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Educational research

Johanne Alteren
BACKGROUND: Knowledge development, and how student nurses learn to be nurses, is essential in nurse education and has implications for quality of care. There is a lack of research concerning how student nurses' knowledge development is expressed through narratives and how they deal with challenges in patient situations in professional learning. OBJECTIVES: To clarify the usefulness of narratives in student nurses' knowledge development and the narratives implications for learning in clinical training...
February 6, 2019: Nurse Education Today
Rose Wesche, Derek A Kreager, Mark E Feinberg, Eva S Lefkowitz
Well-liked adolescents are more likely than their peers to engage in sexual behaviors, which may place them at higher risk of negative outcomes such as sexually transmitted infections and unwanted pregnancy. Yet, little is known regarding whether peer acceptance in adolescence predicts sexual outcomes in young adulthood. Understanding developmental links between peer acceptance and sexual outcomes will inform theories of how peers affect health and can help identify targets for health promotion efforts. Using longitudinal sociometric data from 1878 participants in the PROSPER study (54% female, 82% White, mean age = 11...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
Deepa Rao, Ahmed Elshafei, Minh Nguyen, Mark L Hatzenbuehler, Sarah Frey, Vivian F Go
BACKGROUND: Researchers have long recognized that stigma is a global, multi-level phenomenon requiring intervention approaches that target multiple levels including individual, interpersonal, community, and structural levels. While existing interventions have produced modest reductions in stigma, their full reach and impact remain limited by a nearly exclusive focus targeting only one level of analysis. METHODS: We conducted the first systematic review of original research on multi-level stigma-reduction interventions...
February 15, 2019: BMC Medicine
Abbey L Dvorak, Eugenia Hernandez-Ruiz
Course-based undergraduate research experiences (CUREs) involve entire classes of students researching a question or problem that is of interest to the scholarly community with an unknown outcome to both students and instructor. The purpose of this pre-experimental one-group posttest design study was to explore outcomes of a CURE for music therapy and music education students enrolled in a music psychology course. Specifically, we examined differences in scientific thinking, personal gains, research skills, and attitudes and behaviors of students resulting from their participation in a CURE experience, as well as students' perceived benefits of a CURE experience...
February 16, 2019: Journal of Music Therapy
Kishor Patwardhan, B S Prasad, Anam Aftab, Varsha Raghunath More, Shriram S Savrikar
This paper examines the scenario of research orientation in Ayurveda educational institutions of India. We demonstrate through the data obtained by searching the SCOPUS that the actual research output by these institutions is not very significant in terms of number of publications. While a lack of research expertise and infrastructure is one contributing factor to this status, a lack of questioning attitude is more crucial one. Mushrooming of new colleges, laxity in regulations, corruption, lack of atmosphere for ethical and quality research make the problem more complex...
February 12, 2019: Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine
Roni A Neff, Marie Spiker, Christina Rice, Alexandra Schklair, Sally Greenberg, Emily Broad Leib
INTRODUCTION: Food date labels such as "best before" and "sell by" are largely unregulated in the United States (U.S.), although new voluntary standards are coming into effect. A U.S. consumer survey was performed in April 2016 to inform policy and education activities related to date labels. METHODS: The survey was administered online to a nationally representative sample of 1029 adults as part of a biweekly omnibus survey. Survey questions assessed the frequency of discarding food based on date labels by food type, interpretation of label language variations, and knowledge of whether date labels are currently regulated by the federal government...
February 7, 2019: Waste Management
Adrienne Baldwin-White, Karen Moses
One in five college women report being sexually assaulted, while men have the greatest likelihood to commit a sexual assault while attending a university. Because freshmen and sophomore college women are particularly vulnerable to victimization, it is important to provide effective sexual assault prevention education. The current study examines a multisession approach to sexual assault prevention at a southwestern university. This exploratory study assesses scores measuring knowledge of sexual assault, knowledge about healthy sexual relationships, and intent to act to prevent a sexual assault or after one has occurred, after students complete at least one of five sexual assault prevention programs (Community of Care, Consent and Respect, Step Up!, Live Well, or Frisky Business)...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Jamie A Seabrook, Alexandra Smith, Andrew F Clark, Jason A Gilliland
BACKGROUND: A growing body of research has examined the association between exposure to environmental factors during pregnancy and adverse birth outcomes; however, many studies do not control for potential covariates and findings vary considerably. OBJECTIVE: To test the relative influence of environmental factors including exposure to air pollution, major roads, highways, industry, parks, greenspaces, and food retailers on low birth weight (LBW) and preterm birth (PTB) in Southwestern Ontario (SWO), Canada, while accounting for medical (e...
