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Gamete donation

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This Ethics Committee report outlines the interests, obligations, and rights of all parties involved in gamete and embryo donation: both males and females who choose to provide gametes or embryos for use by others, recipients of donated gametes and embryos, individuals born as a result of gamete or embryo donation, and the programs that provide donated gametes and embryos to patients. This document replaces the document "Interests, obligations, and rights of the donor in gamete donation," last published in 2014...
March 11, 2019: Fertility and Sterility
Nadjet Nouri-Genolhac, Christophe Masle
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: La Revue du Praticien
Filippo Maria Ubaldi, Danilo Cimadomo, Alberto Vaiarelli, Gemma Fabozzi, Roberta Venturella, Roberta Maggiulli, Rossella Mazzilli, Susanna Ferrero, Antonio Palagiano, Laura Rienzi
Advanced maternal age (AMA; >35 year) is associated with a decline in both ovarian reserve and oocyte competence. At present, no remedies are available to counteract the aging-related fertility decay, however different therapeutic approaches can be offered to women older than 35 year undergoing IVF. This review summarizes the main current strategies proposed for the treatment of AMA: (i) oocyte cryopreservation to conduct fertility preservation for medical reasons or "social freezing" for non-medical reasons, (ii) personalized controlled ovarian stimulation to maximize the exploitation of the ovarian reserve in each patient, (iii) enhancement of embryo selection via blastocyst-stage preimplantation genetic testing for aneuploidies and frozen single embryo transfer, or (iv) oocyte donation in case of minimal/null residual chance of pregnancy...
2019: Frontiers in Endocrinology
A Miettinen, A Rotkirch, A-M Suikkari, V Söderström-Anttila
STUDY QUESTION: What are the attitudes and expectations of past oocyte donors concerning contact with their donor offspring and contact between donor offspring and their own children? SUMMARY ANSWER: The large majority (95%) of open-identity oocyte donors, as well as voluntarily registered donors (registered before the Finnish 2007 ART law), expressed positive or neutral feelings towards contact with their donor offspring and mainly positive expectations towards contact between donor offspring and their own children...
February 26, 2019: Human Reproduction
Rosa Verónica Esparza-Pérez
The use of donated gametes and embryos in assisted reproduction techniques (ART) makes it necessary to examine interests that involve relevant ethical and legal considerations, which include the autonomy and privacy rights of the intended parents, donors' right to privacy and the right of the minors to know their genetic origin. This article presents arguments to consider policies of more openness to obtain information from donors in order to protect the child's best interest in knowing his/her genetic origins...
2019: Gaceta Médica de México
Jenny Gunnarsson Payne
Since 1982, when the first baby conceived by in-vitro fertilization (IVF) in Sweden was born, Swedish legislation on assisted reproduction has gradually become more liberal and inclusive. Today, gamete donation and IVF are permitted not only for heterosexual couples, but also for lesbian couples and single women, and embryo donation is expected to become legalized shortly which will further increase the chances for involuntarily childless people to become parents. In recent years, the possibility of allowing surrogacy has been debated increasingly, with strongly polarized arguments both for and against it...
November 2018: Reproductive Biomedicine & Society Online
Bart C J M Fauser, Jacky Boivin, Pedro N Barri, Basil C Tarlatzis, Lone Schmidt, Rachel Levy-Toledano
BACKGROUND: Fertility rates in Europe are among the lowest in the world, which may be attributed to both biological and lifestyle factors. Cost and reimbursement of fertility treatments vary across Europe, although its citizens enjoy wide access to fertility care. Since few regional studies evaluating public support for fertility treatment exist, we conducted the Listening IVF and Fertility in Europe (LIFE) survey to ascertain public perception of in vitro fertilization (IVF) and gamete donation as a treatment for infertility among European men and women...
2019: PloS One
Bart P S Nieuwenhuis, Duur K Aanen
When many gametes compete to fertilize a limited number of compatible gametes, sexual selection will favour traits that increase competitive success during mating. In animals and plants, sperm and pollen competition have yielded many interesting adaptations for improved mating success. In fungi, similar processes have not been shown directly yet. We test the hypothesis that sexual selection can increase competitive fitness during mating, using experimental evolution in the mushroom-forming fungus Schizophyllum commune (Basidiomycota)...
2018: PloS One
Konstantinos Sfakianoudis, Mara Simopoulou, Nikolaos Nitsos, Anna Rapani, Athanasios Pappas, Agni Pantou, Margarita Chronopoulou, Efthymios Deligeoroglou, Michael Koutsilieris, Konstantinos Pantos
This report presents the case of a woman aged 40 who has experienced premature menopause from the age of 35. Having rejected oocyte donation, she opted for intraovarian injection of autologous platelet-rich plasma with the aim to rejuvenate the ovarian tissue and enable the employment of her own gametes through in-vitro fertilization. Six weeks following the autologous platelet-rich plasma treatment, a significant reduction in the patient's follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels were noted. A natural in-vitro fertilization cycle led to a biochemical pregnancy, resulting in a spontaneous abortion at the 5th week of pregnancy...
December 20, 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine
Hane Htut Maung
Assisted reproduction using donor gametes is a procedure that allows those who are unable to produce their own gametes to achieve gestational parenthood. Where conception is achieved using donor sperm, the child lacks a genetic link to the intended father. Where it is achieved using a donor egg, the child lacks a genetic link to the intended mother. To address this lack of genetic kinship, some fertility clinics engage in the practice of matching the ethnicity of the gamete donor to that of the recipient parent...
