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Stationary Signal

Philip Hartz, Carsten Mattes, Martina Schad, Rita Bernhardt, Frank Hannemann
Over the past decades, Bacillus megaterium has gained significant interest in the biotechnological industry due to its high capacity for protein production. Although many proteins have been expressed efficiently using the optimized xylose inducible system so far, there is a considerable demand for novel promoters with varying activities, particularly for the adjustment of protein levels in multi-enzyme cascades. Genome-wide microarray analyses of the industrially important B. megaterium strain MS941 were applied to identify constitutive and growth phase dependent promoters for the expression of heterologous proteins from the early exponential to the early stationary phase of bacterial growth...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Biotechnology
Abigail A Kressner, Tobias May, Torsten Dau
It has been suggested that the most important factor for obtaining high speech intelligibility in noise with cochlear implant (CI) recipients is to preserve the low-frequency amplitude modulations of speech across time and frequency by, for example, minimizing the amount of noise in the gaps between speech segments. In contrast, it has also been argued that the transient parts of the speech signal, such as speech onsets, provide the most important information for speech intelligibility. The present study investigated the relative impact of these two factors on the potential benefit of noise reduction for CI recipients by systematically introducing noise estimation errors within speech segments, speech gaps, and the transitions between them...
January 2019: Trends in Hearing
Ji-Eun Kim, Joon-Sun Choi, Jung-Hye Roe
Streptomycetes naturally produce a variety of secondary metabolites, in the process of physiological differentiation. Streptomyces venezuelae differentiates into spores in liquid media, serving as a good model system for differentiation and a host for exogenous gene expression. Here, we report the growth and differentiation properties of S. venezuelae ATCC-15439 in liquid medium, which produces pikromycin, along with genome-wide gene expression profile. Comparison of growth properties on two media (SPA, MYM) revealed that the stationary phase cell viability rapidly decreased in SPA...
February 5, 2019: Journal of Microbiology / the Microbiological Society of Korea
Daniela C Rößler, Stefan Lötters, Johanna Mappes, Janne K Valkonen, Marcelo Menin, Albertina P Lima, Heike Pröhl
Many animals have evolved remarkable strategies to avoid predation. In diurnal, toxic harlequin toads (Atelopus) from the Amazon basin, we find a unique colour signal. Some Atelopus populations have striking red soles of the hands and feet, visible only when walking. When stationary, the toads are hard to detect despite their yellow-black dorsal coloration. Consequently, they switch between high and low conspicuousness. Interestingly, some populations lack the extra colour display of the soles. We found comprehensive support that the red coloration can act as an aposematic signal directed towards potential predators: red soles are significantly more conspicuous than soles lacking red coloration to avian predators and the presence of the red signal significantly increases detection...
February 4, 2019: Scientific Reports
André M Striegel, Pritish Sinha
Size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) with on-line static light scattering, specifically multi-angle static light scattering (MALS), and differential refractometry (DRI) detection remains the premier method by which to determine absolute, calibrant-independent molar masses of polymers. The method is restricted to the use of either neat solvents or solvents with a small amount of additive. In mixed solvents, preferential solvation (i.e., the enrichment, within the solvated volume of the polymer in solution, of one solvent over the other as compared to the solvent ratio outside said volume) leads to errors in the areas of the MALS and DRI chromatograms, as the solvent baseline does not accurately represent the solvent contribution to these detectors' peaks...
April 11, 2019: Analytica Chimica Acta
Ali Emami, Naoto Kunii, Takeshi Matsuo, Takashi Shinozaki, Kensuke Kawai, Hirokazu Takahashi
We hypothesized that expert epileptologists can detect seizures directly by visually analyzing EEG plot images, unlike automated methods that analyze spectro-temporal features or complex, non-stationary features of EEG signals. If so, seizure detection could benefit from convolutional neural networks because their visual recognition ability is comparable to that of humans. We explored image-based seizure detection by applying convolutional neural networks to long-term EEG that included epileptic seizures. After filtering, EEG data were divided into short segments based on a given time window and converted into plot EEG images, each of which was classified by convolutional neural networks as 'seizure' or 'non-seizure'...
January 22, 2019: NeuroImage: Clinical
Hsiao-Jung Ho, Jing-Wen Cao, Chih-Ming Kao, Wen-Liang Lai
Assimilable organic carbon (AOC) serves as an indicator of the biostability of drinking water distribution systems; however, the properties of the released organic metabolites by Pseudomonas fluorescens (P17) and Spirillum (NOX) used in AOC bioassays are seldom discussed. In this study, fluorescence excitation emission matrix (FEEM) was selected to characterize organic metabolites after substrate biotransformation and their divergences at different growth stages of both strains in AOC bioassay. Excellent correlation between ATP and colony-forming units (CFUs) was observed for both strains...