December 31, 2018: Environmental Research
Darrell P Wheeler, Sheldon D Fields, Geetha Beauchamp, Ying Q Chen, Lynda M Emel, Lisa Hightow-Weidman, Christopher Hucks-Ortiz, Irene Kuo, Jonathan Lucas, Manya Magnus, Kenneth H Mayer, LaRon E Nelson, Craig W Hendrix, Estelle Piwowar-Manning, Steven Shoptaw, Phaedrea Watkins, C Chauncey Watson, Leo Wilton
INTRODUCTION: Randomized clinical trials have demonstrated the efficacy of antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in preventing HIV acquisition among men who have sex with men (MSM). However, limited research has examined initiation and adherence to PrEP among Black MSM (BMSM) in the United States (US) who are disproportionately represented among newly HIV infected and late to care individuals. This research reports on the HIV Prevention Trials Network 073 (HPTN 073) study aimed to examine PrEP initiation, utilization and adherence among Black MSM utilizing the theoretically principled, culturally informed and client-centered care coordination (C4) model...
February 2019: Journal of the International AIDS Society
Nikki Lee Stephenson, Erin Hetherington, Shawn Dodd, Alexander Mathews, Suzanne Tough
BACKGROUND: Facebook, a popular social media site, allows users to communicate and exchange information. Social media sites can also be used as databases to search for individuals, including cohort participants. Retaining and tracking cohort participants are essential for the validity and generalizability of data in longitudinal research. Despite numerous strategies to minimize loss to follow-up, maintaining contact with participants is time-consuming and resource-intensive. Social media may provide alternative methods of contacting participants who consented to follow-up but could not be reached, and thus are potentially "lost to follow-up...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Katherine Osborne-Crowley, Sophie C Andrews, Izelle Labuschagne, Akshay Nair, Rachael Scahill, David Craufurd, Sarah J Tabrizi, Julie C Stout
OBJECTIVES: Previous research has demonstrated an association between emotion recognition and apathy in several neurological conditions involving fronto-striatal pathology, including Parkinson's disease and brain injury. In line with these findings, we aimed to determine whether apathetic participants with early Huntington's disease (HD) were more impaired on an emotion recognition task compared to non-apathetic participants and healthy controls. METHODS: We included 43 participants from the TRACK-HD study who reported apathy on the Problem Behaviours Assessment - short version (PBA-S), 67 participants who reported no apathy, and 107 controls matched for age, sex, and level of education...
February 15, 2019: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
Dylan B Jackson, Michael G Vaughn
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether children exposed to a greater variety of acts of parent-to-child physical and psychological maltreatment will be at greater risk of consuming obesogenic foods at a higher frequency. DESIGN: Survey research using a longitudinal panel design. SETTING: In-home interviews with primary caregivers in twenty large US cities.ParticipantsA national sample of at-risk children and their families who participated in the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (FFCWS)...
February 15, 2019: Public Health Nutrition
Ellen W Evans, Elizabeth C Redmond
Although vast amounts of consumer food safety knowledge and self-reported data exist, attitudinal data detailing perceptions of risk, control, and responsibility are lacking. Such data relating to vulnerable groups, including older adults, are particularly scarce. Perception determination is essential in consumer food safety research to facilitate a comprehensive understanding of the cognitive factors that may impact behavior. Previous research has indicated a relationship between food safety perceptions and behavior...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Food Protection
Ida Drejer Djurhuus, Aida Bikic
BACKGROUND & AIM: This study investigates the effectiveness of the Cool Kids programme in two outpatient psychiatric clinics for children with anxiety. Efficacy studies find that 60-80% of programme completers improve. It is unclear if the intervention is as effective in real-life clinical treatment, as only one previous Danish effectiveness study has ever been conducted. The goal of all evidence-based interventions is the successful transition from research environments to standard care clinical practice, but there can be substantial differences in the environment, therapists' education and patient population in the two settings...