December 8, 2018: Journal of Medical Ethics
Elle C Roberson, Elizabeth Ann L Enninga
One of the first steps towards a successful pregnancy is fertilization, where sperm and oocyte come together to form a zygote. In mammals, this process can occur in vitro, allowing assisted reproductive technologies (ART) to alleviate certain infertilities. ART - which includes in vitro fertilization and gamete donation - accounted for 1.7% of all US births in the US in 2015 (Sunderam et al. 2018). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
December 5, 2018: Molecular Reproduction and Development
Alexander M Quaas, Guido Pennings
Two major breakthroughs in the field of assisted reproduction-oocyte donation and oocyte vitrification-have joined forces to create the rapidly emerging phenomenon of commercial egg banks (CEBs). In this review, we examine the history of this concept, the operational models, the geographical variations, and the benefits and pitfalls of CEBs, including the ethical and legal dilemmas arising from gamete mobility. We highlight future directions in the brave new world of third-party reproduction.
December 2018: Fertility and Sterility
Jason Hanna
According to the causal theory of parenthood, people incur parental obligations by causing children to exist. Proponents of the causal theory often argue that gamete donors have special obligations to their genetic offspring. In response, many defenders of current gamete donation practices would reject the causal theory. In particular, they may invoke the 'too many parents problem': many people who causally contribute to the existence of children - for instance, fertility doctors - do not thereby incur parental obligations...
November 27, 2018: Bioethics
Roy Homburg, Fatima Husain, Anil Gudi, Mark Brincat, Amit Shah
Religious teachings encourage fertility. The rapid progress of reproductive science has proved a challenge to interpret and adapt to assisted reproductive techniques which were not even dreamed of in ancient scriptures. The clash between religion and science has produced separate laws for each religion and reproductive practitioners are often at a loss to understand and accept them. Four lay members of different religions have set out the thinking of their religion regarding assisted reproductive techniques, concentrating in particular on gamete donation...
December 2018: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
Inmaculada de Melo-Martín, Lisa R Rubin, Ina N Cholst
BACKGROUND: Anonymity remains the more common practice in gamete donations, but legislation prohibiting anonymity with a goal of protecting donor-conceived children's right to know their genetic origins is becoming more common. However, given the dearth of research investigating the function of anonymity for donors and recipients, it is unclear whether these policies will accomplish their goals. The aim of this study was to explore experiences with anonymity among oocyte donors and recipients who participated in an anonymous donor oocyte program and to understand the ways in which anonymity functions for them...
November 6, 2018: AJOB Empirical Bioethics
Drauzio Oppenheimer, Agatha Ramos Oppenheimer, Sthefano Teixeira de Vilhena, Augusto Castelli Von Atzingen
OBJECTIVE:  Assisted reproduction combines innovative technologies and new forms of procreation through gamete donation; however, it also leads to moral and ethical issues and to the wide application of referential bioethics. The objective of the present study was to understand the bioethical context of shared oocyte donation. METHODS:  The present qualitative study used the Collective Subject Discourse methodology to interview donors and recipients in Brazil...
September 2018: Revista Brasileira de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia
Carol Coughlan
Recurrent implantation failure (RIF) is very distressing for couples and frustrating for their clinicians who seek to find a solution. RIF is defined as the failure to achieve a clinical pregnancy following the transfer of at least four good-quality embryos in a minimum of three fresh or frozen cycles in a woman of age below 40 years. An agreed local protocol regarding how couples with RIF should be further investigated and managed should be in place. Ovarian function should be assessed by measuring antral follicle count, FSH, and AMH...
August 2, 2018: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology
Taisiia Yurchuk, Maryna Petrushko, Barry Fuller
The modern successes of reproductive medicine are based on the achievements in the fields of artificial fertilization and cryobiology over the last 50years. Cryopreservation of oocytes makes it possible to preserve their reproductive potential after surgical interventions, treatment of cancer, for delayed pregnancy and to use cells for donation. Cryopreservation of embryos allows not only to reduce the multiple pregnancies rate and to increase the cumulative pregnancy rate as a result of embryo transfer in the following favorable cycles of the patient, but is also a necessary procedure in case of genetic diagnosis or in the case of contraindications for embryo transfer in the stimulated cycle due to possible complications...
November 2018: Early Human Development
Anna Blazquez, Désirée García, Rita Vassena, Francesc Figueras, Amelia Rodriguez
INTRODUCTION: Pregnancies after gamete donation are at higher risk of developing pre-eclampsia (PE) than those achieved by IVF with patient's own gametes. We aim to assess whether pregnancies achieved with both oocyte and sperm donation (double donation, DD) are at an increased risk of developing PE and gestational hypertension (GH) compared to those achieved by oocyte donation alone (OD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective cohort study of 433 patients who reached the 20th week of gestation with either DD (n = 81) or OD (n = 352) between March 2013 and April 2016 at a fertility clinic...
July 2018: Pregnancy Hypertension
Kaberi Banerjee, Bhavana Singla
Context: The reduction or loss of natural fertility is deeply painful in couples that are considering the use of donor gametes or donor embryos. This is the first study to assess the acceptability of donor gametes or embryos in Indian population. Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the attitude toward egg, sperm, and embryo donation among Indian the infertile couples. Settings: This study was conducted at infertility outpatient clinic New Delhi...
April 2018: Journal of Human Reproductive Sciences
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