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Non-alcoholic fatty liver

Geum-Hwa Lee, Hwa-Young Lee, Sun-Ah Park, Tai-Sun Shin, Han-Jung Chae
The recent discovery that the impairment of autophagic flux in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) might be a strong determining factor in steatosis suggests the potential of therapeutic control of autophagic flux with natural agents in restoring NAFLD. We investigated the potential of Eucommia ulmoides leaf extract (EUL) to control dyslipidemia in NAFLD. EUL supplementation (200 mg/kg) promoted recovery from high fat diet (HFD)-induced lipid dysmetabolism. This hepatoprotective efficacy was accompanied by suppression of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, enhancing lysosomal functions, and thereby increasing autophagic flux...
February 18, 2019: Nutrients
David Mantle, Iain Hargreaves
Longevity is determined by a number of factors, including genetic, environmental and lifestyle factors. A major factor affecting longevity is the development of degenerative disorders such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, kidney disease and liver disease, particularly where these occur as co-morbidities. In this article, we review the potential role of supplementation with coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) for the prevention or management of these disorders. Thus, randomised controlled clinical trials have shown supplementation with CoQ10 or CoQ10 plus selenium reduces mortality by approximately 50% in patients with cardiovascular disease, or in the normal elderly population, respectively...
February 16, 2019: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
Gabriela Handzlik, Michał Holecki, Joanna Kozaczka, Michał Kukla, Katarzyna Wyskida, Leszek Kędzierski, Krzysztof Pawlicki, Jan Duława
BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is among the most common causes of liver disease worldwide. There is growing evidence on pathogenesis and pathophysiology of NAFLD. However, there is still no universally accepted pharmacotherapy protocol. METHODS: The study was conducted on 42 patients with NAFLD. They were randomized to dietary treatment alone (n = 21) or to diet and metformin therapy (n = 21). Liver ultrasonography, controlled attenuation parameter (CAP), liver stiffness (LS), complete blood count, anthropometric and biochemical parameters were obtained before treatment (baseline), and after 3 and 5 months of the therapy...
October 26, 2018: Pharmacological Reports: PR
Robert M Sargis, Jerrold J Heindel, Vasantha Padmanabhan
Metabolic disease rates have increased dramatically over the last four decades. Classic understanding of metabolic physiology has attributed these global trends to decreased physical activity and caloric excess; however, these traditional risk factors insufficiently explain the magnitude and rapidity of metabolic health deterioration. Recently, the novel contribution of environmental metabolism-disrupting chemicals (MDCs) to various metabolic diseases (including obesity, diabetes, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease) is becoming recognized...
2019: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Isabel Schulien, Birgit Hockenjos, Annette Schmitt-Graeff, Markus Große Perdekamp, Marie Follo, Robert Thimme, Peter Hasselblatt
Progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) from steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a key step of NASH pathogenesis. The AP-1 transcription factor c-Jun is an important regulator of hepatic stress responses, but its contribution to NASH pathogenesis remains poorly defined. We therefore addressed c-Jun expression in liver biopsies of patients with steatosis and NASH. The role of c-Jun during NASH pathogenesis was analyzed mechanistically in c-Jun mutant mice fed with a methionine- and choline-deficient diet (MCDD)...
February 18, 2019: Cell Death and Differentiation
Stephanie Sarai Loza-Medrano, Luis Arturo Baiza-Gutman, Miguel Ángel Ibáñez-Hernández, Miguel Cruz-López, Margarita Díaz-Flores
Scientific evidence has identified that the excessive consumption of products made from high-fructose corn syrup is a trigger for obesity, whose prevalence increased in recent years. Due to the metabolic characteristics of fructose, a rapid gastric emptying is produced, altering signals of hunger-satiety and decreasing the appetite. In addition to the hepatic level during catabolism, triose phosphate is generated and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is reduced, producing uric acid. Triose phosphate triggers the synthesis of fatty acids that increase the production and accumulation of triglycerides, diacylglycerols and ceramides that induce insulin resistance...
