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Infection hematology

Viviane Kelin de Souza, Bruno Dall'Agnol, Ugo Araújo Souza, Anelise Webster, Felipe Bortolotto Peters, Marina Ocha Favarini, Fábio Dias Mazim, Fabiana Lopes da Rocha, Flávia Pereira Tirelli, João Fábio Soares, Márcia Maria de Assis Jardim, Tatiane Campos Trigo, José Reck
Canine rangeliosis is a tick-borne disease caused by the protozoan Rangelia vitalii, which has only been reported in South America. With this knowledge, we hypothesized that neotropical foxes could act as asymptomatic natural carriers of R. vitalii. To test this, we captured 44 free-ranging foxes and investigated the presence of R. vitalii DNA, and whether the infected animals presented any clinical findings or hematological changes. Eight foxes (18%), seven Cerdocyon thous (7/27-25%), and one Lycalopex gymnocercus (1/17-5%) were positive for R...
February 18, 2019: Parasitology Research
Bulent Kaya, Saime Paydas
Parvovirus B19 is a single-stranded DNA virus that typically has an affinity for erythroid progenitor cells in bone marrow and leads to pure red cell aplasia. This is a common pathogen in humans, and the expression of the infection depends on the host's hematologic and immunologic status. Here, we report a female patient who developed severe and persistent anemia after kidney transplant while being on immunosuppressive therapy. The parvovirus B19 immunoglobulin M test was positive, and the virus was detected by polymerase chain reaction as parvovirus B19 (23...
January 2019: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
K Leber, J M M B Otten, A C T M Depla, D P M Brandjes, F N Lauw
BACKGROUND: Patients with a chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection or patients who have recovered from an HBV infection are at risk for HBV reactivation (HBVr), especially if they need treatment with chemotherapy. International guidelines recommend routine HBV screening for all patients starting with chemotherapy. This study evaluates the implementation of a routine HBV screening protocol. METHODS: A retrospective study was performed between January 2015 and October 2016 at the Medical Centre Slotervaart Amsterdam...
January 2019: Netherlands Journal of Medicine
Mark H Einstein, Ntokozo Ndlovu, Jeannette Lee, Elizabeth A Stier, Jeffrey Kotzen, Madhur Garg, Kathleen Whitney, Shelly Y Lensing, Mariza Tunmer, Webster Kadzatsa, Joel Palefsky, Susan E Krown
PURPOSE: To determine the feasibility, safety, and tolerability of concomitant chemoradiotherapy administered at standard doses in HIV-infected women with locally-advanced cervical cancer (LACC) receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eligible participants had HIV infection and untreated, histologically-confirmed, invasive carcinoma of the uterine cervix, FIGO stages IB2, IIA (if tumor >4 cm), IIB, IIIA, IIIB, or IVA and met standard eligibility criteria...
February 15, 2019: Gynecologic Oncology
Chandran Murugan, Varsha Sharma, Rajesh Kumar Murugan, Gnanasekar Malaimegu, Anandhakumar Sundaramurthy
In recent years, novel two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials are of great interest for diverse potential applications such as device fabrication, energy storage, sensing and theranostics because of their superlative physical features namely, large surface area, minimal thickness, tunable composition and easier surface modification methods. Rapid exploration in design and fabrication of 2D nano-structures have opened new avenue for cancer theranostics as it can encapsulate group of cancer cells and inflict major damage with great specificity in a non-invasive manner...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Amandine Fayard, Elisabeth Daguenet, Didier Blaise, Patrice Chevallier, Hélène Labussière, Ana Berceanu, Ibrahim Yakoub-Agha, Gérard Socié, Amandine Charbonnier, Felipe Suarez, Anne Huynh, Mélanie Mercier, Claude-Eric Bulabois, Bruno Lioure, Sylvain Chantepie, Yves Beguin, Jean-Henri Bourhis, Jean-Valère Malfuson, Laurence Clément, Régis Peffault de la Tour, Jérôme Cornillon
Several approaches have been developed to overcome historical barriers associated with poor outcomes in the setting of HLA-haploidentical allogeneic transplantation (HaploSCT). Here, we examine the outcome of patients with various hematological disorders undergoing HaploSCT with high-dose, post-transplantation cyclophosphamide. We performed a retrospective study on 381 patients from 30 centers between January 2013 and December 2015. At the last follow-up, a total of 1058 infectious episodes were diagnosed, affecting 90...
February 15, 2019: Bone Marrow Transplantation
Maria Kotsopoulou, Christina Papadaki, Konstantinos Anargyrou, Alexandros Spyridonidis, Ioannis Baltadakis, Helen A Papadaki, Maria Angelopoulou, Vasiliki Pappa, Kleoniki Liakou, Manto Tzanetakou, Marina Moustaka, George Vassilopoulos
INTRODUCTION: Invasive candidiasis (IC) can be a life-threatening infection in immunocompromised patients, particularly those with cancer, hematologic diseases and/or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) recipients. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of micafungin in patients with hematologic malignancies or HSCT recipients, relevant to clinical presentation of IC, in real-life practice in Greece. METHODS: ASPIRE was a phase IV, multicenter, non-interventional, prospective cohort study, conducted at ten tertiary hospitals in Greece, in adults with hematologic disease...
