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Yanxin Li, Xiaohua Li, Yuchan Meng, Xu Hun
In this work, a photoactive material, Graphdiyne (GDY) loaded with AuNPs (AuNPs-GDY), was successfully synthesized. The fabricated material made use of the natural band-gap structure of GDY, which could produce hole-electron pairs and the plasmon resonance effect of AuNPs to obtain a high photoelectrochemical (PEC) response. AuNPs-GDY PEC response changed with the mass ratio of GDY to tetrachloroauric acid. When the mass ratio of GDY to tetrachloroauric acid was 1:2.5, AuNPs-GDY exhibited the best PEC performance...
February 4, 2019: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Hsin-Hung Chen, I-Lin Lu, Te-I Liu, Yuan-Chung Tsai, Wen-Hsuan Chiang, Sung-Chyr Lin, Hsin-Cheng Chiu
To overcome low therapeutic efficacy of chemotherapy against multidrug resistance (MDR) breast cancer, a combination therapy system based upon functionalized polymer nanoparticles comprising poly(γ-glutamic acid)-g-poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (γ-PGA-g-PLGA) as the major component was developed. The NPs were loaded with doxorubicin (DOX) and indocyanine green (ICG) for dual modality cancer treatment and coated with cholesterol-PEG (C-PEG) for MDR abrogation in treatment of human MDR breast cancer. The in vitro cellular uptake of the DOX/ICG loaded nanoparticles (DI-NPs) by MDR cancer cells was significantly enhanced owing to effective inhibition of the P-gp activity by C-PEG and γ-PGA receptor-mediated endocytosis...
February 5, 2019: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Angela Abruzzo, Teresa Cerchiara, Federica Bigucci, Giampaolo Zuccheri, Cristina Cavallari, Bruno Saladini, Barbara Luppi
The aim of this work was to prepare new mucoadhesive nasal decongestant nanoparticles obtained by direct crosslinking between the cationic polymer chitosan and the anionic drug cromolyn. Different chitosan/cromolyn molar ratios were used in order to obtain nanoparticles of suitable size, encapsulation efficiency/drug loading and mucoadhesion. Moreover, the ability of the nanoparticles to deliver cromolyn into and through the nasal mucosa was evaluated. The obtained positively charged nanoparticles, sized 180-400 nm, showed interesting properties in terms of yield, mucoadhesion, encapsulation efficiency and drug loading...
February 13, 2019: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Shuting Li, Liefeng Hu, Dapeng Li, Xin Wang, Panpan Zhang, Jun Wang, Guoqing Yan, Rupei Tang
This work described the preparation of two type nanogels based on the crosslinking between carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCS) and two different crosslink agents, an acid-labile cyclic ortho ester compound with dual epoxy end groups (OEDe) or corresponding non-sensitive ethyleneglycol diglycidyl ether (EGDE). The particle size, zeta potential, and micromorphology were characterized by dynamic light scattering and electron microscopy, respectively. Nanogels' stability was also investigated at physiological environments...
February 13, 2019: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Utsav Dalal, Sivamohan N Reddy
This research work aims to develop a biomaterial entrapped with iron nanoparticles by green synthesis method in which biomass act as both reducing and capping agent. Iron nanoparticles embedded in Citrus limetta peels were characterised using ICP-MS for determination of metal loading, XRD, XPS for crystallinity and oxidation states, TEM followed by FESEM-EDS for particle size and morphology. Sizes of nanoparticles were found to be in the range of 4-70 nm. Batch experiments were conducted to study the effect of different parameters such as contact time, amount of biomaterial and volume of chromium(VI) solution for 2500 mg L-1 of Cr(VI)...
February 15, 2019: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Lisa Van de Wijer, Deborah N Mchaile, Quirijn de Mast, Blandina T Mmbaga, Nanda N J Rommelse, Ashanti Duinmaijer, André J A M van der Ven, Arnt F A Schellekens, Grace D Kinabo
BACKGROUND: Efavirenz is commonly prescribed for children with HIV infection, yet little is known about risks of neuropsychiatric side-effects. We aimed to compare competence (social involvement, activities, and school performance) and psychopathology (internalising and externalising problems), cognitive performance (intelligence and working memory), and adherence in Tanzanian children on an efavirenz-based versus a non-efavirenz-based regimen. METHODS: In this multicentre, cross-sectional, observational study, we included consecutive children (aged 6-12 years) with HIV infection, on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) for at least 6 months, and with viral loads of less than 1000 copies per mL from HIV care clinics of three primary health facilities and three referral hospitals in Moshi, Kilimanjaro, Tanzania...