January 28, 2019: Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social
Shuwei Hu, Liping Xia, Hanwen Luo, Yanyong Xu, Hong Yu, Dan Xu, Hui Wang
This study aimed to evaluate female adult offspring induced by prenatal caffeine exposure (PCE) are susceptible to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and to explore the underlying programming mechanisms. Pregnant rats were intragastrically administered caffeine (30, 60, and 120 mg/kg.d) on gestational day (GD) 9-20. The female adult offspring were randomly divided into three groups: offspring without or with chronic stress during postnatal week (PW) 10-12 and PW28 offspring. Results showed that PW28 PCE female offspring had a higher hepatic triglyceride content and Kleiner scores, accompanied by elevated serum corticosterone levels...
February 15, 2019: Toxicology
Kylie Karnebeek, Supriya Thapar, Maartje Willeboordse, Onno C P van Schayck, Anita C E Vreugdenhil
CONTEXT: Childhood obesity increases the risk of diseases as diabetes, cardiovascular disease and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of comorbidities in school-age children with obesity and to compare its prevalence and the effect of a lifestyle intervention between children in primary and secondary school and between boys and girls. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis and lifestyle intervention. SETTING: Centre for Overweight Adolescent and Children's Healthcare...
February 18, 2019: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Mitra Hariri, Sara Zohdi
New evidence suggests that low serum Vitamin D may cause nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Hypovitaminosis D is associated with the severity and incidence of NAFLD. The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review on randomized controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the effect of Vitamin D on serum metabolic profile among NAFLD patients. Databases including PubMed, Institute for Scientific Information Web of Science, Scopus, and Google Scholar were searched up to November 2016. RCTs which studied Vitamin D effect on metabolic profiles and liver function, and conducted among adults were included...
2019: International Journal of Preventive Medicine
Kosha J Mehta, Sebastien Je Farnaud, Paul A Sharp
Liver fibrosis is characterised by excessive deposition of extracellular matrix that interrupts normal liver functionality. It is a pathological stage in several untreated chronic liver diseases such as the iron overload syndrome hereditary haemochromatosis, viral hepatitis, alcoholic liver disease, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and diabetes. Interestingly, regardless of the aetiology, iron-loading is frequently observed in chronic liver diseases. Excess iron can feed the Fenton reaction to generate unquenchable amounts of free radicals that cause grave cellular and tissue damage and thereby contribute to fibrosis...
February 7, 2019: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Hua Zhao, Jie Jiang
Endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) is one of the major defense networks in mammals, but continuous ERS will lead to cell apoptosis, inducing initiation and progression of many human diseases. Biochemical, physiological and pathological stimuli induced ERS may help the cells adapt to and survive stress conditions by activating unfolded protein response (UPR), ER-overload response and sterol modulation cascade reaction. Abundant outcomes of clinical and experimental studies in recent 5 years showed that acupuncture and moxibustion therapies are effective in improving some symptoms of nervous system diseases as stroke, Parkinson's disease, convulsion, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, spinal cord injury, muscular injury, etc...
January 25, 2019: Zhen Ci Yan Jiu, Acupuncture Research
Rehab M Badi, Dalia G Mostafa, Eman F Khaleel, Huda H Satti
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with hepatic insulin resistance (IR). Resveratrol (RES) a potent hypolipidemic dietary polyphenol has been identified for its ability to prevent hepatic steatosis and hepatic IR in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed murine models of NAFLD. In the present study, we have carried an in vivo animal experiment to identify a novel mechanism for RES protective action. Sub-chronic (45 days) RES pre-treatment in 3 days HFD-fed adult Wistar rats prevented early hepatic IR through inhibiting PKC/JNK activation; decreasing p-IRS (Ser307 ) and increasing p-IRS(Tyr612 ), p-Akt(Ser473 ) and p-GSK3(Ser9 )...
February 17, 2019: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
Yu Bai, Yunzhi Shen, Qiang Yuan, Chengyu Lv, Qianzhe Xing
BACKGROUND We examined the level of fragile histidine triad (FHIT) and p16 gene methylation in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and explored the relationship to liver cancer. MATERIAL AND METHODS There were 56 patients with primary liver cancer who were admitted to the hospital from July 2015 to October 2017 included in the liver cancer group, and 24 non-hepatoma patients (hepatitis A/hepatitis B/hepatitis C, liver cirrhosis, liver fibrosis, and fatty liver, alcoholic liver identified as a control group...