January 22, 2019: Chemosphere
Aviad Ben-Shmuel, Noah Joseph, Batel Sabag, Mira Barda-Saad
The process of mechanotransduction, that is, conversion of physical forces into biochemical signaling cascades, has attracted interest as a potential mechanism for regulating immune cell activation. The cytoskeleton serves a critical role in a variety of lymphocyte functions, from cellular activation, proliferation, adhesion, and migration, to creation of stable immune synapses, and execution of functions such as directed cytotoxicity. Though traditionally considered a scaffold that enables formation of signaling complexes that maintain stable immune synapses, the cytoskeleton was additionally shown to play a dynamic role in lymphocyte signaling cascades by sensing physical cues such as substrate rigidity, and transducing these mechanical features into chemical signals that ultimately influence lymphocyte effector functions...
February 1, 2019: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Jeffrey T Lock, Ian F Smith, Ian Parker
The patterning of cytosolic Ca2+ signals in space and time underlies their ubiquitous ability to specifically regulate numerous cellular processes. Signals mediated by liberation of Ca2+ sequestered in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) through inositol trisphosphate receptor (IP3 R) channels constitute a hierarchy of events; ranging from openings of individual IP3 channels, through the concerted openings of several clustered IP3 Rs to generate local Ca2+ puffs, to global Ca2+ waves and oscillations that engulf the entire cell...
January 28, 2019: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Yiying I Zhu, Heechul Yoon, Andrew X Zhao, Stanislav Y Emelianov
Phase-change perfluorohexane nanodroplets (PFHnDs) are a new class of recondensable sub-micrometer-sized contrast agents that have potential for contrast-enhanced and super-resolution ultrasound imaging with an ability to reach extravascular targets. The PFHnDs can be optically triggered to undergo vaporization, resulting in spatially stationary, temporally transient microbubbles. The vaporized PFHnDs are hyperechoic in ultrasound imaging for several to hundreds of milliseconds before recondensing to their native, hypoechoic, liquid nanodroplet state...
January 25, 2019: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
Alain Morand, Irene Heras, Gwenn Ulliac, Etienne Le Coarer, Pierre Benech, Nadège Courjal, Guillermo Martin
The stationary wave integrated Fourier transform spectrometer (SWIFTS) is based on the sampling of a stationary wave using nano-scattering centers on the surface of a channel waveguide. Single nano-scale scattering centers above the waveguide surface will radiate the sampled signal with wide angular distribution, which is not compatible with the buried detection area of infrared (IR) detectors, resulting in crosstalk between pixels. An implementation of multiple diffraction nano-grooves (antenna) for each sampling center is proposed as an alternative solution to improve directivity towards the detector pixel by narrowing the scattering angle of the extracted light...
February 1, 2019: Optics Letters
Nicholas A Battista, Dylan R Douglas, Andrea N Lane, Leigh Ann Samsa, Jiandong Liu, Laura A Miller
Proper heart morphogenesis requires a delicate balance between hemodynamic forces, myocardial activity, morphogen gradients, and epigenetic signaling, all of which are coupled with genetic regulatory networks. Recently both in vivo and in silico studies have tried to better understand hemodynamics at varying stages of veretebrate cardiogenesis. In particular, the intracardial hemodynamics during the onset of trabeculation is notably complex-the inertial and viscous fluid forces are approximately equal at this stage and small perturbations in morphology, scale, and steadiness of the flow can lead to significant changes in bulk flow structures, shear stress distributions, and chemical morphogen gradients...
January 22, 2019: Journal of Cardiovascular Development and Disease
J Brown, K Christensen-Jeffries, S Harput, G Zhang, J Zhu, C Dunsby, M-X Tang, R J Eckersley
Ultrasound super-resolution techniques use the response of microbubble contrast agents (MBs) to visualize the microvasculature. Techniques that localize isolated bubble signals first require detection algorithms to separate the MB and tissue responses. This work explores the three main MB detection techniques for super-resolution of microvasculature. Pulse inversion (PI), differential imaging (DI) and singular value decomposition (SVD) filtering were compared in terms of the localization accuracy, precision and contrast to tissue ratio (CTR)...