February 12, 2019: Lancet HIV
Alessia Prato, Marco L Longana, Ambreen Hussain, Michael R Wisnom
This work experimentally explores the post-impact behaviour of thin-ply angle-ply pseudo-ductile carbon fibre laminates subjected to tensile load. Indentation and low-speed impact tests were performed on standard tensile test specimens. Non-destructive tests were used to investigate the damage propagation. Digital Image Correlation (DIC) was adopted to detect the strain distribution during tensile tests. Post-damage pseudo-ductile behaviour was retained in angle-ply hybrid composites subjected to tensile loading conditions...
February 15, 2019: Materials
Peng Shi, Yan Zhang, Zongping Ren, Yang Yu, Peng Li, Junfu Gong
Revegetation and check dam construction are two widely applied soil erosion control measures on the Loess Plateau of China. They play important roles in sediment yield reduction. However, it remains unclear how these large-scale land-use changes and in-channel structures affect water yield and sediment load on the watershed scale. A combination of field work and modeling exercises were used to quantitatively assess the effects of land-use changes and check dam construction on hydrological processes in the Wuding River watershed...
February 7, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Tomoyuki Ohya, Katsuyuki Minegishi, Hisashi Suzuki, Kotaro Nagatsu, Masami Fukada, Masayuki Hanyu, Ming-Rong Zhang
We developed a new apparatus for the routine production of 64 Cu in clinical use. The apparatus has many disposable parts that stabilize the product quality (such that there is a low deviation of the concentrations of impurity metals in the product) and reduce the work load of preparation for routine production. We also developed a new evaporator using near-infrared heaters for disposable use. We conducted a production test using the new apparatus and evaluated product quality. The product yield was 6.3 ± 0...
January 31, 2019: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Longbing Ling, Muhammad Ismail, Yawei Du, Chen Yao, Xinsong Li
Liposomes have emerged as a fascinating nanocarriers for the delivery of cancer therapeutics. However, their efficacy for cancer therapy is reduced because of the serum-instability and incomplete drug release. In this study, a novel disulfide cross-linked liposomes (CLs) assembled from dimeric lipoic acid-derived glycerophosphorylcholine (di-LA-PC) conjugate was developed. The conjugate was synthesized by a facial esterification of lipoic acid (LA) and glycerophosphorylcholine (GPC) and characterized by MS, 1 H NMR and 13 C NMR...
February 12, 2019: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Gabriela V Ullio Gamboa, Patricia E Pensel, María C Elissondo, Sergio F Sanchez Bruni, Jean-Pierre Benoit, Santiago D Palma, Daniel A Allemandi
Cystic echinococcosis (CE), which is caused during the metacestode larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus, is a life-threatening disease and is very difficult to treat. At present, the FDA-approved antihelmintic drugs are mebendazole (MBZ), albendazole (ABZ) and its principal metabolite ABZ sulfoxide (ABZSO), but as these have a therapeutic efficacy over 50%, underlining the need for new drug delivery systems. The aim of this work was the optimization and characterization of previously developed ABZ lipid nanocapsules (ABZ-LNCs) and evaluate their efficacy in mice infected with E...
February 12, 2019: Experimental Parasitology
Daniel A Rodriguez de Anda, Nareg Ohannesian, Karen S Martirosyan, Sue Anne Chew
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and invasive form of malignant brain tumors and despite advances in surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy, the survival of patients with GBM still remains poor. Temozolomide (TMZ) is the chemotherapy drug that is most commonly given orally after surgical resection of these tumors. In this study, the effects of solvents (i.e., dichloromethane and acetonitrile) used for the fabrication of electrosprayed TMZ-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) on drug loading, loading efficiency, drug release kinetics, surface morphology, and particle size were investigated...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
Wenji Deng, Huan Wang, Baojian Wu, Xingwang Zhang
Diabetes mellitus (DM) remains a great challenge in treatment due to pathological complexity. It has been proven that phytomedicines and natural medicines have prominent antidiabetic effects. This work aimed to develop selenium-layered nanoparticles (SeNPs) for oral delivery of mulberry leaf and Pueraria Lobata extracts (MPE), a group of phytomedicines with significant hypoglycemic activities, to achieve a synergic antidiabetic effect. MPE-loaded SeNPs (MPE-SeNPs) were prepared through a solvent diffusion/ in situ reduction technique and characterized by particle size, ζ potential, morphology, entrapment efficiency (EE) and drug loading (DL)...