February 18, 2019: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Zhe Wu, Jun Xu, Jiang Tan, Yang Song, Ling Liu, Feng Zhang, Yifan Zhang, Xia Li, Yujing Chi, Yulan Liu
Mesenteric adipose tissue (MAT) inflammation is associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and immune cells play pivotal roles in the inflammation of adipose tissue. Here, we investigated the roles of MAT B lymphocytes in NAFLD. Mice fed with high-fat diet (HFD) and normal diet (ND) were killed in time gradients (4, 8 and 12 weeks). Compared with ND-fed mice, intra-hepatic CD45+ CD19+ B lymphocytes increased after 4 weeks (P < 0.01) of HFD feeding, and lasted until the 12th week, infiltrated earlier than CD45+ CD3+ T lymphocytes and CD45+ F4/80+ macrophages...
February 17, 2019: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Peter Lykke Eriksen, Michael Sørensen, Henning Grønbæk, Stephen Hamilton-Dutoit, Hendrik Vilstrup, Karen Louise Thomsen
BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a major health concern affecting 25% of the world's population. It is generally held that a fatty liver does not influence liver function, but quantitative measurements of metabolic liver functions have not been systematically performed. We aimed to study selected hepatocellular metabolic functions in patients with different stages of NAFLD. METHODS: Twenty-five non-diabetic, biopsy-proven NAFLD patients [12 with simple steatosis; 13 with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)] and ten healthy controls were included in a cross-sectional study...
February 12, 2019: Clinics and Research in Hepatology and Gastroenterology
Lin Su, Zhe Wu, Yujing Chi, Yang Song, Jun Xu, Jiang Tan, Xu Cong, Yulan Liu
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by altered intestinal microbiota and intestinal immune disorder. Here we investigated the role of mesenteric lymph node (MLN) CD4+ T lymphocytes in NAFLD. In high fat diet (HFD)-fed mice, the percentage ratios of Th1 to Th2 cells and Th17 to Treg cells were imbalanced in MLNs. Co-culture assays showed MLN CD4+ T lymphocytes from HFD-fed mice tended to migrate to the liver and promoted hepatic inflammation. Adoptive transfer of MLN CD4+ T lymphocytes from NAFLD mice to HFD-fed mice resulted in higher transaminase, worse hepatic inflammation and lipid accumulation...
January 28, 2019: Cellular Immunology
Christopher J Nolan, Marc Prentki
While few dispute the existence of the metabolic syndrome as a clustering of factors indicative of poor metabolic health, its utility above that of its individual components in the clinical care of individual patients is questioned. This is likely a consequence of the failure of clinicians and scientists to agree on a unifying mechanism to explain the metabolic syndrome. Insulin resistance has most commonly been proposed for this role and is generally considered to be a root causative factor for not only metabolic syndrome but also for its associated conditions of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), obesity-related type 2 diabetes (T2D) and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD)...
February 15, 2019: Diabetes & Vascular Disease Research
Cosima Schiavone, Fabio Piscaglia, Giovanni Iannetti, Vito Cantisani
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2019: Ultraschall in der Medizin
Nicholas K H Khoo, Marco Fazzari, Dionysios V Chartoumpekis, Lihua Li, Danielle Aparecida Guimaraes, Gavin E Arteel, Sruti Shiva, Bruce A Freeman
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is linked to obesity and insulin resistance and is the most prevalent chronic liver disease. During the development of obesity and NAFLD, mitochondria adapt to the increased lipid load in hepatocytes by increasing the rate of fatty acid oxidation. In concert with this, reactive species (RS) generation is increased, damaging hepatocytes and inducing inflammation. Hepatic mitochondrial dysfunction is central to the pathogenesis of NAFLD via undefined mechanisms. There are no FDA approved treatments for NAFLD other than weight loss and management of glucose tolerance...
February 1, 2019: Redox Biology
Zahra Darabi, Mina Darand, Zahra Yari, Mehdi Hedayati, Amirhosein Faghihi, Shahram Agah, Azita Hekmatdoost
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of citrulline (Cit) supplementation on inflammatory markers and liver histopathology in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). In this clinical trial, fifty NAFLD patients were assigned to receive 2 g/day Cit or placebo for 3 months. RESULTS: At the end of study, serum high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and activity of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) were reduced in Cit group significantly more than placebo group (P-value = 0...
February 15, 2019: BMC Research Notes
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