-Mora, Humberto Mejía-Zarazúa, Gustavo Pérez-Tarango, María Alicia Zavala-Berbena, Philippe Mortier
OBJECTIVE: To estimate psychopathology and self-harm behavior of incoming first-year college students, sociodemographic correlates, service use and willingness to seek treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 4 189 male and female incoming first-year students of six universities in four different states of Mexico responded to an online survey with a 79.3% response rate. RESULTS: Almost one in three incoming students has experienced some type of psychopathology; however, only one in five has received treatment...
2019: Salud Pública de México
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30753306/a-regression-tree-for-identifying-risk-factors-for-fear-of-falling-the-international-mobility-in-aging-study-imias
#11
Carmen-Lucia Curcio, Yan Yan Wu, Afshin Vafaei, Juliana Fernandez de Souza Barbosa, Ricardo Guerra, Jack Guralnik, Fernando Gomez
Background: We determine the best combination of factors for predicting the risk of developing fear of falling (FOF) in older people via Classification Regression Tree (CaRT) analysis. Methods: Community-dwelling older adults living in Canada, Albania, Brazil, and Colombia were from International Mobility in Aging Study (IMIAS). In 2014, 1,725 participants (aged 65-74) were assessed. With a retention rate of 81%, in 2016, 1,409 individuals were reassessed. Risk factors for FOF were entered into the CaRT: age, sex, education, self-rated health, comorbidity, medication, visual impairment, frailty, cognitive deficit, depression, fall history, Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB), walking aid use, and mobility disability measured by the Nagi questionnaire...
February 8, 2019: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30748134/-the-attitude-of-physicians-of-donor-bases-to-problems-of-transplantation-of-human-organs-and-tissues
#12
S V Romanov, O Yu Alexandrova, O P Abaieva, G Yu Smirnova
The article considers social aspects of transplantology on the basis of analysis of data of questionnaire survey of 266 physicians of donor bases of the Federal Center implementing transplantation of human organs and tissues. The respondents were representatives of the most prevalent medical professions and ll age gender groups. According to study results, physicians are aware of importance of development of organs and tissues transplantation in the region though take a very passive standing related to informing transplantation specialists about availability of a potential donor...
November 2018: Problemy Sot︠s︡ialʹnoĭ Gigieny, Zdravookhranenii︠a︡ i Istorii Medit︠s︡iny
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30746636/the-effect-of-chemotherapy-on-subjective-cognitive-function-in-younger-early-stage-breast-cancer-survivors-treated-with-chemotherapy-compared-to-older-patients
#13
M L Gregorowitsch, A Ghedri, D A Young-Afat, R Bijlsma, I O Baas, C van Schaik-van de Mheen, M J Agterof, E Göker, D Ten Bokkel Huinink, H J G D van den Bongard, H M Verkooijen
PURPOSE: To evaluate the impact of chemotherapy on subjective cognitive functioning according to age in a large cohort of breast cancer patients. METHODS: Within the UMBRELLA cohort, 715 patients with early-stage primary invasive breast cancer (T1-3N0-1M0) were selected. Subjective cognitive function was assessed by means of the EORTC QLQ-C30 up to 24 months and compared between patients treated with and without chemotherapy, for three different age strata (355 patients < 55 years, 240 patients aged 55-65 years, and 120 patients > 65 years)...
February 12, 2019: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30745925/effects-of-the-first-phase-of-cardiac-rehabilitation-training-on-self-efficacy-among-patients-undergoing-coronary-artery-bypass-graft-surgery
#14
Seyed Reza Borzou, Sasan Amiri, Mohsen Salavati, Ali Reza Soltanian, Gholamreza Safarpoor
Background: Heart surgery is vital for patients with coronary artery diseases that do not respond to drug treatments. We aimed to determine the effects of the implementation of the first phase of a cardiac rehabilitation program on self-efficacy in patients after coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG). Methods: This clinical trial study was conducted on 60 post-CABG patients by convenience sampling method in 2016. Those selected were randomly assigned to intervention (n=30) and control group (n=30). Overall, 72 hours after CABG, the first phase of the cardiac rehabilitation program both in theory and in practice (face-to-face and group methods) was conducted...
July 2018: Journal of Tehran Heart Center
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30745876/emergent-prophylactic-reparative-and-restorative-brain-interventions-for-infants-born-preterm-with-cerebral-palsy
#15
REVIEW
Megan Finch-Edmondson, Catherine Morgan, Rod W Hunt, Iona Novak
Worldwide, an estimated 15 million babies are born preterm (<37 weeks' gestation) every year. Despite significant improvements in survival rates, preterm infants often face a lifetime of neurodevelopmental disability including cognitive, behavioral, and motor impairments. Indeed, prematurity remains the largest risk factor for the development of cerebral palsy. The developing brain of the preterm infant is particularly fragile; preterm babies exhibit varying severities of cerebral palsy arising from reductions in both cerebral white and gray matter volumes, as well as altered brain microstructure and connectivity...