February 15, 2019: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry
Vanara F Passos, Mary A S Melo, Jennifer Park, Howard E Strassler
Dental erosion is a multifactorial condition associated with chemical, biological, and behavioral factors whereby a non-bacterial chemical process leads to an irreversible loss of dental structure. Consequences of this erosive process include painful sensitivity, susceptibility to further erosion, mechanical wear, changes in occlusion, exposure of dental pulp, and poor esthetics. Substantial evidence has revealed new insights to diagnosing early stages of dental erosion and enabling novel preventive approaches to control its progression...
February 2019: Compendium of Continuing Education in Dentistry
Marie-Christine Laramée, Amélie Blanchet Garneau
INTRODUCTION: In nursing education, the organization of international placements and the support offered to students is widely different from one program to another. CONTEXT: In relation to the perspective of nursing students, few research works explore the elements of the learning environment that interact with their ability to open up to the different realities of nursing practice in the context of an international placement. OBJECTIVE: Guided by a constructivist cultural competence development model, this qualitative case study explored the elements of the learning environment that interact with the development of nursing practice in culturally diverse contexts through an international clinical placement...
December 2018: Recherche en Soins Infirmiers
Christa Hutaff-Lee, Elizabeth Bennett, Susan Howell, Nicole Tartaglia
Individuals with Turner syndrome (TS) are at risk for a constellation of neurocognitive and psychosocial differences, although there is significant individual variability in these features. TS is associated with an increased risk for difficulties with visual-spatial reasoning, visual-spatial memory, attention, executive functioning, motor, and math skills. Additionally, increased rates of social difficulties, anxiety, and depression are observed. There can be significant interplay between all of these factors contributing to the behavioral phenotype...
February 14, 2019: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part C, Seminars in Medical Genetics
Barbara S Mensch, Erica K Chuang, Andrea Melnikas, Stephanie R Psaki
OBJECTIVE: Numerous studies have documented an inverse association between years of schooling attained, particularly by women, and reduced maternal, infant and child mortality. However, if factors affecting educational attainment - many of which are unobservable, e.g. motivation and genetic endowment - also affect the likelihood of engaging in behaviors that enhance health, then assumed effects of schooling will be inflated in analyses that do not address this endogeneity. This systematic review assesses evidence for a causal link between education and maternal and child health in low and middle-income countries...
February 15, 2019: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Abasiama Etuknwa, Kevin Daniels, Constanze Eib
Purpose A systematic review was conducted to evaluate the impact of important personal and social factors on sustainable return to work (RTW) after ill-health due musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) and common mental disorders (CMDs) and to compare the effects of these personal and social factors across both conditions. Sustainable RTW is defined as a stable full-time or part-time RTW to either original or modified job for a period of at least 3 months without relapse or sickness absence re-occurrence. Methods A literature search was conducted in 13 databases and 79 studies were selected for the review, of which the methodological design was graded as very high, high and low quality...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation
M Shayne Gallaway, Bin Huang, Quan Chen, Thomas C Tucker, Jaclyn K McDowell, Eric Durbin, Sherri L Stewart, Eric Tai
PURPOSE: To examine smoking and use of smoking cessation aids among tobacco-associated cancer (TAC) or non-tobacco-associated cancer (nTAC) survivors. Understanding when and if specific types of cessation resources are used can help with planning interventions to more effectively decrease smoking among all cancer survivors, but there is a lack of research on smoking cessation modalities used among cancer survivors. METHODS: Kentucky Cancer Registry data on incident lung, colorectal, pancreatic, breast, ovarian, and prostate cancer cases diagnosed 2007-2011, were linked with health administrative claims data (Medicaid, Medicare, private insurers) to examine the prevalence of smoking and use of smoking cessation aids 1 year prior and 1 year following the cancer diagnosis...
February 14, 2019: Journal of Community Health
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