February 14, 2019: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
Eleni Karakike, Evangelos J Giamarellos-Bourboulis
Hemophagocytic lymphohistocytosis (HLH) is characterized by fulminant cytokine storm leading to multiple organ dysfunction and high mortality. HLH is classified into familial (fHLH) and into secondary (sHLH). fHLH is rare and it is due to mutations of genes encoding for perforin or excretory granules of natural killer (NK) cells of CD8-lymphocytes. sHLH is also known as macrophage activation syndrome (MAS). Macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) in adults is poorly studied. Main features are fever, hepatosplenomegaly, hepatobiliary dysfunction (HBD), coagulopathy, cytopenia of two to three cell lineages, increased triglycerides and hemophagocytosis in the bone marrow...
2019: Frontiers in Immunology
Ping Zhang, Jyothy Raju, Md Ashik Ullah, Raymond Au, Antiopi Varelias, Kate H Gartlan, Stuart D Olver, Luke D Samson, Elise Sturgeon, Nienke Zomerdijk, Judy Avery, Tessa Gargett, Michael P Brown, Lachlan J Coin, Devika Ganesamoorthy, Cheryl Hutchins, Gary R Pratt, Glen A Kennedy, A James Morton, Cameron I Curley, Geoffrey R Hill, Siok-Keen Tey
Purpose: Inducible caspase 9 ( iCasp9 ) is a cellular safety switch that can make T-cell therapy safer. The purpose of this phase I trial was to investigate the use of iCasp9 -transduced T-cell addback in adult patients undergoing haploidentical stem cell transplantation for high-risk hematologic malignancies. Patients and Methods: Patients undergoing myeloablative, CD34-selected haploidentical stem cell transplantation were treated with 0.5-1.0 × 106 /kg donor-derived iCasp9 -transduced T cells on day +25 or 26 post-transplant, with additional doses allowed for disease relapse, infection, or mixed chimerism...
February 14, 2019: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Zemenu Tamir, Abdurahaman Seid, Haftay Haileslassie
BACKGROUND: Hematologic abnormalities involving peripheral blood cell cytopenias are strong predictors of morbidity, mortality and poor antiretroviral therapy (ART) outcomes of HIV infected individuals. However, limited studies are conducted in resource-limited settings of sub-Saharan Africa that have addressed the magnitude and associated factors of cytopenias. This study aimed to investigate the magnitude and associated factors of cytopenias among ART naïve HIV infected adult Ethiopians...
2019: PloS One
Yair Herishanu, Tamar Tadmor, Andrei Braester, Osnat Bairey, Ariel Aviv, Naomi Rahimi-Levene, Riva Fineman, Itai Levi, Mona Yuklea, Rosa Ruchlemer, Lev Shvidel, Aaron Polliack
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a disease of elderly patients. The fludarabine, cyclophosphamide and rituximab (FCR) regimen is considered the treatment of choice for young fit patients with CLL, however, this combination is toxic for older patients. At the time this study was first planned and initiated, there was no standard chemo-immunotherapy regimen regarded as standard therapy for the less fit elderly patient with CLL. Here we conducted a single arm, phase II trial to examine the efficacy and safety of lower-dose fludarabine and cyclophosphamide combined with a standard dose of rituximab (LD-FCR) in elderly patients with previously untreated CLL...
February 12, 2019: Hematological Oncology
Sara Campagna, Silvia Gonella, Paola Berchialla, Giacomo Morano, Carla Rigo, Pietro Antonio Zerla, Raffaella Fuzzi, Gianvito Corona, Silvana Storto, Valerio Dimonte, Baudolino Mussa
BACKGROUND: Peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) are central venous catheters (CVCs) that are commonly used in onco-hematologic settings for chemotherapy administration. As there is insufficient evidence to recommend a specific CVC for chemotherapy administration, we aimed to ascertain PICC-related adverse events (AEs) and identify independent predictors of PICC removal in patients with cancer receiving chemotherapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Information on adult patients with cancer with a PICC inserted for chemotherapy administration between September 2007 and December 2014 was extracted from six hospital databases...
February 12, 2019: Oncologist
Sarah Premji, Loveleen Kang, Mumtaz V Rojiani, Jesse Kresak, Amyn M Rojiani
Multifocal necrotizing leukoencephalopathy (MNL) is a rare condition typically described in patients undergoing chemotherapy or with HIV/AIDS. As a pathologic entity, it is characterized by multiple small foci of necrosis typically within white matter of the pons and occasionally in other areas. Herein we describe findings in 6 patients with MNL, 5 diagnosed at postmortem examination and 1 by surgical biopsy. Histopathologic features were characteristic, with generally small foci of necrosis, most frequently within the pontine base, although larger lesions were seen in the frontal white matter and basal ganglia...