January 24, 2019: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
Suchita Bhinge, Rami Mowakeaa, Vince D Calhoun, Tulay Adali
Dynamic functional connectivity (dFC) analysis is an effective way to capture the networks that are functionally associated and continuously changing over the scanning period. However, these methods mostly analyze the dynamic associations across the activation patterns of the spatial networks while assuming that the spatial networks are stationary. Hence, a model that allows for the variability in both domains and reduces the assumptions imposed on the data provides an effective way for extracting spatio-temporal networks...
January 23, 2019: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Elena Peralta, Jesus Lazaro, Raquel Bailon, Vaidotas Marozas, Eduardo Gil
The aim of this work is to evaluate and compare five fiducial points for the temporal location of each pulse wave from forehead and finger photoplethysmographic pulse waves signals (PPG) to perform pulse rate variability (PRV) analysis as a surrogate of heart rate variability (HRV) analysis. 
 Approach: Forehead and finger PPG signals were recorded during tilt-table test simultaneously to the ECG. Artifacts were detected and removed and, five fiducial points were computed: apex, middle-amplitude and foot points of the PPG signal, apex point of the first derivative signal and, the intersection point of the tangent to the PPG waveform at the apex of the derivative PPG signal and the tangent to the foot of the PPG pulse defined as intersecting tangents method...
January 22, 2019: Physiological Measurement
Rafael Carmona-Cabezas, Ana B Ariza-Villaverde, Eduardo Gutiérrez de Ravé, Francisco J Jiménez-Hornero
A recent method based on the concurrence of complex networks and multifractal analyses is applied for the first time to explore ground-level ozone behavior. Ozone time series are converted into complex networks for their posterior analysis. The searched purpose is to check the suitability of this transformation and to see whether some features of these complex networks could constitute a preliminary analysis before the more thorough multifractal formalism. Results show effectively that the exposed transformation stores the original information about the ozone dynamics and gives meaningful knowledge about the time series...
January 15, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Yunxue Guo, Yangmei Li, Waner Zhan, Thomas K Wood, Xiaoxue Wang
C-tail anchored inner membrane proteins are a family of proteins that contain a C-terminal transmembrane domain but lack an N-terminal signal sequence for membrane targeting. They are widespread in eukaryotes and prokaryotes and play critical roles in membrane traffic, apoptosis and protein translocation in eukaryotes. Recently, we identified and characterized in Escherichia coli a new C-tail anchored inner membrane, ElaB, which is regulated by the stationary phase sigma factor RpoS. ElaB is important for resistance to oxidative stress but the exact mechanism is unclear...
January 17, 2019: Microbial Biotechnology
Kouroush Salimi, Çigdem Kip, Ömür Çelikbıçak, Duygu Deniz Usta, Aslı Pınar, Bekir Salih, Ali Tuncel
In this study, poly (vinylphosphonic acid-co-ethylene dimethacrylate), poly (VPA-co-EDMA) capillary monolith was synthesized as a starting material for obtaining a stationary phase for microscale enrichment of phosphopeptides. The chelation of active phosphonate groups with Ti (IV) ions gave a macroporous monolithic column with a mean pore size of 5.4 μm. The phosphopeptides from different sources were enriched on Ti (IV) attached-poly (VPA-co-EDMA) monolith by using a syringe-pump. The monolithic capillary columns exhibited highly sensitive/selective enrichment performance with the phosphoprotein concentrations as low as 1...
January 18, 2019: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
Nandan L Nerurkar, ChangHee Lee, L Mahadevan, Clifford J Tabin
The embryonic gut tube is a cylindrical structure from which the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts develop1 . Although the early emergence of the endoderm as an epithelial sheet2,3 and later morphogenesis of the definitive digestive and respiratory organs4-6 have been investigated, the intervening process of gut tube formation remains relatively understudied7,8 . Here we investigate the molecular control of macroscopic forces underlying early morphogenesis of the gut tube in the chick embryo. The gut tube has been described as forming from two endodermal invaginations-the anterior intestinal portal (AIP) towards the rostral end of the embryo and the caudal intestinal portal (CIP) at the caudal end-that migrate towards one another, internalizing the endoderm until they meet at the yolk stalk (umbilicus in mammals)1,6 ...
January 16, 2019: Nature
Tricia L Rubi, David L Clark, Jonathan S Keller, George W Uetz
Signalers must balance the benefits of detection by intended receivers with the costs of detection by eavesdroppers. This trade-off is exemplified by sexual signaling systems, in which signalers experience sexual selection for conspicuousness to mates as well as natural selection for crypsis to predators. In this study, we examined how courtship behavior and body coloration influenced the conspicuousness of males to avian predators in the well-studied brush-legged wolf spider system (Schizocosa ocreata (Hentz))...
January 13, 2019: Behavioural Processes
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