2019: Frontiers in Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30745833/hypoxia-elevated-circelp3-contributes-to-bladder-cancer-progression-and-cisplatin-resistance
#16
Yinjie Su, Weiping Yang, Ning Jiang, Juanyi Shi, Luping Chen, Guangzheng Zhong, Junming Bi, Wei Dong, Qiong Wang, Chunhui Wang, Tianxin Lin
Hypoxia plays a critical role in cancer biology. It induces genomic instability, which in turn helps cancer cells respond adaptively to meet the needs of carcinogenesis, cancer progression and relapse. Circular RNA has not been reported among the variety of downstream factors in this adaptive response. Although a few studies have demonstrated the important role of circular RNAs in driving human bladder cancer progression, their carcinogenic roles are still under investigated. Here, we identified a hypoxia-elevated circular RNA, circELP3, that contributes to bladder cancer progression and cisplatin resistance...
2019: International Journal of Biological Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30745677/antipsychotic-augmentation-in-the-treatment-of-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#17
REVIEW
Abel Thamby, T S Jaisoorya
Most studies suggest that obsessive-compulsive disorder runs a chronic course. Only 40%-70% of patients respond to first-line treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). The most common pharmacological strategy used in clinical practice for partial responders to SSRIs is augmentation with an atypical antipsychotic. This article aims to review the efficacy, tolerability, and comparative efficacy of antipsychotics as augmenting agents in patients who showed inadequate response to SSRIs. In addition to case reports and case series, 15 randomized controls trials, 6 meta-analyses, and 3 expert guidelines have been examined...
January 2019: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30745347/is-a-picture-worth-a-thousand-words-effectiveness-of-ipad-technology-in-preclinical-dental-laboratory-courses
#18
Michele L Kirkup, Brooke N Adams, Paul E Reifeis, Jeni L Heselbarth, Lisa H Willis
Dental educators should consider alternative modalities of instruction when experiencing difficulties conveying feedback to students. The aim of this study was to determine if integrating iPad technology as a visual learning tool would enhance the exchange of assessment information and improve academic performance in Indiana University School of Dentistry's preclinical curriculum. In 2016, the first-year Tooth Morphology (TM) and second-year Fixed Prosthodontics (Fixed) courses implemented a project using iPad images that allowed instructors to annotate acceptable and deficient areas of students' tooth wax-ups and preparations...
February 11, 2019: Journal of Dental Education
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30745237/gliotoxin-from-aspergillus-fumigatus-abrogates-leukotriene-b-4-formation-through-inhibition-of-leukotriene-a-4-hydrolase
#19
Stefanie König, Simona Pace, Helmut Pein, Thorsten Heinekamp, Jan Kramer, Erik Romp, Maria Straßburger, Fabiana Troisi, Anna Proschak, Jan Dworschak, Kirstin Scherlach, Antonietta Rossi, Lidia Sautebin, Jesper Z Haeggström, Christian Hertweck, Axel A Brakhage, Jana Gerstmeier, Ewgenij Proschak, Oliver Werz
The epidithiodioxopiperazine gliotoxin is a virulence factor of Aspergillus fumigatus, the most important airborne fungal pathogen of humans. Gliotoxin suppresses innate immunity in invasive aspergillosis, particularly by compromising neutrophils, but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain elusive. Neutrophils are the first responders among innate immune cells recruited to sites of infection by the chemoattractant leukotriene (LT)B4 that is biosynthesized by 5-lipoxygenase and LTA4 hydrolase (LTA4 H). Here, we identified gliotoxin as inhibitor of LTA4 H that selectively abrogates LTB4 formation in human leukocytes and in distinct animal models...
January 17, 2019: Cell Chemical Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30744465/first-line-treatment-of-adult-patients-with-primary-immune-thrombocytopenia-a-real-world-study
#20
Liang Wang, Lei Xu, Hongyuan Hao, A J Gerard Jansen, Guoqiang Liu, Honglei Li, Xinguang Liu, Yajing Zhao, Jun Peng, Ming Hou
Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is an autoimmune disease with a mild to severe risk of bleeding complications. First line treatment includes corticosteroids, immunoglobulins, or other. In this large cohort study, first-line strategies for treatment-naive adult primary ITP was studied in a real-world setting. Records from all adult ITP patients who received first-line treatment between January 2010 and December 2017 at Qilu Hospital were reviewed retrospectively (n = 699). During the study period, 271 patients were treated with high-dose dexamethasone (HDD) and 289 patients were treated with conventional prednisone (alone or in combination with other drugs)...
February 11, 2019: Platelets
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