January 2019: Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica. B
Asais Camila Uzcategui, Archish Muralidharan, Virginia L Ferguson, Stephanie J Bryant, Robert R McLeod
Application of 3D printed structures via stereolithography (SLA) is limited by imprecise dimensional control and inferior mechanical properties. These challenges is attributed to poor understanding ofpolymerization behavior during the printing process and inadequate post-processing methods. The former via a modified version of Jacob's working curve equation that incorporates the resin's sub-linear response to irradiation intensity is addressed by the authors. This new model provides a more accurate approach to select 3D printing parameters given a desired z-resolution and conversion profile along the depth of the printed part...
December 2018: Advanced Engineering Materials
Suneev Anil Bansal, Amrinder Pal Singh, Suresh Kumar
Graphene, two-dimensional (2D) sheet of carbon structure, in its purest form has shown potential for application in the fields of electronics, semiconductor, sensing, energy, displays, biomedical engineering, etc. Graphene oxide (GO) is easier to synthesise than the pristine graphene, scores comparable in terms of mechanical strength, but lags in electrical and thermal conductivity. GO plays an important role in nano-composites for use in loading conditions requiring superior mechanical strength. GO is a suitable candidate as reinforcement due to its better solubility in the epoxy polymer, resulting in improved properties...
July 1, 2019: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Mayoorika Shukla, I A Palani, Vipul Singh
In this work, ZnO Nanorods (ZNR) and Nanopencils (ZNP) were synthesized over Platinum (Pt) coated glass substrate by simple and low-temperature hydrothermal process for large-scale fabrication towards biosensing applications. The two types of morphologies have been obtained by using strong oxidizing agent viz KMnO₄ as an additive and replenishing the growth solution during the hydrothermal growth process. It was observed that incorporation of additive and replacement of growth solution has greatly influenced structural and electrochemical properties of ZNR/ZNP in terms of morphology, aspect ratio, and charge transfer hindrance...
July 1, 2019: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Cecilia Monti, Matteo Sozzi, Massimo Corbo, Giulia Fronda, Michela Balconi
Prospective memory (PM) is a complex process involving multiple cognitive abilities. Several studies demonstrated the role of working memory (WM) in PM. However, to date, the extent to which PM and WM shared resources or, rather, they are distinct mechanisms is still debated. With the aim to investigate the role of WM in PM, we developed two experiments manipulating the WM load required by ongoing tasks to examine a patient with PM difficulties and dysexecutive syndrome following brain damage. Experiment 1 required a simple arithmetic activity together with a PM switching-task to be performed at a given time (time-based condition) or following cue presentation (event-based condition)...
February 14, 2019: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
Mohamed Mansour, Xavier Le Polozec, Haruichi Kanaya
This work addresses the design and implementation of a broadband differential rectifier (DR) combined with an Archimedean spiral dipole antenna (ASDA) for wireless power harvesting at low incident power densities below 200 μ W/cm 2 . The proposed design exhibits an improved RF-DC conversion efficiency over a wide frequency range from 1.2 to 5 GHz. This frequency band is associated with several wireless communication services, for instance, ISM, WLAN, 5G, LTE, and GPS applications. The receiving planar ASDA exhibits circular polarization and has an average measured gain of 4...
February 5, 2019: Sensors
Stefania Cantor, Lina Vargas, Oscar E Rojas A, Cristhian J Yarce, Constain H Salamanca, Jose Oñate-Garzón
Bacteria are a common group of foodborne pathogens presenting public health issues with a large economic burden for the food industry. Our work focused on a solution to this problem by evaluating antibiotic activity against two bacteria ( Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli ) of relevance in the field of foodstuffs. We used two approaches: (i) structural modification of the antimicrobial peptides and (ii) nano-vehiculisation of the modified peptides into polymer-coated liposomes. To achieve this, two antimicrobial peptides, herein named 'peptide +2' and 'peptide +5' were synthesised using the solid phase method...
February 5, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
D Alloni, M Prata, B Smilgys
In this work we present a characterization of the radionuclidic impurities originated by proton irradiation of enriched water [18 O]H2 O in a medical cyclotron through Monte Carlo simulations and experimental measurements. A set of standard samples of enriched water loaded in the cyclotron target cell have been irradiated at 30 μA proton current for 1 h each and, after an appropriate cooling time, measured by HPGe gamma spectrometry. In this way it was possible to study the direct release of radionuclidic impurities from target components as well as the release as a function of target ageing...
January 31, 2019: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
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