February 7, 2019: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
Saba Sheikhbahaei, Alireza Mohammadi, Roya Sherkat, Alireza Emami Naeini, Majid Yaran, Somaye Najafi
BACKGROUND: Patients with hematological malignancies undergoing cytotoxic chemotherapy are susceptible to develop invasive fungal infections particularly Aspergillus and Candida spp.. Early detection of these infections is required to start immediate antifungal therapy and increase survival of these patients. METHOD: Our study included consecutive patients of any age with hematologic malignancies who were hospitalized to receive chemotherapy and suffer from persistent fever (rectal temperature >38...
February 11, 2019: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
Baptiste Duceau, Muriel Picard, Romain Pirracchio, Anne Wanquet, Frédéric Pène, Sybille Merceron, Djamel Mokart, Anne-Sophie Moreau, Etienne Lengliné, Emmanuel Canet, Virginie Lemiale, Eric Mariotte, Elie Azoulay, Lara Zafrani
OBJECTIVES: Neutropenic enterocolitis occurs in about 5.3% of patients hospitalized for hematologic malignancies receiving chemotherapy. Data from critically ill patients with neutropenic enterocolitis are scarce. Our objectives were to describe the population of patients with neutropenic enterocolitis admitted to an ICU and to investigate the risk factors of invasive fungal disease. DESIGN: A multicentric retrospective cohort study between January 2010 and August 2017...
February 7, 2019: Critical Care Medicine
M Andreína Pacheco, M Alexandra García-Amado, Jaime Manzano, Nubia E Matta, Ananias A Escalante
The Hoatzin ( Opisthocomus hoazin ) is the only extant member of the order Opisthocomiformes. This unique South American bird lives in the riparian lowland vegetation characteristic of the Amazon and Orinoco basins. Hoatzins nest in communal social units close to water bodies; they are strictly folivores being the only bird with pregastric fermentation in the crop. Because of the complex logistics involved in capturing this bird, there is a knowledge gap on its parasites. This study documents two distant lineages of haemosporidian parasites ( Plasmodium spp...
2019: PeerJ
Ling Qi, Fei Li
Intestinal microbiome closely relates with human health and disease, which plays a critical role in the immune response, homeostasis, drug metabolism and tumorigenesis. Imbalances in the composition and function of these intestinal microbes associate with diseases. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is an established successful treatment modality for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). The safety profile and potential therapeutic advantages of FMT for diseases associated with dysbiosis and immune dysfunction have led to many publications, mainly case series...
February 2019: Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue za Zhi
Bin Fan, Fen Huang, Yu-Hong Zhang, Gan-Hong Mei
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of peripheral introvascular central catheters (PICC) on the catheter-associated bloodstream infections (CRBSI) and the formations of catheter-related bloodstream infections. METHODS: Total of 483 patients with hematologic malignancies admitted in our hospital from January 2013 to December 2016 were enrolled in this study, and 612 PICC catheterization were conducted. The median time of catheterization was 101 d (48 ∼ 184 d) . The incidence rates of CRBSI and CRTC were observed, and the CRBSI and CRTC associated variables were also analyzed...
February 2019: Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue za Zhi
Sarah Perreault, Dayna McManus, Noffar Bar, Francine Foss, Lohith Gowda, Iris Isufi, Stuart Seropian, Maricar Malinis, Jeffrey E Topal
BACKGROUND: Current guidelines recommend adding vancomycin to empiric treatment of FN in patients who meet specific criteria. After 48 hours, the guidelines recommend discontinuing vancomycin if resistant Gram-positive organisms are not identified. Based on these recommendations, a vancomycin stewardship team defined criteria for discontinuation of vancomycin at 48 hours and increased surveillance of vancomycin usage through a multimodal approach. The purpose of this retrospective analysis is to assess the impact of this multimodal approach on the discontinuation of empiric vancomycin at 48 hours in FN...
February 8, 2019: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
Marianna Criscuolo, Francesco Marchesi, Anna Candoni, Chiara Cattaneo, Annamaria Nosari, Barbara Veggia, Luisa Verga, Nicola Fracchiolla, Nicola Vianelli, Maria Ilaria Del Principe, Marco Picardi, Mario Tumbarello, Franco Aversa, Alessandro Busca, Livio Pagano
BACKGROUND: Fungal infections are still a relevant challenge for clinicians involved in the cure of patients with cancer. We retrospectively reviewed charts of hospitalized patients with hematological malignancies (HMs), in which a documented fungemia was diagnosed between January 2011 and December 2015 at 28 adult and 6 pediatric Italian Hematology Departments. METHODS: During the study period we recorded 215 fungal blood stream infections (BSI). Microbiological analyses documented that BSI was due to molds in 17 patients (8%) and yeasts in 198 patients (92%), being Candida spp identified in 174 patients (81%)...
February 8, 2019: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
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